Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 9 December 2020

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

STHIR – 2021: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

Join IPM 3.0 to get an assured review of 2 secure answers everyday

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Theories (continental drift theory, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics theory)

1. What do you understand by the continental drift theory ? Discuss the evidences in support of it and also throw light on the criticism faced by it. (250 words)

Reference: Fundamentals of Physical Geography NCERT class XI

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, section geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to elucidate upon the Continental drift theory and discuss the evidences supporting it while presenting the related criticisms.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Continental Drift theory was put forth by Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, polar explorer, astronomer, and geologist. He is in fact known as the father of continental drift.

Body:

The answer body must discuss the following aspects –

  • Continental Drift Theory (Alfred Wegener) – the concept in detail with relevant diagrams supporting it.
  • The direction of drift; According to Wegener, the continents drifted in two directions: Towards the equator, towards the west. Explain these too.
  • Evidence in support of the Continental Drift Theory – “Jigsaw” fit, Geological structure, Permo-carboniferous glaciations, Similar Fossil, Paleoclimatic evidence etc.
  • Criticism of Continental Drift Theory – explain that the greatest criticism of this theory was due to the controversial forces which were stated to have caused the drift. Explain the other criticisms in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the theory.

 

Topic: Theories (continental drift theory, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics theory)

2. Discuss the concept of Sea-floor spreading and explain the relationship between underwater ocean ridges and the seafloor spreading theory. (250 words)

Reference: National Geographic

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, section geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the concept of Sea-floor spreading and explain the relationship between underwater ocean ridges and the seafloor spreading theory.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Sea floor spreading is; Seafloor spreading is a geologic process in which tectonic plates—large slabs of Earth’s lithosphere—split apart from each other.

Body:

Explain the causative factors of the sea floor spreading. Explain the mechanism involved.

Seafloor spreading and other tectonic activity processes are the result of mantle convection. Mantle convection is the slow, churning motion of Earth’s mantle. Convection currents carry heat from the lower mantle and core to the lithosphere. Convection currents also “recycle” lithospheric materials back to the mantle.

Use suitable diagrams to explain the processes involved in sea floor spreading.

In the second half of the answer, explain the relationship between underwater ocean ridges and the seafloor spreading theory.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting how Seafloor spreading helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Account for specific issues that urban poor face from the perspective of social protection. Also explain in what way giving priority to women would aid to address these issues. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains how public works could provide valuable support to the urban poor, especially if women get most of the jobs.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to ascertain the specific issues that urban poor face from the perspective of social protection and one has to explain the significance of giving women being given priority to address these issues.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One should start such answers with some facts/statistics depicting the issues of urban poor.

Body:

Take hints from the article and list down the issues that urban poor face from the perspective of social protection.

Social protection includes: Social assistance – non-contributory transfers in cash, vouchers, or in-kind to individuals or households in need public works programmes; fee waivers (for basic health and education services); and subsidies (e.g. for food, fuel).

Explain the importance of recognising role of women in addressing such issues.

Suggest – Universalizing the Public Distribution System in urban slums would be a step forward (and it can be done under the National Food Security Act), but foodgrain rations do not take people very far. Employment-based support is one way of doing more. It has two major advantages: self-targeting, and the possibility of generating valuable assets or services.

Conclusion:

Conclude with policies of the government in this direction and what more needs to be done.

 

 Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

4. Evaluate the role of telemedicine in effective disease management in the country. Also reckon the measures taken by the government in this regard.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on the benefits of Telemedicine in effective disease management in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Evaluate the role of telemedicine in effective disease management in the country. Also reckon the measures taken by the government in this regard.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explain how and in what way using tech platforms to treat non-communicable diseases has gained currency during the pandemic period.

Body:

Firstly present the idea of Telemedicine. And then discuss why there is urgent need of telemedicine.

In India, nearly 5.8 million people die from NCDs (heart and lung diseases, stroke, cancer, and diabetes) every year. So it becomes critically important to ensure that access to NCD treatments remains uninterrupted, especially during a time where the risk of these conditions has been exacerbated.

Give examples of tele-consultation services — e-Sanjeevani and e-Sanjeevani OPD — that have been used to effectively improve the delivery of health-care services using information and communication technologies in exchange for valid information diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and management of diseases, etc.

Brief upon the measures taken by the government in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Telemedicine services especially in the health and wellness centres at the grassroots level wherein a mid-level health worker can connect the patients to the doctors through technology in providing timely and best possible care. It is essential to continue to sustain such initiatives post the pandemic as they can help decrease accessibility costs to quality healthcare.

 

 Topic:GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. “Exposure to lead pollution undermines a generation of potential”, Critically analyse the statement in the light of recent incidence of Eluru mystery disease in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Eluru mystery disease: At least 550 people have fallen sick in Eluru town since Saturday evening following an undiagnosed illness. And it has been assessed that it is owing to lead poisoning.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to critically examine in what way lead pollution can undermine a generation of potential.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the context of the question.

Body:

According to many reports, mining, milling, plating and surface finishing industries are the main sources of heavy metal pollution and the concentration of such toxic metals has increased rapidly over the past few decades. Consequently, concentrations of toxic metals in grains and vegetables grown in contaminated soils have increased at alarming rates. This poses a serious threat to humans and the environment because of its toxicity, non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation.

Correlate in what way such pollution can directly affect the potential demography and thus bearing long term impact over generations.

Give case studies such as that of the Eluru mystery disease and suggest upon its impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions both long term and short term to address such issues, hint at the efforts by the government in this direction.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6. What are the cognitive approaches to persuasion? Discuss with examples.(250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Persuasion and the approaches to it.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the cognitive approaches to persuasion.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Persuasion.

Body:

One can explain the approaches proposed by thinkers and philosophers like Aristotle proposed three approaches to changing another’s mind: Ethos – appealing to ethics. Logos – building a logical case. Pathos – enlisting emotions or imagination.

Cognition refers to mental activity including thinking, remembering, learning and using language. When we apply a cognitive approach to learning and teaching, we focus on the understanding of information and concepts.

Give examples to explain better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Explain the factors which determine an employee’s dedication to public service. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of dedication to public services.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the factors which determine an employee’s dedication to public service.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Dedication in general; it  is the quality of being dedicated  or committed to a task or purpose, thought or action.

Body:

Explain that among the factors that determine a civil servant’s dedication to public service, ‘genuine regard for public good’ and ‘strength of character’ to follow through on that commitment are most important while personal morality is the anchor on which this commitment rests. This work ethos is what drives a dedicated civil servant, no matter what the odds.

However, this work ethos in public servants is sadly an exception and not the norm. It is easy to disregard public service, when officers use their positions of authority as only a means to serve other ends like personal benefits or a higher social status. For public service to be an end in itself, it is important to establish a meritocracy that values strength of character and personal morality, above all.

Conclusion:

Conclude that to work for common good is the greatest good.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos