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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: World Geography – Interior of the earth

1. Discuss in detail the various Sources of Information about the interior of the earth. (250 words)

Reference: Class 11 Geography Chapter 3 Interior of the Earth

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the various sources of information about the interior of the earth.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining briefly that understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc. are linked with the structure of earth’s interior.

Body:

The question is straightforward from the basics and there isn’t much to deliberate, one is expected to ponder upon the sources of Information about the interior of the earth.

Talk about the direct; Rocks from mining area, volcanic eruptions etc. and indirect sources (Meteors, Gravity anomaly, magnetic sources etc.); use a schematic to present them.

Explain in detail how they help us understand the Earth’s interior.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic: World Geography – Geological Time Scale

2. Account for Anthropocene as Earth’s new epoch and discuss its salient features. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu  , The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I; World Geography – Geological Time Scale.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to account in detail – Anthropocene as Earth’s new epoch and discuss its salient features.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief definition of geological time scale (GTS); it divides and chronicles earth’s evolutionary history into various periods from the beginning to the present based on definite events that marked a major change in earth’s physical, chemical and biological features.

Body:

The answer body must analyse what Anthropocene age is, what is its significance and what are geological markers and evidences of the same in discussing the Anthropocene epoch.

The term ‘Anthropocene’ was coined in 2000 by Nobel Laureate Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer to denote the present geological time interval in which human activity has profoundly altered many conditions and processes on Earth. The word combines the root “anthro”, meaning “human” with the root “cene”, the standard suffix for “epoch” in geologic time.

The Anthropocene is distinguished as a new period either after or within the Holocene, the current epoch, which began approximately 10,000 years ago (about 8000 BC) with the end of the last glacial period.

Then move onto discuss its key features.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its significance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic :Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. What is Mahaparinirvan Diwas? Why is it celebrated? Discuss its significance. (250 words)

Reference: News on Air

Why the question:

December 6 is observed to commemorate Dr B R Ambedkar’s unfathomable contribution to society and his achievements.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail what is Mahaparinirvan Diwas, its significance and why it is celebrated.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The term ‘parinirvan’ has a deep meaning in Buddhist traditions and refers to someone who has attained nirvana in his lifetime and after death.

Body:

December 6 is observed to commemorate his unfathomable contribution to society and his achievements. Millions of people and followers assemble at the Chaitya Bhoomi (Dadar Chowpatty Beach in Mumbai), on this day.

Explain his contributions; His relentless effort in shaping the Directive Principles, the formulation of the Reservation system for the upliftment of the backward sections of the society, the voicing of the equal right of the Dalits Buddhist have earned him an irreplaceable position in Indian political history. The historic Poona Pact of 1932 was signed by him who gave the Dalits a place in the general electoral list.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance that such day held in the past and would hold in the future.

 

 Topic Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Discuss the challenges before our country in the task of vaccine distribution; Also, suggest solutions to address such challenges. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article brings to us India’s vaccine distribution challenge amidst the current covid-19 challenge.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the challenges before our country in the task of vaccine distribution; also, suggest solutions to address such challenges.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question in general.

Body:

Students must understand the question is not specific to Covid-19 vaccination challenge, Therefore keep the challenges open to the entire task of vaccine distribution. Take examples of diseases such as polio in the past, covid-19 in the present.

Present the issues related to vaccine distribution; it will be influenced by three factors or three Cs (Convenience, Complacency, and Confidence).

Take cues from the article and elaborate upon the challenges, present solutions to address them.

List down the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward; explain the importance of collaborations with private players, need to adopt technologies like cold chain infrastructure etc.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5.  How should India, an economy dependent on fossil fuels, navigate future energy transitions? Discuss with special focus on Technology as an answer to such a transition. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on a new map that India must pave for the end of Oil Age.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the transition that India must peddle to move towards future energy transitions, explain with special focus on technology.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the context of the question.

Body:

Before venturing into the possible energy transition, explain the factors that shape the ongoing transitions such as – first is the US shale revolution, leveraging by Russia of its gas exports, China’s assertion of its rights over the South China Seas, sectarian strife (Sunni/Shia) in the Middle East etc.

Then explain the state of India’s energy sector, explain the dependence of it on fossil fuels.

Discuss the importance of technology and explain how it will reshape the map for the new energy transition that India would tread.

Conclusion:

Conclude with multi-faceted options available before India for its upcoming energy transition.

 

Topic : Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6. “In the ongoing farm debate in the country, the green reality check seems to be missing”, in this context discuss the need and importance of recognising agroecology and equity at the core of techno-scientific model of farming sector in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article from Indian Express brings to us importance of recognising agroecology and equity at the core of techno-scientific model of farming sector in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain how and why in the ongoing farm debate green reality check seems to be missing in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First, explain the ongoing farming related uproar in the country, put forth the demands being made by farmers.

Body:

Start by explaining the fact that neither government nor protesting farmers recognise the challenge of depleting natural resources and climate crisis.

Discuss the factors that have led to such a situation. The recognition that agriculture is embedded in nature and that the agrarian economy is constrained by the limits imposed by nature and by social rules is fundamental to making policies that can benefit farmers.

Explain that instead of a resource-based approach, the need is to develop a relationship-based approach towards the environment. The challenges towards adopting such an approach have ecological, sociocultural, political, techno-scientific and economic dimensions. Reducing this complex maze to either economic or techno-scientific or a combination of both is highly problematic.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a note that salient recognition that any sound economic and techno-scientific model must have agroecology and equity at the core and, must indeed, be guided by them.

 

Topic : Intellectual property Rights

7. Discuss the importance of Intellectual property cooperation between India and US.  (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The Government of India and the United States of America (USA) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in the field of Intellectual Property Cooperation. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of Intellectual property cooperation between India and US. 

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the fact and the background that India and the US recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on intellectual property cooperation.

Body:

First start by explaining what Intellectual property rights are, present their significance briefly.

One is expected to explain in detail how will the MoU increase IP cooperation between India and the US? How will it be implemented? – present the importance of it.

Explain that the cooperation will go a long way in fostering cooperation between India and USA, and provide opportunities to both countries to learn from the experience of each other, especially in terms of best practices followed in the other country. It will be a landmark step forward in India’s journey towards becoming a major player in global innovation and will further the objectives of National IPR Policy, 2016. List down more advantages and discuss concerns if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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