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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 February 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Evolution & Making of the Constitution

1.  The Preamble is widely accepted as the epitome or soul and spirit of the Indian constitution. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, Indian polity – Evolution & Making of the Constitution.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must bring out in what way Preamble of the Indian constitution is the epitome/soul and spirit of the constitution.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of what Preamble is.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

What is Preamble? What is the importance of preamble? – The Preamble is the opening statement to the Constitution.

Mention about the significance of the constitution like how it tells the nature of Indian state, objective of constitution, how it is useful to judiciary.

Explain why and how it represents the soul and spirit of the Indian constitution.

Conclusion:

One can conclude by highlighting the importance of preamble, for example; Pandit Thakur Das Bhargava, a member of constitution assembly, was very right when he summed up the importance of the Preamble in following words – “The preamble is most precious part of the constitution. It is the proper yardstick with which can measure the worth of the constitution.”  

Introduction:

Preamble to a constitution is the window to what is there inside the constitution. It is a resolution of Indian people to establish a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic. In this republic, people will have justice – social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; and equality of status and opportunity; this will promote fraternity among them and assure the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

Body:

Background:

  • The preamble was written after the Constituent Assembly had written the whole constitution.
  • It emerged from the Objectives Resolution which was introduced by Jawaharlal Nehru on the fifth day of the inaugural session of the Constituent Assembly debates.
  • In the Keshavananda Bharati Case in 1973, Preamble was held as an integral part of the Constitution.
  • The original Preamble did not mention “Secular”, “Socialistic”, and “and Integrity”. They were inserted in it through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.

Significance of Preamble

  • The Preamble embodies the basic philosophy and fundamental values—political, moral and religious —on which the Constitution is based.
  • It contains the grand and noble vision of the Constituent Assembly, and reflects the dreams and aspirations of the founding fathers of the Constitution.
  • In the Berubari Union 16 case (1960), the Supreme Court said that the Preamble shows the general purposes behind the several provisions in the Constitution, and is thus a key to the minds of the makers of the Constitution.
  • Further, where the terms used in any article are ambiguous or capable of more than one meaning, some assistance at interpretation may be taken from the objectives enshrined in the Preamble.
  • In the words of Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Iyer, a member of the Constituent Assembly who played a significant role in making the Constitution, ‘The Preamble to our Constitution expresses what we had thought or dreamt so long’.
  • According to K M Munshi, a member of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly, the Preamble is the ‘horoscope of our sovereign democratic republic’.
  • However, it is non-justiciable and is neither a source of authority or prohibition on powers of Parliament. Yet it epitomises the very idea of India as an Independent nation.
  • Preamble shows the vision of India and strives for the values enumerated in it, for the people of India.

Conclusion:

Pandit Thakur Das Bhargava, another member of the Constituent Assembly, summed up the importance of the Preamble in the following words: ‘The Preamble is the most precious part of the Constitution. It is the soul of the Constitution. It is a key to the Constitution. It is a jewel set in the Constitution. It is a proper yardstick with which one can measure the worth of the Constitution’

 

Topic: Historical Underpinnings

2. The three strands of religious freedom, celebratory neutrality and reformatory justice are the core elements of Indian secularism. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, Indian polity – Historical Underpinnings.

 Key Demand of the question:

The question is about discussing the principle of Indian Secularism and its core features.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Secularism.

Body:

Explain that Indian constitutional framers sought to tie their new state to ideas of modernity and liberalism by creating a government that would ensure citizens’ rights while also creating the conditions for democratic citizenship.

Balancing these two goals has been particularly challenging with regard to religion, as exemplified by the emergence of a peculiarly Indian understanding of secularism which requires the no establishment of religion but not the separation of religion and state. Supporters argue that this brand of secularism is best suited to the particular social and historical circumstances of independent India.

Discuss the significance of the three core elements in detail that constitute Indian secularism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Indian kind of secularism enshrined in the constitution.

Introduction:

Secularism’, that defines appropriate relation among state, individual and religion, is interpreted differently in different societies, resulting in diverse models. The western model, which usually considers separation of state from religion as secularism is different from the Indian model of secularism.

Legal scholar Rajeev Dhavan, who disaggregates Indian secularism into three components: religious freedom, celebratory neutrality, and reformatory justice

Body:

Background:

  • The 42nd amendment act added the term “secularism” in the Preamble, thus making the commitment of Indian state towards secularism more explicit.
  • However, the idea of secularism can be seen in the various provisions of the constitution.
  • For example – Fundamental Rights. Directive principles, Universal Adult Franchise. In S. R. Bommai Case. 1994, the SC declared secularism as the “Basic structure” of the constitution

Indian model of Secularism:

  • Indian model is neither the model of religious neutrality (DHARM-NIRPEKSTA) nor equal treatment of all religions (SARVA-DHARMA-SAMBHAVA).
  • On the contrary, Indian model follows the principle of ‘Principled Distance’ that provides a flexibility in approach through differential treatment.
  • Based on the context, the Indian state includes or excludes religion, resulting in simultaneous existence of engagement/disengagement b/w state & religion.
  • Religious Freedom: The Indian Constitution protects religious freedom in two ways. It
    • protects an individual’s right to profess, practice and propagate a religion, and it also assures similar protection to every religious denomination to manage its own affairs. This is under Article 25 and Article 26 respectively.
  • Celebratory neutrality: Celebratory neutrality entails a state that assists, both financially and otherwise, in the celebration of all faiths.
    • The state supports the maintenance and upkeep of famous religious places, like ‘Jama Masjid’, ‘Somanath Temple’, ‘Golden temple’ and important churches etc.
    • The state actively helps Moslems to perform ‘Haj’; Hindus to go to Manosarovar and Amarnath and makes very elaborate arrangements for ‘Kumbha mela’ and other similar religious gatherings and celebrations.
  • Reformatory Justice: Reformatory justice involves regulating and reforming religious institutions and practices as well as setting aside some core elements that are beyond regulation.
    • Eg: Sabarimala Judgement and the question essential religious practices
    • Banning Triple Talaq in 2017 by the supreme court, which comes under sharia.
    • Shah Bano judgement where Court ordered to pay alimony to a Muslim divorced woman.

Conclusion:

Thus, The Indian constitution affirms the principle of no established state religion along with religious liberty that incorporates Right to Profess, practice & propagates religion, Right to set up religious institutions & minority educational institutions (Art 25-Art 30). State has thus played a role in providing religious freedom and showing celebratory neutrality. Yet when the matter of rights is involved Judiciary has stepped in to uphold Reformative Justice.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

3. Examine the worth of technology in enhancing dairy farming industry in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article brings to us an opinion of making India a major milk exporting nation.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to examine the value of technology in enhancing dairy farming industry in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Best way to start such questions is with reference to some key data justifying the understanding of the essence of the question.

Body:

Today with an annual production of 187.75 million tonnes (as per 2018-19 data) India accounts for about 22% of the world’s milk production. Thus explain first the potential of Indian dairy industry.

Explain that India’s journey from a milk deficit country to one of surplus has been momentous. Initiated in 1970, Operation Flood was arguably the world’s most ambitious dairy development programme that transformed India into one of the largest milk producers.

Then explain why the dairy sector assumes a great deal of significance.

Present points as to what role can technology play in uplifting the sector. Give examples wherever possible.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the marriage of rural farming with the latest innovations in technology will usher in unprecedented transformation in our dairy industry.

Introduction:

The huge increase in milk supply through concerted efforts on a cooperative level is known as the White Revolution. Forty-eight years after Operation Flood – that made India the world’s largest milk producer – India continues to be on the lookout for the next breakthrough in agricultural produce and productivity. White Revolution 2.0 has effectuated dairy firms’ marketing strategy for milk and milk products, resuscitating the outlook of product-market mix. However, India is yet to join the ranks of major milk exporting nations, as much of what we produce is directed towards meeting domestic demands.

