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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 1 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Discuss the importance of participation of women in science; Do you think fewer participation of women in it is a reflection of our Indian society? Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The explained page of Indian express brings to us insights on India’s push for gender equity in science.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to reason why there are fewer women in this field; explain in what way participation of women in it is a reflection of society, which hasn’t considered investing time or money in the gender’s science career.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some fascinating facts that justify the stand of the question. The new Science, Technology and Innovation Policy are currently being drafted by the Department of Science and Technology (DST).

Body:

Gender inequality is the social process by which men and women are not treated as equals. The treatment may arise from distinctions regarding biology, psychology, or cultural norms. Some of these distinctions are empirically-grounded while others appear to be socially constructed.

The world over, women scientists have been in the forefront of ground-breaking research across the world. But despite their remarkable discoveries, globally they still represent just 29 % of researchers. In India the numbers have been even less.

Discuss the causes of such dismal number of participations of women in Science field in the country, explain the societal factors.

Suggest what needs to be done; take cues from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government in this direction.

 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. “The caste system is the bane for the Indian society.” In light of the mentioned statement, examine the evil face of this system. (250 words)

Reference: Class XI NCERT Indian society, NCERT Book For Class XI: Understanding Society

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions and talks about the caste system prevalent in our society.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to examine the evil face of caste system in the country.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what caste system is.

Body:

Caste not only dictates one’s occupation, but dietary habits and interaction with members of other castes as well. Members of a high caste enjoy more wealth and opportunities while members of a low caste perform menial jobs. Outside of the caste system are the Untouchables.

Explain how in Indian societal setup caste a form of social stratification and  is characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution.

Give case studies to justify.

Conclusion:

Conclude with current status of caste system in the country; suggest way forward to address the challenges.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. Explain the challenges associated with targeting welfare beneficiaries in the country. And also analyse how can concept of social registry help addressing the same? (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

A social registry linking Aadhaar to residence info can target aid to the vulnerable during a pandemic. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the challenges associated with targeting welfare beneficiaries in the country. And also analyse how concept of social registry can help addressing the same.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Recent estimates from the World Bank suggest that 88 to 115 million people could slide into poverty in 2020, which presents a tough challenge for targeting welfare beneficiaries.

Body:

Start by first presenting the challenge of targeting welfare beneficiaries in the country; this can be best explained through examples. Under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY), an ex-gratia payment of Rs 500 was credited to women Jan Dhan account holders. Similarly, Farmers registered for PM-KISAN also received Rs 2,000 in their accounts immediately. However, the money did not reach the most vulnerable households. For example, recipients of PM-KISAN were not amongst the poorest households. Data from round-3 of the NCAER Delhi Coronavirus Telephonic Survey (DCVTS-3), suggests that 21 per cent of farm households received transfers through PM-KISAN. However, 42 per cent of such households belonged to the wealthiest.

Discuss what needs to be done to overcome these challenges.  Then present the concept of social registry; discuss its merits and demerits.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such an innovative idea to tackle the issues associated with identifying and targeting welfare beneficiaries.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4. Why is the “Delhi Chalo” call against the agri-marketing laws in the country being witnessed? Discuss the reasons for farmers’ protest in the country and suggest solutions to address the same. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Thousands of farmers have reached the national capital on their tractor-trolleys and other vehicles, responding to the “Delhi Chalo” call against the agri-marketing laws enacted at the Centre in September. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Evaluate the “Delhi Chalo” call against the agri-marketing laws in the country being witnessed, discuss the reasons for farmers’ protest in the country and suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give brief background of the question.

Body:

Explain that s look at the timeline of farmers’ protest over the last 10 years shows that the minimum support price (MSP) for various crops has been a major grouse. Another issue has been that of land acquisition, with farmers complaining that compensation for land acquired for industrial projects was not in tune with market rates –

  • Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020: aims to provide government with the tool to regulate agri commodities.
  • Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020: aimed to provide a legal contract for farmers to enter into written contracts with companies and produce for them.
  • Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation),(FPTC) bill 2020: aims to Break the monopoly of government-regulated mandis and provide farmers and traders freedom of choice of sale and purchase of Agri-produce.

Discuss what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions.

 

Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Write a short note on 5G Networks. How will a 5g network power the future of the country? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Times of India

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of 5G networks and analyse in what way a 5g network power the future of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the nuances associated with 5G network in the country, also analyse in what way a 5g network can power the future of the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what 5G networks are.

Body:

5G is the fifth generation cellular technology that apart from increasing the downloading and uploading speeds over the mobile network, also reduces the latency i.e. the time taken by a network to respond. 5G will provide download speed of 1 Gbps, which is at least 100 times the existing data speeds. Worldwide, chipmakers and smartphone companies are conducting trials of 5G technology based services that are going to hit the globe soon. Discuss the timeline of evolution.

Explain in what way it may power our future; present the Indian context too in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of its applications and advantages.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What is ‘Sea-sparkle’? Discuss its effect on marine food chain. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Karnataka coast has been witnessing the bloom of Noctiluca scintillans that has displaced microscopic algae called diatoms. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the phenomenon of Sea-sparkle; discuss the effects of it on marine food chain.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Noctiluca scintillans are commonly known as “sea sparkle”. Diatoms form the basis of the marine food chain.

Body:

The bloom of Noctiluca scintillans displacing diatoms has deprived food for the planktivorous fish. The toxic blooms of N. scintillans are linked to massive fish and marine invertebrate kills.

Though the species does not produce a toxin, it is found to accumulate toxic levels of ammonia, which is then excreted into the surrounding waters, possibly acting as the killing agent in blooms.

Discuss in detail the effects of it on marine food chain.

Conclusion:

Suggest what can be done.

 

Topic : Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention. Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

7. Biological warfare is a potent threat to the countries across globe. Are the existing mechanisms robust enough to prevent biological warfares? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Science Direct 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the rising doubts of Corona virus spreading across the world.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way Biological warfare as a potent threat to the world and critically analyse the existing mechanisms to address them.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of what biological warfare is.

Body:

Biological warfare is the deliberate and intentional release of biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other harmful agents to cause illness or death among humans, food crops, and livestock to terrorize the civilian population.

Explain in what way the Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of several world powers in the event of use of biological weapons against them by rogue states and terrorist groups.

Give examples; example of Anthrax, Botulinum Toxin; nown to be used by Japan on Prisoners of War (POW) during the occupation of Manchuria. Aflatoxin; Iraq had produced and deployed different weapons armed with Aflatoxin. It was noted by the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) in 1995. However, it was destroyed during the Gulf War.

Then talk about the mechanisms available and analyse them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to deal with the problems.


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