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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 April 2021

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

1. India’s reluctance to engage a major European institution like North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will be a stunning case of strategic self-denial. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains why Delhi must talk to NATO.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail how India’s reluctance to engage a major European institution like North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will be a stunning case of strategic self-denial.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with details of what North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is about; a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Indian ties with European countries in the past: explain before and after independence.

Then explain factors responsible for India’s poor relation with NATO or European countries.

India’s efforts to end the prolonged political neglect towards NATO.

Need of an enhanced India- NATO relationship.

Conclusion:

India should scale up its engagement with NATO, and while doing so, it should also insulate its bilateral relationship (with countries like Russia) from the larger structural trends buffeting the world today.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Do you think the opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC) provides for free and unhindered justice in the country? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents an analysis on opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC).

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC) provides for free and unhindered justice in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Discuss first the Constitutional aspect of the significance of free and equal access to the SC.

The idea of a single place of sitting: The R. Ambedkar­led Drafting Committee was of the view that the Court must have a specified place of sitting and that litigants should “know where to go and whom to approach”.

Talk about Provision of holding benches at other places.

Present the associated issues. Then move on to discuss the significance of virtual hearings.

Conclusion:

Till the judiciary acts on proposals of virtual hearings, it shall continue as a matter of right and just and equitable policy.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. In the post-pandemic world, addressing inequality is key to sustaining growth and well-being. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how in the post-pandemic world, addressing inequality is key to sustaining growth and well-being.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the Pillars of an equitable Post-COVID India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with current situation of Covid pandemic and its effects.

Body:

Firstly present the challenges of inequality in the country and explain how they have aggravated due to Covid situation. India’s middle class shrunk by a third due to the pandemic, while the number of poor people earning less than Rs.150 per day more than doubled. – Pew Research Report.

In the pre-COVID scenario: Following factors led to the rising inequalities even before the pandemic; slow economic growth, Presence of large informal sector, Prospects of K-shaped economic growth, gender impact etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the situation and emphasize on sustainable development.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Though hostility and competition between the U.S. and China will dominate this century, interdependence between the two superpowers is also a reality which the two countries will have to confess. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is in the backdrop of U.S.-China Foreign Ministers’ meeting in March at Alaska.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way hostility and competition between the U.S. and China will dominate this century; and interdependence between the two superpowers is also a reality which the two countries will have to confess.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by talking about the  increasing clout of China.

Body:

China will surpass the U.S. as the world’s largest economy, has established a worldwide network of economic ties and set up multilateral and financial institutions like the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, New Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to compete with the West-dominated International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

Throw light on Confrontation and competition between U.S. and China.

Discuss the interdependency between the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Native people are one of the most susceptible sections facing climate change, however, they can act as change agents to mitigate and adapt climate change. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article explains that Indigenous and tribal peoples play vital roles in global and regional climate action and in fighting poverty.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way native people can contribute to mitigate and adapt to climate change by being change agents.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Indigenous people, highlight their vulnerability/problems face due to Climate Change.

Body:

Indigenous peoples, who have long inhabited an area, are among the first to face the direct consequences of climate change, due to their dependence upon, and close relationship, with the environment and its resources. Climate change exacerbates the difficulties already faced by indigenous communities including political and economic marginalization, loss of land and resources, human rights violations, discrimination and unemployment. For example, in the high altitude regions of the Himalayas, glacial melts affect hundreds of millions of rural dwellers who depend on the seasonal flow of water.

Highlight how they can act as change agent in mitigation as well as adaptation efforts with example.

In conclusion, highlight some challenges for becoming a change agent and some measures to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude in what way they can work as change agents.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. Efficiency of bureaucratic performance in the country can be promoted through high-powered financial incentives. Analyse the statement with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article talks about giving financial incentives to ensure better efficiency in Bureaucracy.  

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse in what way the efficiency of bureaucratic performance in the country can be promoted through high-powered financial incentives.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Bureaucratic performance.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain in what way promoting bureaucratic performance through high-powered financial incentives can bring efficiency; In contrast to monitoring or control-based measures, these have the potential to reduce corruption without increasing procedural complexity and processing frictions. Targets and performance measures can be changed as per the changing needs of the public/state. The incentives can also be tweaked and fine- tuned over time. For example, a bureaucrat in a more visible function may be more risk-averse (due to the higher cost of visible failures) than one in a less visible role. Financial incentives allow for heterogeneous risk preferences and targets. Various functions and departments can have incentives designed especially for their performance objectives.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic: ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. How ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of ethics in private relationships and its effect on public relationship.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should explain meaning of ethics in private relationship and ethics in public relationship.

Body:

Explain how ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships?

Private relationships are all those relations which have least impact on life of others in society i.e. relation remains private so long as it does not harm interest of others. E.g. Husband-Wife relation, Father-Son relation etc. Ethics in private relationship deals with which values should guide these relationships.

Ethics in private relation means ethical standards followed by people in their private relations such as family, friends, groups community which are private in nature & people may have their own moral standards like family values, personal values, values in their social relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of both.


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