Body:

Milk production in India:

  • India emerged as the largest milk producer and consumer in 2019.
  • Niti Aayog estimates that the country is expected to increase its milk production to 330 million metric tonnes (mt) in 2033–34 from the current level of 176 mt.
  • Currently India has 17% of world output of dairy products, surpassing USA in 1998 as world’s largest producer of dairy. All this was achieved by operation Flood which was launched in 1970’s.
  • According to market research company IMARC, the milk and dairy products industry reached Rs7.9 lakh crore in 2017.
  • In 2016, the milk sector alone was valued at Rs3 lakh crore and is projected to scale Rs7.3 lakh crore by 2021.
  • The per capita availability of milk in 2018-19 was 394 grams per day as against the world average of 302 grams.
  • Between 2016 and 2019, the annual milk production in the country registered a compound annual growth rate of 6.4%.
  • Today with an annual production of 187.75 million tonnes (as per 2018-19 data) India accounts for about 22% of the world’s milk production.

Challenges faced:

  • Indian cattle and buffaloes have among the lowest productivity.
  • Recent data indicates that indigenous cows produce 3.01kgs of milk per cow per day, while the yield of exotic crossbred cows is 7.95kgs.
  • This implies that, overall, the average productivity output of indigenous cattle (both non-descript and high yielding indigenous breeds) is only 1,099kg per animal per year, while for cross-bred cattle average productivity is 3,073kg per animal per year.
  • Similarly, there is a shortage of organized dairy farms and there is a need of high degree of investment to take dairy industry to global standards.
  • Improving productivity of farm animals is one of the major challenges
  • Crossbreeding of indigenous species with exotic stocks to enhance genetic potential of different species has been successful only to a limited extent.
  • The sector will also come under significant adjustment pressure to the emerging market forces. Though globalization will create avenues for increased participation in international trade, stringent food safety and quality norms would be required.
  • Access to markets is critical to speed up commercialization. Lack of access to markets may act as a disincentive to farmers to adopt improved technologies and quality inputs.

How technology can strengthen the Diary sector:

  • Biotechnology
    • Biotechnology is a relatively emerging field in the dairy industry.
    • However, it is being touted as one of the most disrupting dairy technology of the future.
    • The potential of dairy biotechnology lies in the areas such as increasing disease resistance in livestock, scientific feeding of cows, embryo transmit technology, artificial insemination, development of new molecules and vaccines for prevention and disease management of animals, dairy enzymes/proteins/probiotics, food-grade bio-preservatives, etc.
  • Cross-Breeding technology:
    • Crossbreeding has taken off in a big way because of the advancements in reproductive technologies like In vitro fertilization (IVF), embryo transfer process, and artificial insemination.
    • Out of these processes, IVF and artificial insemination have proven to be the most popular and effective methods.
  • Health Tracking Devices for Cattle:
    • Health disorders reduce the productivity, longevity and reproductivity of cattle.
    • Every year, farmers cough up huge amounts of money on their cattle’s health and wellness. However, thanks to wearable animal gadgets which are akin to human fitness trackers, farmers can track, monitor and manage cattle’s health, nutrition, behaviour, pregnancy, milking frequency, milk production anomaly and activity level in real-time.
    • These smart animal trackers can be implanted in the cattle’s ears, tail, legs, neck or any part of the body.
    • Last year, Karnataka government had implanted GPS-enabled digital chips in the ears of 56 lakh animals across the state to track their health and early diagnosis of medical condition.
  • Robotic milking machines:
    • Robotic milking machines are enabling farmers to eliminate the pressure on physical labour, maintain a hygienic milking process, milk the cows anytime of the day instead of following a fixed schedule and improve the milk production.
    • The robotic milking machines have arms or cups with sensors that can be attached individually to cows’ teats.
    • The sensors can detect whether the cow or which of its teat is ready for milking or not.
  • Milk Freshness:
    • Milk is a highly perishable product. In spite of treating it with pasteurization, freezing and preservation processes, it has a tendency to go stale.
    • Millions of tons of milk turns stale before timely consumption and goes waste.
    • Efforts are also being consistently made to increase the shelf life of milk without adding additives or preservatives.
    • Technology is now making it possible to detect the freshness of milk and store it for a longer period of time.
  • Feed Management
    • The feed requirement of cattle depends on their health and weather.
    • For example, a sick or pregnant cow may need more nutrition. Hot and humid weather means that cattle need more glucose in their feed.
    • There are a number of feed technologies that produce formulated feed additives, supplements, premixes and base mixes to maintain optimal milk production throughout the year.
    • For example, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) has developed bypass protein technology to produce specially treated protein supplements that can be fed to cattle to increase milk yield and quality.
  • Supply Chain Technology
    • The Indian dairy industry supply chain is quite complex owing to its dependency on a number of factors such as storage temperature, cold chains availability, weather, perishability/shelf life, first and last-mile distance, packaging, etc.
    • The fact that the Indian dairy industry is unorganized and fragmented also adds to the supply chain woes.
    • However, a number of technological innovations are taking place in the dairy supply chain in India.

