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Comfortable, safe and affordable public commuting has well-recognised multiplier effects for the economy and more generally for public health. Elucidate. What are the impediments to public commuting as part of urbanization in India?

Topic:  poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. Comfortable, safe and affordable public commuting has well-recognised multiplier effects for the economy and more generally for public health. Elucidate. What are the impediments to public commuting as part of urbanization in India? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

With a clear focus on expansion of Metro Rail and bus services through Central funding, Budget 2021 has recognized a core component of urbanization.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the benefits of having affordable public commuting as the barriers to it.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by describing the concept of affordable public commuting.

Body:

Cite relevant statistics or figures with respect to public commuting in India’s major cities.

Mention the various advantages of Comfortable, safe and affordable public commuting. Economic- the efficient connection of wealth and labour to the marketplace, the removal of productivity bottlenecks and maximising opportunities for individuals etc. Social and environmental benefits – employment opportunities, education and health services as well as recreational facilities business and government to increase income and asset value, and reducing carbon emissions etc.

Write about the major bottlenecks – funding, stalling of projects, environmental clearances, slow pace of projects, political opportunism in allotting projects, inordinate delays and dependence of foreign companies. Suggest measures to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

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