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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Landslides

1. Elucidate volcano formation, their types and structures associated with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: Fundamentals of Physical Geography by G C Leong, Fundamentals of Physical Geography – class XI NCERT

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, portions of World Geography.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain volcano formation, their types and structures associated with suitable examples.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what Volcanoes are.

Body:

A volcano is a vent (opening) in the earth’s crust through which molten material erupts suddenly from a magma chamber below the surface. Due to very high temperature, some rocks slowly melt and turn into a thick flowing matter known as magma. Since it is lighter than the solid rock around it, the magma rises and gets collected in magma chambers which eventually pushes through fissures and vents in the earth’s surface.

Start by discussing their formation.

Mention types of volcanoes with suitable diagrams and description.

Present the various landforms associated with it. Both intrusive and extrusive.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their significant contributions in landform formation.

 

Topic: Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Landslides

2. “Landslides are more than just a natural phenomena”. Do you agree? Discuss and suggest ways to mitigate it. (250 words)

Reference: Fundamentals of Physical Geography by G C Leong

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , portions of World Geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to explain in what way landslides are more than just a natural phenomenon and explain ways to mitigate it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with background/case study – Landslides have caused massive damage of life and property during extremely heavy rain across India, most recently in Kerala. The Kedarnath landslide in Uttarakhand in June 2013, caused by flash floods that resulted in over 5,000 deaths, was identified as the most tragic such disaster.

Body:

A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope.

Landslides are a type of “mass wasting (a geomorphic process),” which denotes any down-slope movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity.

Several things can trigger landslides, including the slow weathering of rocks as well as soil erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity.

Explain why landslides have become more than just natural phenomenon.

List down suggestions to mitigate them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. “The problem with sanitation in India is not lack of infrastructure but the social and cultural stigma attached to it.” Do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article brings to us views of how sanitation in India is not lack of infrastructure but the social and cultural stigma attached to it.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse the statement in detail and present a detailed analysis of it.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present the status of sanitation in India with suitable facts.

Body:

Talk about lack of proper toilets, work related discrimination, issues related to scavenging in India, lack of physical resources etc.

Discuss in what way it is more a problem related to social and cultural stigma attached, give examples.

Such as prevalence of caste systems, lack of physical resources, social discrimination etc.

Suggest what needs to be done to address such issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government in this direction. And suggest suitable way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Despite numerous government policies focusing on skill development in India, skill development still remains a major challenge in the country. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the challenges with skill development in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way despite numerous government policies focusing on skill development in India, skill development still remains a major challenge in the country.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly start with scenario of skill development in India.

Body:

First, highlight the importance of skill development and certain programmes to achieve so in the past.

Skill Development gains importance in a transiting society- demographically and technologically (onset of 4th Industrial Revolution) like India, as it enhances employability and equips one to tackle requirements of the labour market. Towards this end, many programmes have been launched like Skill India Mission, PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana, reforms in Apprenticeship Rules, Sector Skill Councils in recent times.

Despite this, certain issues plague skilled manpower of India, rendering low employability and employment rates like – Shortage of well-trained and skilled personnel, low Female participation in workforce, Skill Deficit in Rural Areas etc.

Suggest solutions to address the problems.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Skill Development should not be seen as an individual activity and needs to be dovetailed with other initiatives like Make in India, Digital India for scaling up economies.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5. Account for the prospects and challenges of AI economy in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the importance of AI economy to India.

Key Demand of the question:

One must account for the prospects and challenges of AI economy in India.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts such as; Data and AI services are expected to help boost India’s economic growth in a big way. For example, according to NASSCOM, data and AI will contribute $450 billion-$500 billion to India’s GDP by 2025, which is around 10% of the government’s aspiration of a $5 trillion economy.

Body:

Start by discussing the prospects of AI to India.

India has a thriving AI start-up ecosystem with cutting-edge solutions being developed in areas such as cancer screening, smart farming and conversational AI for the use of enterprises.

Our skilled human resource in AI/ML is fast growing, with over 5,00,000 people working on these technologies at present.

Discuss the steps taken to promote AI in India.  Suggest what needs to be done to ensure AI driven economy’s potential is harnessed for our country.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the future for AI looks promising but to convert the potential into reality, India will need better strategies around talent development, stronger policies for data usage and governance, and more investments in creating a technology infrastructure that can truly leverage AI.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

6. Discuss in what possible ways Anganwadi centres (AWCs) could become agents of improved delivery of ICDS’s services. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The column from The Hindu brings to us the niche role that the Anganwadi centres (AWCs) can play in addressing the gaps of ICDS services in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what possible ways Anganwadi centres (AWCs) could become agents of improved delivery of ICDS’s services.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that the economic fallout of COVID-19 makes the necessity of quality public welfare services more pressing than ever.

Body:

Begin with the explanation of ICDS; The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme that caters to the nutrition, health and pre-education needs of children till six years of age as well as the health and nutrition of women and adolescent girls is one such scheme.

Bring out the lacunae and loopholes in the system that has led to compromised delivery of services.

Highlight the possible role that Anganwadi centres (AWCs) could play to become agents of improved delivery of ICDS’s services.

Conclusion:

Take hints from the article and suggest solutions.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics based Case study

7. Amit Singh is a small farmer in a northern state of India. He comes to know about recently launched PM fasal Bima Yojana. He was told by Gram Pradhan to visit his bank for further information. The bank officials completed the formalities and deducted the amount of premium from his account. After few days, heavy rain and hailstorm destroyed his wheat crop. Due to bad weather and incessant rain for three-four days he could not inform the bank officials. After four days, when he reached the bank to inform, he was told to visit insurance company office. When he finally contacted the insurance  Company officials, he was told that they were unable to process his claim as he was supposed to register crop loss within 72 hrs. of the incident.

Suppose you are an officer at district level responsible to hear the complaints against the insurance claims and Amit Singh files a complaint before you then how you will tackle the issue? Discuss and also identify the ethical issues and their possible remedies. (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study involving ethical issues concerning realization of insurance benefits to the poor and vulnerable farmers.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to suggest solutions to address the issue at hand and identify the ethical issues and their possible remedies.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly discuss the context in question.

Body:

Briefly discuss the objectives of the PMFBY; Providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of unforeseen events, Stabilizing the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming etc.

Then talk about the issues involved in the above case – with respect to insurance claims, banks and the existing grievance redressal mechanism.

Suggest solutions to these problems – Citizen friendly governance or pro-active, pro-people governance, informed decision making, social contract etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the Government has responsibility of welfare of people under Social Contract. It is responsibility of government to make scheme farmer friendly and not insurance company friendly.


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