Measures needed:

  • Increase in the market share depends on how dairy firms’ capabilities and their resources are utilised given the opportunities and threats emanating from emerging markets economies.
  • Contract/corporate dairying and emerging global dairy trade are required to rope in dairy supply chains stakeholders in order to expand their outreach and “on-the-go” product positioning into the target segment.
  • Digital technology-enabled dairy firms need to identify their compatible partners and competitors for co-creation through product-process innovation via relationship/value-based marketing.
  • Freshness in milk, and convenience to store milk or milk products can be a technology innovation brought in by large dairy firms in association start-ups.
  • Education and Training at Panchayat level for small and medium size farmers
  • Subsidizing cattle production and encouraging cattle markets
  • Facility of logistics for produced milk
  • Improved Veterinary facility specially in artificial insemination of cattle
  • Encouraging private sector firm to procure dairy produced at rural level
  • Low interest loans for small and medium scale farmers for cattle purchase
  • Encouraging rural women to take up animal husbandry
  • Insurance of cattle against diseases like Anthrax, Foot and Mouth, Peste des Ruminantes, etc.
  • Nurture dairy entrepreneurs through effective training of youth at the village level coupled with dedicated leadership and professional management of farmers’ institutions.
  • Agricultural practices, sanitation, quality of drinking water & fodder, type and quality of pipelines – all of these need to be aligned to the goal of healthy milk

Conclusion:

The Government initiatives can ensure sustainable growth of the dairy sector as well as boost incomes of millions of small and marginal dairy farmers. Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Expanding digital health services as envisaged by Global Strategy on Digital Health, adopted by the World Health Assembly, brings an opportunity for India to leapfrog into a reality of ‘Health for All’. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that there are lessons from the pandemic that can be applied usefully to how health care can be delivered.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how digital health services can turn into an opportunity for Indian healthcare system.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present briefly some data depicting current status of Indian healthcare system.

Body:

Explain that whether it is the employ of state-of-the-art technology in the discovery of cures or vaccines, or traditional technology services to enhance health care and consultations, or even tools that keep people at home occupied/productive, it is clear that technology will serve humanity at one of its darkest moments.

Throw light on Global Strategy on Digital Health, adopted by the World Health Assembly.

Then explain with suitable examples how it is an opportunity for India to leapfrog into a reality of ‘Health for All’.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude with importance of use of technology in ensuring health for all.

Introduction:

Digital technology has been a revolutionary foray in education, industry, research and recently, healthcare. Digital health encompasses various aspects of technology like information and communication, mobile health, data-recording and telemedicine. There has been an exponential and unregulated increase in digital health services in last few years which have raised concerns over data privacy, ethical standards and quality of services. The World Health Organization recently released the global strategy on digital health as a visionary document that provides a framework for countries to implement and expand digital health services.

Body:

The current Covid-19 pandemic which has affected more than 10 million people worldwide has manifestly exposed the crisis in global health systems. In India, the pandemic exposed the chinks in the healthcare system such as lack of Critical Care units, hospital beds and healthcare workers to patient ratio leaving them overwhelmed.

Digital health has many facets including e-health, mobile-health (m-health), medical   informatics   and telemedicine.  Its role has been diversified beyond just electronic data recording to telemedicine, which gives accessible and cost-effective virtual access to    doctors, tele radiology for improved image interpretation, real-time data reporting, and use of mobile based applications for healthcare and therapeutics.

Global strategy on digital health 2020-2024:

  • The World health organization recently announced Global strategy on digital health 2020-2024 with the vision to “improve health   for   everyone, everywhere   by accelerating the adoption of appropriate digital health.”
  • It redefines digital health to “the field of knowledge and practice associated with any aspect of adopting digital technologies to improve health, from inception to operation,” thus making it more comprehensive.
  • The strategy is aimed to facilitate countries to optimize the use of digital healthcare technology in a sustainable, equitable, accessible and scalable manner such that it enables patients to manage their health better, develop improved communication with healthcare providers and help countries monitor impact of the health policies for further improvement.
  • The Global Strategy also emphasizes the    need    to    develop    inter-sectoral coordination   to   integrate   financial, organizational, human, and technology resources for best utilization of digital services.

Objectives:

  • Engage stakeholders on a shared global agenda on digital health.
  • Build and consolidate global digital health capacity that reflects national needs.
  • Commit and engage stakeholders to advance digital health in every country.
  • Improve measurement, monitoring, research and practice in digital health.

Need for digi-health initiatives in India:

  • India’s expenditure on the health sector has risen meagerly from 1.2 per cent of the GDP in 2013-14 to4 per cent in 2017-18. The National Health Policy 2017 had aimed for this to be 2.5% of GDP.
  • There is a massive shortage of medical staff, infrastructure and last mile connectivity in rural areas. Eg: Doctor: Population 1:1800 and 78% doctors cater to urban India (population of 30%).
  • Massive shortages in the supply of services (human resources, hospitals and diagnostic centres in the private/public sector) which are made worse by grossly inequitable availability between and within States.
    • For example, even a well-placed State such as Tamil Nadu has an over 30% shortage of medical and non-medical professionals in government facilities.
  • Absence of primary care: In the northern States there are hardly any sub-centres and primary health centres are practically non-existent. First mile connectivity to a primary healthcare centre is broken. For eg, in Uttar Pradesh there is one PHC for every 28 villages.
  • Out of pocket expenditure high: Even the poor are forced to opt for private healthcare, and, hence, pay from their own pockets. As a result, an estimated 63 million people fall into poverty due to health expenditure, annually.

Re-inventing healthcare systems with Telemedicine

Telemedicine: Telemedicine allows health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients at a distance using telecommunications technology.

  • The shortage of doctors is limiting face-to-face consultations among patients. Secondly, India also has a shortage of hospital beds, which makes hospitalization tricky. Telemedicine will reduce the time of consultations and improve the quality of healthcare services in urban as well as rural areas, removing many of infrastructural challenges.
  • Telemedicine is a sector that bridges the healthcare gap between rural India and urban India.
  • In rural India, where the access to medical facilities, specialist’s opinion and advance healthcare amenities are limited, telemedicine acts as a healthcare provider bringing access to the specialist doctors to these areas.
  • The advantages are peculiar in the current context, when putting distance between people is paramount, as tele consultations are not barred even when health care professionals and patients may have to be quarantined.
  • The advancement of telecommunication capabilities over the years has made the transmission of images and sound files (heart and lung sounds, coughs) faster and simpler.
    • Pilot telemedicine experiments in ophthalmology and psychiatry have proven to be of immense benefit to the communities.
  • Telemedicine has advantages like: Reduced travel expenses of patients, time saving, easy access to specialized doctors, decreases the load of missed appointments and cancellations for healthcare providers, increasing patient load and revenue for hospitals, improving follow up and health outcome, increased reach to inaccessible areas.

