Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 February 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Why did the Salt Law become a focus of protest? Discuss the significance of Dandi march in the Indian national movement for independence. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why the question:

Spread over a 15-acre land and located in the coastal town of Dandi, where the Salt March ended on 6 April 1930 and the British salt monopoly was broken, the ‘National Salt Satyagraha Memorial’, Dandi, Gujarat, is conceived. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Student must explain significance of Dandi march in the Indian national movement for independence and the reason for which Salt Law become a focus of protest.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief introduction on the salt law and its background.

Body:

Explain – The 1882 Salt Act gave the British a monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt, levying a tax in the process. The violation of this act was a criminal offense. Even though salt was freely available to those living on the coast, Indians were forced to buy it from the colonial government

Gandhi provided sound reasons for his decisions, however. He reasoned that an item of daily use would resonate better with citizens of all classes than a broad demand for greater political rights. Since the salt tax accounted for more than 8.2 % of the British Raj tax revenue and hurt the poorest Indians the most significantly. He reasoned that this would hurt the British even more significantly.

Then explain the significance of Dandi March.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its impact and significance even as of today in the modern history of India.

Introduction

Gandhiji had presented 11 demands in front of British based on mandate of Lahore congress session and gave an ultimatum of Jan 31st 1930 to accept them. With no positive response forthcoming from the Government on these demands, the Congress Working Committee invested Gandhi with full powers to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) at a time and place of his choice. By February-end, Gandhi had decided to make, salt, the central formula for the CDM.

 Body

Salt Law as focus of protest

  • As Gandhi said, “There is no other article like salt, outside water, by taxing which the Government can reach the starving millions, the sick, the maimed and the utterly helpless”.
  • It is the most inhuman poll tax the ingenuity of man can devise.
  • Salt in a flash linked the ideal of swaraj with a most concrete and universal grievance of the rural poor (and with no socially divisive implications like a no-rent campaign).
  • Salt afforded a paltry but psychologically important income, like khadi, for the poor through self-help.
  • Like khadi, again, it offered to the urban adherents the opportunity of a symbolic identification with mass suffering.

 Significance of Dandi March in Indian National Movement 

  • The historic march, marking, the launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement, began on March 12, and Gandhi broke the salt law by picking up a handful of salt at Dandi on April 6.
  • The violation of the law was seen as a symbol of the Indian people’s resolve not to live under British- made laws and therefore under British rule.
  • The march, its progress and its impact on the people was well covered by newspapers. In Gujarat, 300 village officials resigned in answer to Gandhi’s appeal.
  • Spread of the movement: Once the way was cleared by Gandhi’s ritual at Dandi, defiance of the salt laws started all over the country.
    • In Tamil Nadu, Rajagopalachari led a march from Tiruchirapally to Vedaranniyam.
    • In Malabar, Kelappan led a march from Calicut to Poyannur.
    • In Assam, satyagrahis walked from Sylhet to Noakhali (Bengal) to make salt.
  • Participation of women: For Indian women, the movement was the most liberating experience and can truly be said to have marked their entry into the public sphere.
  • Reduced British Authority: The hegemony of the Government was eroded, as they faced the classic dilemma of ‘damned if you do, damned if you don’t—if force was applied, the Congress cried ‘repression’, and if little was done, the Congress cried ‘victory’.
  • Mass involvement: Massive participation of peasants and business groups compensated for decline of other features. The number of those imprisoned was about three times more this time. The Congress was organisationally stronger.

 Conclusion

The Salt March got national and international recognition and shook the Britishers with its non-violent nature. It got massive press coverage and drew the world’s attention towards the Indian Independence Movement. Even today, non-violent peaceful protest is a potent tool against oppressive practices of the government.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: DPSP

2. Critically examine whether the non-enforceability of DPSPs make them passive to Fundamental Rights? (250 words)

Reference: Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is part of static syllabus of GS paper II part Indian polity – under the heading “DPSP lays the foundation of welfare polity”.

Key Demand of the question:

The question compares FR and DPSP and comments that since DPSPs are non-enforceable in a court of law, it makes them inferior to FRs. We need to highlight the importance of DPSP, examine whether they lag behind FRs and provide a fair and balanced conclusion.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the reason why this debate arises.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Bring out points which highlight that FRS are superior to DPSP due to their sacrosanct nature and article 32.
  • Examine why the above statement is like comparing apples and oranges as FRs strive to provide civil and community rights whereas DPSPs deal with socio economic right which seeks to create a welfare state.
  • Examine the view of constitutional experts like br Ambedkar to bolster your arguments etc.

Conclusion:

Highlight that even Supreme Court gave the doctrine of harmonious construction to maintain a balance between part III and IV.

Introduction:

The Directive Principles of State Policy are enumerated in Part IV of the Constitution from Articles 36 to 51. Dr B R Ambedkar described these principles as ‘novel features’ of the Indian Constitution. The Directive Principles along with the Fundamental Rights contain the philosophy of the Constitution and is the soul of the Constitution.

Body:

Directive Principles of State Policy being passive to Fundamental rights

  • No Legal force: The Directives have been criticised mainly because of their non-justiciable character. Sir Ivor Jennings thought they are only ‘pious aspirations.’
  • Constitutional Conflict: K Santhanam has pointed out that the Directives lead to a constitutional conflict (a) between the Centre and the states, (b) between the President and the Prime Minister, and (c) between the governor and the chief minister.
    • According to him, the Centre can give directions to the states with regard to the implementation of these principles, and in case of non-compliance, can dismiss the state government.
  • Until Minerva Mills Case, DPSP’s were seen as passive to Fundamental Rights. In the Champakam Dorairajan case(1951), the Supreme Court ruled that in case of any conflict between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles, the former would prevail.
    • It declared that the Directive Principles have to conform to and run as subsidiary to the Fundamental Rights.
  • Without the force of enforcement like Article 32 in case of Fundamental rights, DPSP remained mere instructions whose implementation was elusive.

Directive Principles are not mere appendages

  • The Constitution itself declares that they are fundamental to the governance of the country. According to L M Singhvi, an eminent jurist and diplomat, ‘the Directives are the life giving provisions of the Constitution.
  • Dr B R Ambedkar had pointed out that the Directives have great value because they lay down that the goal of Indian polity is ‘economic democracy’ as distinguished from ‘political democracy’.
  • They are like an ‘Instrument of Instructions’ or general recommendations addressed to all authorities in the Indian Union. They remind them of the basic principles of the new social and economic order, which the Constitution aims at building.
  • They have served as useful beacon-lights to the courts. They have helped the courts in exercising their power of judicial review, that is, the power to determine the constitutional validity of a law.
  • They form the dominating background to all State action, legislative or executive and also a guide to the courts in some respects.
  • They amplify the Preamble, which solemnly resolves to secure to all citizens of India justice, liberty, equality and fraternity.
  • They are supplementary to the fundamental rights of the citizens. They are intended to fill in the vacuum in Part III by providing for social and economic rights.

Significance of DPSP’s as upheld by Supreme court

  • The 25th Amendment Act inserted a new Article 31C which contained the following two provisions: 1. No law which seeks to implement the socialistic Directive Principles specified in Article 39 (b) and (c) shall be void on the ground of contravention of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Article 14 or Article 19.
  • In the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973), the Supreme Court declared the above first provision of Article 31C was held to be constitutional and valid.
  • In the Minerva Mills case (1980), the Supreme Court also held that ‘the Indian Constitution is founded on the bedrock of the balance between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles.
    • They together constitute the core of commitment to social revolution. They are like two wheels of a chariot, one no less than the other.
    • To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution.
  • This harmony and balance between the two is an essential feature of the basic structure of the Constitution. The goals set out by the Directive Principles have to be achieved without the abrogation of the means provided by the Fundamental Rights’.

Conclusion

Therefore, the present position is that the Fundamental Rights enjoy supremacy over the Directive Principles. Yet, this does not mean that the Directive Principles cannot be implemented. The Parliament can amend the Fundamental Rights for implementing the Directive Principles, so long as the amendment does not damage or destroy the basic structure of the Constitution.

 

Topic: DPSP

3. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? Account for their classification while discussing their criticism. (250 words)

Reference: Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, part Indian polity, and theme DPSP.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and must explain the concept of DPSP and their classification while commenting on their criticism.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what DPSP’s are.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the Directive Principles of State Policy, its importance in the Indian Constitution and the history of its conflict with Fundamental Rights.