Thus, technology plays a crucial role in fight against COVID-19. The pandemic has contributed to the understanding of various ways in which available technologies can be put to better use and presented people with multiple opportunities to harness these devices, techniques and methods to get on with life in the time of lockdown.

Conclusion:

Among the primary uses of technology is telemedicine that can help reach patients where access to medical care is difficult. While unleashing the full potential of telemedicine to help people, experts and government agencies must be mindful of the possible inadequacies of the medium, and securing sensitive medical information; such cognisance should guide the use of the technology.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Does economic growth and inequality converge in terms of their effects on socio-economic indicators in India? Analyse and present your viewpoint. (250 words)

Reference:  indiabudget.gov.in

Why the question:

The question is from the economic survey vol1 Ch. 4:  Inequality and Growth: Conflict or Convergence?

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse if economic growth and inequality converge in terms of their effects on socio-economic indicators in India.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by explaining what is economic growth and inequality in the context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First present growth, inequality, and socio-economic outcomes of India vis-a-vis the advanced economies.

By examining the correlation of inequality and per-capita income, which reflects the impact of economic growth, with a range of socio-economic indicators, the Survey highlights that both economic growth and inequality have similar relationships with socio-economic indicators.

Explain that that economic growth has a far greater impact on poverty alleviation than inequality. Therefore, given India’s stage of development, India must continue to focus on economic growth to lift the poor out of poverty by expanding the overall pie.

Conclusion:

Present your view point with a fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Economic survey 20201 shows that the relationship between inequality and socio-economic outcomes vis-à-vis economic growth and socio-economic outcomes is different in India from that observed in advanced economies.

Body:

Convergence of Economic growth and Inequality in India:

  • By examining the correlation of inequality and per-capita income, which reflects the impact of economic growth, with a range of socio-economic indicators, the Survey highlights that both economic growth and inequality have similar relationships with socio-economic indicators.
  • Therefore, unlike in advanced economies, in India economic growth and inequality converge in terms of their effects on socio-economic indicators.
  • Furthermore, economic growth has a far greater impact on poverty alleviation than inequality. Therefore, given India’s stage of development, India must continue to focus on economic growth to lift the poor out of poverty by expanding the overall pie.
  • The survey argues that redistribution is only feasible in a developing economy if the size of the economic pie grows.
  • The findings from studies in Indian and China imply that there is an absence of a trade-off between economic growth and inequality.
  • This trade-off is observed in advanced economies. The Survey examines if inequality and growth conflict or converge in the Indian context. Studies in the advanced economies show that higher inequality leads to adverse socioeconomic out-comes (health, education, life expectancy etc) but income per capita, a measure that reflects the impact of economic growth, has little impact

Recommendations by Economic Survey 2021:

Economic survey notes the difference between inequality and poverty. Inequality refers to the degree of dispersion in the distribution of assets, income or consumption. Poverty refers to the assets, income or consumption of those at the bottom of the distribution

  • Cushioning the vulnerable in the lockdown and boosting consumption and investment while unlocking, mindful of fiscal repercussions and entailing debt sustainability.
  • India should pay more attention to economic growth as a primary means of decreasing poverty rather than expending more resources on curtailing inequality.
    • Economic growth has a greater impact on poverty alleviation than inequality.
  • Finally, National Health Mission played a critical role in mitigating inequity as the access of the poorest to pre-natal/post-natal care and institutional deliveries increased significantly. Economic Survey suggests that Ayushmaan Bharat must become the key program to reduce inequality in access to healthcare.

Conclusion

Reducing inequalities is very important but it should be a medium-term target. Between growth and distribution, India must get the sequencing right. According to Oxfam if India stops inequality from rising further, it could end extreme poverty for 90 million people by 2019. If it goes further and reduces inequality by 36%, it could virtually eliminate extreme poverty. But as Economic Survey suggests, there is a clear convergence on growth and inequality in India and hence must focus on wealth creation.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6. Empathy is not only an important ingredient but also an indicator of one’s emotional intelligence. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of empathy as a factor of Emotional intelligence.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how Empathy is not only an important ingredient but also an indicator of one’s emotional intelligence.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Empathy and emotional intelligence.

Body:

Briefly touch upon the concept of empathy and thereafter elaborate on how empathy is the most important component of being emotionally intelligent.

Empathy is the ability to communicate (send and receive messages) and lead by understanding others’ thoughts, views, and feelings. Empathy has long been established as a cornerstone of emotional intelligence. Empathy is the most important aspect of EQ. It is the component of EQ that equips the government servants to address the problems of underprivileged in the society. In a society like India where stereotypes are abundant, empathy can help a civil servant understand the problems of society in a better manner. Empathetic listening is powerful because it gives us a picture of what is going on with others. When we quit forcing our thoughts and desires onto others, it allows us to re-experience what others are truly thinking and feeling.

Give examples to justify the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting its importance.

Introduction:

Empathy is the ability to be aware of, understand, and appreciate the feelings and thoughts of others. Empathy is “tuning in” (being sensitive) to what, how, and why people feel and think the way they do. Being empathic means being able to “emotionally read” other people.

Body:

Empathy helps in the following:

  • Understands Unspoken content:
  • Demonstrates active listening skills (such as asking probing questions, not interrupting)
  • Picks up signals when others are not feeling comfortable and displays consideration.
  • Has concern for others:
    • Open to diversity of opinion.
    • Probes to understand people’s issues, unspoken thoughts, and feelings
  • Expresses concern for Others:
    • Demonstrates empathy by correctly understanding reactions or emotions of others.
    • Builds trust by demonstrating respect for other’s point of view.
  • Acts as a Role-model:
    • Makes a balanced assessment of a person’s strengths and weaknesses based on a deeper understanding of the individual
  • Creates and provides an environment of Respect:
    • Creates a culture of mutual trust and respect.

Importance of Empathy:

  • Empathy allows people to build social connections with others. By understanding what people are thinking and feeling, people are able to respond appropriately in social situations.
  • Empathizing with others helps you learn to regulate your own emotions. Emotional regulation is important in that it allows you to manage what you are feeling, even in times of great stress, without becoming overwhelmed.
  • Empathy promotes helping behaviours. Not only are you more likely to engage in helpful behaviours when you feel empathy for other people; other people are also more likely to help you when they experience empathy.
  • Despite claims that empathy comes naturally, it takes arduous mental effort to get into another person’s mind and then to respond with compassion rather than indifference.

Empathy and Emotional Intelligence:

  • Empathy is the ability to understand another person’s feelings, or, at least their emotional reactions to things.
  • It’s about us being able to “walk a mile in someone else’s shoes”, and even though we may not have personally experienced what they are going through, we understand and anticipate the situation (good or bad) and recognize that there are feelings and emotions attached to it.
  • This doesn’t mean that we have to share those emotions with them, we just need to “get where they’re coming from”.
  • However, before we can be empathetic, we need to have a good sense of our own self-awareness and gain insight into our own emotions.
  • This is how we improve ourselves and expand our mindsets – by seeing things from another person’s perspective.
  • For instance, think of a close friend who may share some news about landing a dream job, going on a great adventure, or overcoming a serious illness.
  • An emotionally intelligent person would likely respond to them with enthusiasm and delight, even if they haven’t personally experienced those things.
  • The same goes with any sad, bad or shocking news someone may have; we know that being empathetic is important, even if we don’t know all the right things to say or do.
  • It’s important to acknowledge and respect the feelings of others, even when we don’t agree with them or their decisions.
  • Another sign of an emotionally intelligent person is knowing to avoid making comments or statements that are judgemental, cruel, or indifferent.
  • It would be a very cold and lonely world if people always responded with “I really don’t care” to the many events, feelings and happenings we all share with one another.

Conclusion:

While empathy might fail sometimes, most people are able to empathize with others in a variety of situations. This ability to see things from another person’s perspective and sympathize with another’s emotions plays an important role in our social lives. Empathy allows us to understand others and, quite often, compels us to take action to relieve another person’s suffering.

 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss the role of family, society and educational institutions in value inculcation. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV .

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by explaining what values are.

Body:

Explain that the family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.

  • Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life. The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically.
  • The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity. A child learns his behavior by modeling what he sees around him.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.” Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual. These human values have the effect of bonding, comforting, reassuring and procuring serenity.

Body:

Role of family in developing values:

  • Family is the first social organization that provides the immediate proximity from which the kid can learn his behavior.
  • The family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.
  • Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.
  • The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically.
  • The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity.
  • A child learns his behavior by modelling what he sees around him.
  • Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the progress of the child. Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children.
  • It will also help young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
  • Children identify themselves with their parents, other family elders and adopt them as their personal models for emulation and imitation. The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents.

Role of Society in inculcating values:

Man lives in society for his mental and intellectual development. Society preserves our culture and transmits it to the succeeding generations. Society liberates as well as limits our potential as an individual and also shapes our attitudes, beliefs, moral and ideals. A society thrives best when it is composed of men and women who are intelligent, hard-working, honest and dutiful.

Society teaches values such as:

  • Social Cohesion
  • Social Harmony
  • Unity among the people of different religions
  • No ethnic conflict
  • Cultural pluralism
  • Tolerance towards different section of the society

Family is the first school where children start their initial learning. The role of teacher played mother and other members of family. Even in the formal school system, different roles like teacher, pupil and parents are members of society and always carry their cultural baggage and values of same society. The system of joint family for instance helps in inculcating values of togetherness, sharing, while nuclear family teaches independence and struggle.

Religion is also one universal institution that exists from primitive to post-modern society. However, sometimes its rigidity also becomes dysfunctional.  One of the most important functions of religion is social control. Although all religions profess the values of peace, harmony, brotherhood etc., there have been instances of hatred, violence to achieve short-sighted goals.

Economic institution refers the rules, procedures and norms of production, distribution, consumption as well as working system and patterns. These influence the values of libertarianism, socialism, materialism etc.

The nature of state, political parties, its ideology and policy directs the nature of education system and its policy in society.  Democratic states profess ideals of democratic rights and development whereas a dictator regime is filled with violence, fear, human rights violations etc.

Role of Educational Institutions:

  • Education in its aims, curriculum and methods is linked with values. It is through education that society seeks to preserve and promote its cherished values.
  • Whatever is learnt and imbibed will determine to how students will live out their lives in future.
  • Educational institutions provide a structured environment where children learn values of cooperation, hard work etc.
  • Punctuality, Commitment, Sincerity, Sharing, Caring, Fairness, Helping, Independence, Responsibility, Humility, Pride need to be inculcated in a child.
  • Lessons of Honesty, Social Justice, Sensitising children with empathy towards vulnerable sections of the society.
  • Teaching Gender Equality, Respect for elders, Truthfulness, Tolerance, Peace, Love for nature & mankind, Positive Attitude, Spirituality, Nationalist feelings, Patriotism, Discipline etc.

Conclusion:

Value education is the first step for a peaceful and happy society. Thus, all the above play an imperative role in shaping the values of an individual.


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