Classify them in detail; Socialistic Principles, Gandhian Principles and Liberal-Intellectual Principles.

Then move onto present the criticisms against it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.

Introduction:

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are the form of instructions/guidelines to the governments at the centre as well as states. Though these principles are non-justiciable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country. The Constitution of India aims to establish not only political democracy but also socio-economic justice to the people to establish a welfare state. With this purpose in mind, our Constitution lays down desirable principle and guidelines in Part IV known as the Directive Principle of State Policy.

Body:

The Constitution does not contain any classification of the Directive Principles. However, on the basis of their content and direction, they can be classified broadly into socialist, Gandhian and liberal-intellectual.

Socialistic:

  • to promote the welfare of the people by securing a social order permeated by social, economic and political justice and to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities. (Art 38)
  • to secure (a) the right to adequate means of livelihood for all citizens; (b) the equitable distribution of material resources of the community for common good; (c) prevention of concentration of wealth and means of production; (d) equal pay for equal work for men and women; (e) preservation of the health and strength of workers and children against forcible abuse; and (f) opportunities for healthy development of children. (Art 39)
  • to promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor. (Art 39A)
  • to secure the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement. (Art 41)
  • to make provision for just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief. (Art 42)
  • to secure a living wage, a decent standard of life and social and cultural opportunities for all workers (Art 43)
  • to take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries (Art 43A)
  • to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of people and to improve public health. (Art 47)

Gandhian Principles:

  • to organize village Panchayats and endow them with necessary powers and authority to enable them to function as units of self-government. (Art 40)
  • to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operation basis in rural areas. (Art 43)
  • to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control, and professional management of co-operative societies. (Art 43B)
  • to promote the educational and economic interests of SCs, STs and other weaker sections of the society and to protect them from social injustice and exploitation. (Art 46)
  • to prohibit the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health. (Art 47)
  • to prohibit slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and drought cattle and to improve their breeds. (Art 48)

Liberal-Intellectual Principles:

These principles represent the ideology of liberalism and direct the state to

  • to secure for all citizens a uniform civil code. (Art 44)
  • to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years. (Art 45)
  • to organise agricultural and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. (Art 48)
  • to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife. (Art 48A)
  • to protect monuments, places and objects of artistic or historic interest which are declared to be of national importance. (Art 49)
  • to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state. (Art 50)
  • to promote international peace and security and maintain just and honourable relations between nations; to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations, and to encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (Art 51)

Additions by 42nd Amendment Act, 1976:

  • to secure opportunities for healthy development of children. (Art 39)
  • to promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor. (Art 39A)
  • to take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries (Art 43A)
  • to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife. (Art 48A)

Additions by 44th Amendment Act, 1978:

  • to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities. (Art 38)

Amendments in 86th Amendment Act, 2002:

  • It changed the subject matter of Art 45 and made elementary education a fundamental right under Art 21A. The amended directive requires the state to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years.

Additions by 97th Amendment Act, 2011:

  • to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control, and professional management of co-operative societies. (Art 43B)

Criticisms:

  • the provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country
  • the Court may not strike down legislation for non-compliance with the DPSPs.
  • the Court may not incorporate the DPSPs to a point that requires it stepping outside its designated role under classical separation of powers theory – making policy choices and budgetary allocations.
  • all these years after the drafting of the Constitution, the exact role of the directive principles appears to still challenge courts and legal scholars.
  • the problem of the DPSPs is of a piece with a host of problems that thrive upon the Indian republic’s historical tendency towards compromise.

Conclusion:

The directive principles play an ideal before the legislator of India which shows that light while they frame the policies & laws. They are basically a code of conduct for the legislature and administrators of the country. They show the path to the leaders of the country which takes the country to achieve the ideal of the constitution embodied in the Preamble “Justice, Social, Economic, Political; liberty, equality and fraternity”.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Account for the prevalent Gender gap witnessed in the Indian workforce. Explain how it is even more profound when it comes to economic participation and opportunity. (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times

Why the question:

The article presents to us the World Economic Forum (WEF) report that comments on the Gender gap.

Key Demand of the question:

One must account for the prevalent Gender gap witnessed in the Indian workforce and discuss that in relevance to economic participation and opportunity.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what you understand by Gender gap.

Body:

First explain the gender gap with some data and facts such as – The gender gap in the Indian formal sector is pervasive: at least 85% of the workforce comprises men in transportation, construction and manufacturing; in hi-tech, this proportion is around 72%, according to an analysis of LinkedIn data. Every industry sector in India employs more men than women. Moreover, the gender gap among Indian professionals is worse than the global average in every sector.

Then present the underlying factors such as – gender pay gap, wage difference, inequality in education etc. Explain in relevance to economic participation and opportunity.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The gender gap refers to the difference between women and men as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes. According to the Global Gender Gap Report, it will take more than 200 years for economic gender equality to emerge, and 108 years to completely close the global gender gap across politics, health and education.

Body:

Situation of Gender Gap in Indian Workforce:

  • WEF’s 2020 Global Gender Gap Index figures indicate that just 25% of women formally engage in India’s labour market, compared with 82% of men.
  • This is one of the lowest workforce participation rates in the world for women, ranking India 145th out of 153 countries.
  • This figure is even more worrisome given the fact that the women’s labour force participation rate in India has fallen from 35% in 1990 to 25% now, despite significant educational gains and robust GDP growth.
  • India is the only major economy to witness such a negative trend in women’s participation in the workforce.
  • Among India’s senior officials and managers, women account for only 14% of leadership roles — putting India at 136th in WEF’s Global Gender Gap Index — and just 30% of professional and technical workers.
  • GoI has reported that only 10% of startup founders are women, and women fill just 22% of positions in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), despite India having the second-largest AI workforce in the world.

Gender Gap more prevalent in Economic participation:

  • Research shows, in India women are paid 34% less than men for performing the same job with the same qualifications.
  • Women are underrepresented in senior managerial position and overrepresented in low paying jobs. Oxford Survey shows that globally only 19% firms have a female senior manager.
  • A 2017 NITI Aayog report shows that just 20% of the research and administrative staff in a select group of institutions, including the IITs, IISERs and NITs, are women.
  • It is harder for women to access funds and capital for farming, starting a business or for other developmental works.
  • Secondary Education for women is lower than man in majority of countries while this stands at less than 80% in India.
  • Classifying men as “bread winners” and women pursuing jobs as “career women” was reported by Oxford University Survey. It also highlighted that most of the unpaid work is seen as a women’s job.
  • There are still unwritten rules that a woman of today is expected to not overstep in any circumstances which are guided by ‘soft patriarchy’.
  • Women also lack equal inheritance rights leading to Feminization of poverty.

Way forward:

  • As the experience with rural self-help groups shows, women are remarkably prompt at repaying loans and the government should step up the amounts and ease loan disbursement for women.
  • Policy measures could include addressing or reducing the amount of unpaid work and rebalancing it between men and women, supporting employer or state-funded provision of childcare, and interventions to address digital and financial inclusion.
  • The family needs to adjust to the changing role of women and volunteer to share household work.
  • Introducing part-time and flexi-time work facilities to avoid their burnout.
  • Online restaurant guide and food ordering platform Zomato said it is introducing up to ten days of ‘period leaves’ for all women employees to build a more inclusive work culture in the organisation.
  • Results suggest that men’s wages will also increase as a result of greater inclusion of women in the labour force since productivity will increase.
  • Menstruation Benefits Bill was tabled as a private member bill in the Parliament in 2018. It is imperative to look at the significance of the provisions, for a gender sensitive labour policy.
  • To improve working conditions of the 10% women who are in the formal workforce, we must not forget about the remaining 90% women workers who are in the informal sector.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5. The Pandemic has provided India an exclusive space to mainstream Science and technology in its domestic and foreign policies. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that the pandemic gives India a unique space to mainstream science and technology in its domestic and foreign policies.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the prospects of mainstreaming Sci and tech into the domestic and foreign policies as a result of the covid-19 lesson.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the boundaries that the covid-19 has exposed the world to.

Body:

Explain first the key role that science and technology can play in overcoming situations like that of the current pandemic.

Discuss how they can be made part of domestic and foreign policies. Give example of the I ndia’s ongoing ‘Vaccine Maitri’ campaign.

Explain how despite limitations, India still managed to assist its partners from the Global South in key areas of science and technology such as health across Asia and Africa. The country’s national confidence would also rise during the final decade of the last century as economic dynamism led to a more pro-active assertion of its interests.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

President Ram Nath Kovind, in Cuba in June 2018, declared that the country had “placed science and technology at the centre of its development cooperation strategy”. Rightly, so India has been proactively using science and technology as strategic tools in domestic and foreign policies.

Body:

Pandemic: Mainstreaming Science and Tech in Domestic and Foreign Policy

  • India’s ongoing ‘Vaccine Maitri’ campaign, which is aimed at provisioning COVID-19 vaccines to countries both near to and away from its immediate neighbourhood, is one of the most important recent initiatives to leverage its science and technological advantages for the furtherance of its foreign policy objectives.
  • South-South Cooperation: New Delhi’s efforts to address this health emergency were met with even more vocal appreciation by leaders from its partners from the Global South such as the Dominican Republic and Barbados.
  • Developmental Partnership: Despite India’s own shortcomings and fund restrictions, India has proactively helped African nations. Eg India is also sending consignments of essential medicines, including hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and paracetamol, to many African countries in addition to doctors and paramedics.
  • Support in Fight Against Covid-19: Under the e-ITEC initiative, India has shared Covid-19 management strategies, training webinars exclusively aimed at training health-care professionals from Africa by Indian health experts.
  • Capacity Building via E-governance Initiative: India is investing in the capacity building providing more than $1 billion in technical assistance and training to personnel under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) program, especially to Africa.
  • Vaccine prowess: India’s pharmaceutical firms such as the Serum Institute of India competently partnered with the U.K.’s Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine project while others such as Bharat Biotech gave rise to indigenous vaccines in the shape of Covaxin.

Way forward

  • As India, through its Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative, attempts to secure maximum self-reliance through capacity building and creating an environment where science and technology can not only answer its own national needs and cross-border interests but also global challenges, there are issues that must be addressed.
  • India’s financial apportionment to science and technology related research must rise to enable the country’s own rise — as must participation of its states, universities and private sector in research and development efforts.
  • The time is also right for India’s young scientists and technologists to be made more aware of the country’s foreign policy objectives, and to also enable all stakeholders in the policy establishment to learn more about science and technology to bridge the intellectual divide.
  • It is now up to India’s decision-makers to conclusively convert the pandemic crisis into an opportunity.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. Discuss the concept of integrity and how it is neither a single character trait nor limited to a particular role. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Integrity.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of integrity and how it is neither a single character trait nor limited to a particular role.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Integrity.

Body:

First explain the concept of integrity. Discuss how it is neither a single character trait nor limited to a particular role. Explain that Integrity develops when one cultivates a pattern of consistently acting in ways that combine sound reasons with affective confidence.

A person with integrity can intentionally and systematically assess decision alternatives in terms of the soundness of his reasons for selecting each one and the quality of the feelings he can expect about choosing it. Consequently, he may also be able to identify the sources of those positive or negative feelings.

On the other hand, those whose actions are in conflict with what they believe are lacking in integrity. They cannot be trusted because their inner controls are so weak that their behavior is unpredictable and inconsistent.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance and relevance to administration in particular.

Introduction:

Integrity is the act of behaving honourably, even when no one is watching. People with integrity follow moral and ethical principles in all aspects of life. Integrity should extend to professional areas at work such as decision making, interacting with colleagues and serving customers or clients.

Body:

While integrity is more of a quality than a skill, it is neither a single character trait nor limited to a particular role. There are various attributes related to integrity:

  • Gracious
    • Those with integrity are gracious when others provide assistance. They express gratitude and recognize achievements for people they work with. To demonstrate gratitude, always be sure to say “thank you” when someone does you a favour, helps you or takes time out of their schedule for you. Take time to send a follow-up email after an interview, phone call or meeting.
  • Respectful
    • People with integrity value other people by showing them respect at work. They do their best to be on time to meetings, meet project deadlines and keep other’s feelings in mind. You can demonstrate this trait by exercising punctuality, care with your words and careful consideration of people’s ideas.
  • Honest
    • Integrity requires honesty. Those with integrity strive to be truthful. They own up to mistakes and try to learn from them.
  • Trustworthy
    • People with integrity follow through on their commitments. To demonstrate trustworthiness, avoid over-promising. If you’re unable to complete a task or meet a deadline, be sure to let others know as quickly as possible. If you are trusted with personal information, respect it.
  • Hardworking
    • Those with integrity strive to produce high-quality work on time, regardless of the task. They recognize that everything they do can impact the organization, their colleagues and business outcomes.
  • Responsible
    • Those with integrity take accountability for their actions. They are also organized and proactive making sure they deliver on their responsibilities.
  • Helpful
    • When someone has integrity, they help those in need. This may be in the form of lending their time for a project without being asked or offering to cover for an employee in an emergency.
  • Patient
    • A person with integrity is able to tolerate challenges, delays and unexpected obstacles while maintaining a calm, even demeanour. They wait their turn to speak in meetings and one-on-one conversations.

Conclusion:

Integrity is a personal choice, an uncompromising and consistent commitment to honour moral, ethical, spiritual and artistic values and principles. Integrity compels us to be socially conscious and to welcome both personal and professional responsibility. Its values encourage us to be honest in all our dealings and committed to a lifelong search for truth and justice. It requires self-discipline and will power capable of resisting temptation. Its priceless reward is peace of mind and true dignity. There’s one proviso, no one can guarantee that his or her particular version of integrity is actually sound and true, and not misguided.

 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7. Emotions, earlier considered as an irrational factor in decision-making, are now recognized as a critical factor of judgment. In this regard, explain how can Emotional Intelligence help in coping with the intense pressure and occupational stress faced by police officers and armed forces in discharge of their duties? Analyse.(250 words)

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov , Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of emotional intelligence.

Key Demand of the question:

Present the importance of emotions and EI with special focus on the intense pressure and occupational stress faced by police officers and armed forces in discharge of their duties.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of EI; Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage one’s emotions as well as emotions of others in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges and defuse conflict.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Give a brief explanation of Emotional Intelligence (EI).

  • Explain how it can help police and armed forces in dealing with occupational stress and pressure.
  • List some of the concerns that arise while incorporating and assessing EI skills in public service.

Conclusion:

Conclude that EI is not yet an important component of public services in India. However, it should be considered as pertinent to public servants as they should be responsive and sensitive to people’s needs, especially, in an environment of constant change.

Introduction:

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

Importance of EI during situations of intense pressure and occupational stress:

  • Social responsibility: When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance: To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress. Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Impulse control: Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Optimism: Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.
  • Negotiation: For being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off to all the stakeholders involved.

Measures for strengthening emotional intelligence in civil servants

  • Modern organizations now offer learning and development that is explicitly labelled as “emotional intelligence” or “emotional competence” training.
  • In support, their leaders create and manage a working environment of flexibility, responsibility, standards, rewards, clarity, and commitment.

Implementing emotional intelligence training and overall culture in an organisation is done in four phases:

Preparation: Assessing the organization’s needs; Assessing personal strengths and limitations; Providing feedback with care; Maximizing learner choice; Encouraging participation; Linking learning goals to personal values; Adjusting expectations; Gauging readiness;

Training: Once the organisation has plans in place, Phase Two is where it should start training. It should plan on:

  • Fostering a positive relationship between the trainer and the learner
  • Maximizing self-directed change
  • Setting clear goal
  • Breaking those goals into manageable steps
  • Maximizing opportunities to practice emotional intelligence
  • Providing frequent feedback on that practice
  • Relying on experiential, hands-on methods
  • Building in support for your staff
  • Using models of desirable behaviour
  • Enhancing insight into emotions and thought patterns
  • Preventing relapse by preparing people for mental slips

Transfer: Phase Three is all about transferring and maintaining the skills learned. Make sure you build in opportunities for:

  • Encouraging use of the skills learned on the job.
  • Providing an organizational culture that supports learning.

Evaluation: Finally, Phase Four is focused on evaluating the change that has come about from training. In this phase, the organisation should be conducting ongoing evaluation research.

Conclusion:

Governance in modern times is becoming increasing complex with affective components of behaviour having a major role to play. Intelligence quotient alone can’t solve majority of problems an administrator faces, use of emotional intelligence is a must for better public service delivery as well as redressal.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos