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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 9 November 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. What are glacial outbursts? Discuss the concerns caused by such phenomena with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article talks about the Study of the Gya glacial lake outburst.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is based on the concept of glacial outburst and the concerns posed by them.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what glacial outbursts are.

Body:

A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails. The dam can consist of glacier ice or a terminal moraine.

Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an avalanche of rock or heavy snow, an earthquake or massive displacement of water in a glacial lake when a large portion of an adjacent glacier collapses into it.

Discuss the concerns and threats posed by such a glacial outburst, present the case of Gya lake outburst.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the problem such as early warning system, better land planning etc.

Introduction:

A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a release of meltwater from a moraine- or ice-dam glacial lake due to dam failure. GLOFs often result in catastrophic flooding downstream, with major geomorphic and socioeconomic impacts.

Glacial lakes form when a glacier retreats, leaving the debris mass at the end of the glacier – the end moraine – exposed. The moraine wall can act as a natural dam, trapping the meltwater from the glacier and leading to the formation of a lake. The moraine dams are composed of unconsolidated boulders, gravel, sand, and silt. As with landslide dams, they can eventually break catastrophically, leading to a glacial lake outburst flood or GLOF.

Body:

In August 2014, a glacial lake outburst flood hit the village of Gya in Ladakh, destroying houses, fields and bridges.

GLOFs have three main features:

  • They involve sudden (and sometimes cyclic) releases of water.
  • They tend to be rapid events, lasting hours to days.
  • They result in large downstream river discharges (which often increase by an order of magnitude).

The following direct causes of glacial lake outburst floods were documented:

  • Rapid slope movement into the lake
  • Heavy rainfall/snowmelt
  • Cascading processes (flood from a lake situated upstream)
  • Earthquake
  • Melting of ice incorporated in dam/forming the dam (including volcanic activity-triggered jökulhlaups)
  • Blocking of subsurface outflow tunnels (applies only to lakes without surface outflow or lakes with a combination of surface and subsurface outflow)
  • Long-term dam degradation

Concerns caused by such phenomena:

  • Global warming: Given that the thawing of ice cores is expected to accelerate in the future due to global climate change, it is almost certain that other glacial lake outburst floods will happen all over the Indian Himalaya.
  • Unsustainable development process: It is important to note that not all glacial lake outbursts have catastrophic outcomes. It largely depends on urban planning, the size of the lake, the distance between the lake and affected villages, the valley section etc. The unsustainable development process in these areas will only increase the hazard potential of glacial lake outbursts.

Way forward:

  • Early warning system: There is an urgent need to use multiple methods for better risk assessment and early warning. It is important to regularly monitor lake development and dynamics. This approach could help limit the damages caused by the glacial lake outburst events.
  • Better land planning: Further development processes in these ecologically fragile areas should be guided by better land-use planning.

Conclusion:

Equally, glacial lakes are an important potential natural resource for water supply, which has yet to be effectively investigated. Glacial lakes may offer considerable benefits to local community. They can provide a natural storage facility for water as water supplies becoming increasingly scarce, they are a focus for tourist activities, and they often have a high cultural significance. Thus they need to be looked after and managed in a controlled way that reduces any threat while helping the potential benefits to be realised.

 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. “The American revolution was essentially an economic revolt against American capitalism and British Mercantilism”. Critically examine. (250 words)

Reference: World History by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in what way the American Revolution was essentially an economic revolt against American capitalism and British Mercantilism.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the backdrop in which American Revolution took place. Present a timeline in the history.

Body:

Explain that the economic policy of England in its colonies in America was the primary cause of resentment among the American settlers. Mercantilism was the prevailing policy in Europe at that time and the American Revolution can be said to be an economic revolt against this mercantilism.

Discuss the policy of mercantilism. Explain how as a policy it believes that the volume of global trade is static and one country’s gain in trade is another country’s loss; wealth of a nation depends on possession of gold and silver; exports are preferred to imports and a colonial possession should provide wealth to the home country.

List the causes of resentment in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such a revolution in the world history.

Introduction:

The American Revolution stands as one of the significant landmarks in the history of the modern world as it served as laboratories for new political ideas and institutions. The main significance of this revolution lies in the fact that it was the world’s first anti-colonial struggle which set the pattern for the future liberation of the states of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

British Mercantilism was based on the notion that trade conducted by its colonies should be solely with Britain. This theory was based on the idea that the colonies only exist for the benefit of the mother country and hence they were a source of raw materials and destination for finished products produced by the mother country.

Body:

The economic policy of England in its colonies in America was the primary cause of resentment among the American settlers. Mercantilism was the prevailing policy in Europe at that time and the American Revolution can be said to be an economic revolt against this mercantilism. To achieve this end, British Parliament imposed numerous restrictions on the colonist in America. They were not allowed to produce finished textiles, manufacture iron products etc. This strategy eliminated all competition in America and made the colonists dependent on Britain for their needs.

Some of the mercantilist policies of England that the American settlers resented were:

  • America was not allowed to develop an independent economy of its own.
  • Some of the important industries like iron and steel were not allowed to be developed in these colonies.
  • The colonies could import most of their products only from Britain. Besides, their imports were heavily taxed.
  • The ships used in their trade has to be only of Britain.
  • The tobacco and cotton produced in these colonies could be exported only to Britain.
  • The colonies had no representation in the British parliament. Hence they were often subjected with undemocratic and unjustified taxes, the proceeds of which were used in the betterment of the mainland Britain.
  • The westward expansion of the colonies was checked as several British aristocrats had bought land and they did not want to forego the rent earned from these lands.
  • The settlers were prevented from moving West as the English aristocrats wanted to keep the farmers as renters.
  • England also imposed heavy taxation to fund its continuous wars.
  • The Grenville measures, named after the British Prime Minister who came to office in 1763 consisted of various policies to pay off the national debt, Grenville introduced a spate of legislation for the American colonies. The Proclamation of 1763, the Revenue or Sugar Act of 1764, the Currency Act of 1764, the Mutiny Act of 1765, and the Billeting Act of 1765 are few acts introduced to tax American people.
  • The most momentous of the revenue measures however, was the Stamp Act which was passed by the Parliament in March 1765. It provided that revenue stamps to be affixed to all newspapers, licences, leases or other legal documents. The colonists reacted sharply to this Act; trade with mother country fell in the summer of 1765.

Conclusion:

All this caused resentment among the American settlers. They wanted to develop an independent economy of their own. Many leaders of the American freedom movement were businessmen themselves. It is no surprise then that ‘No Taxation Without Representation’ became one of the main slogans of the American Independence Movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. Where do we geographically place the Indo-Pacific? How has India strived to utilize the geo-strategic potential of Indo-Pacific? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Times of India 

Why the question:

The article presents to the importance of Indo-Pacific in the 21st century and associated political and security issues.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the geo-strategic potential of Indo-Pacific to India and importance of geographical location of the entire Indo-pacific.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with the fact that the Indo-Pacific region is crucial in Indian foreign policy.

Body:

India has used ‘indo-pacific’ in joint statements with a series of partner countries, including the United States, Australia, France, Indonesia, Japan, and of course the United Kingdom. The Ministry has recently set up an Indo-Pacific Division as well as an Oceania Division, and placed them under the same Additional Secretary level officer. This is a sign of India’s commitment to this critical geography.

For India, the Indo-Pacific is that vast maritime space stretching from the western coast of North America to the eastern shores of Africa.

Discuss the past to present relevance of Indo-pacific vis-à-vis status of India with respect to it.

Comment on the efforts of India to utilize the geo-strategic potential of Indo-Pacific.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

“Indo-Pacific” is today a buzzword that has been interpreted differently by various countries in their outlook or vision documents. The idea of the Indo-Pacific as a single strategic space is an outgrowth of China’s growing influence in the Indian Ocean region. It signifies the interconnectedness of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the importance of the oceans to security and commerce.

Foreign Secretary Harsh Shringla recently called the Indo-Pacific the “21st century’s locus of political and security concerns and competition for growth and development and of technology incubation”, even as stressed on freedom of navigation and respect for sovereignty of all states in the region.

Body:

Importance of Indo-Pacific region:

  • Maintaining regional stability.
  • Strong ties with the US are seen as a vital tool for enhancing India’s strategic posture.
  • For the long-term vision of national interest.
  • China’s increasingly active presence in the Indian Ocean region as well as its efforts to expand geopolitical reach in Asia and beyond by the use of trade and military.
  • In the present time, the control of sea lanes and ports would be the game
  • China seems to have taken the lead with its geopolitical project—the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ (BRI).
  • For adhering to freedom of navigation, adherence to rules-based order and stable trade environment.
  • For free sea and air lanes, connectivity and upholding international rules and norms.

Role and Implications for India in the Indo – pacific region:

  • Indo-Pacific is a multi-polar region that is contributing more than half of world GDP and population.
  • India appears to have set a long-term plan during which it will build its capabilities—economic and military strength, network of military facilities and agreements to access military facilities in countries across the Indo-Pacific, expanding economic and military ties.
  • The Indo-Pacific, as described in the National security strategy, represents the most populous and economically dynamic part of the world and stretches from the west coast of India to the western shores of the United States.
  • India has always been a country with great national ambitions and is one of the most important advocates of the concept of “Indo-Pacific Strategy”.
  • With opening of economy, India has been connecting with its Indian Ocean neighbours and major maritime powers of the world.
  • With impetus to Blue Economy, there has been a new reliance on the sea for energy and mineral resources.
  • India has been engaging with regional actors on bilateral as well as multilateral framework.
  • From Look East policy, there has been a graduation towards engage East policy with growing economic relations with the ASEAN, China, Japan and Australia.
  • India is also in the mode of enhancing its maritime presence throughout the Indian Ocean Region.
  • The proponents of the concept among the Indian policy makers defend India’s role in ‘Indo-Pacific’ by stating that it preserves the ‘strategic autonomy’.
  • Strategic autonomy is a step ahead from the Non-Alignment idea as it talks about giving “maximum options (to India) in its relations with the outside world”.
  • It is believed that the Indo-Pacific construct seeks to establish a plural, inclusive and open security architecture.
  • This allows India to create a web of cooperative relations with all the stakeholders based on mutual interest and benefit.
  • China is the main security threat to U.S. primacy in Asia. It also has a long-standing border dispute with India. That gives India and the U.S. a shared interest in countering China’s growing military power and territorial revisionist tendencies etc.
  • India can take this opportunity to promote the justification and rationalization of its interests in Southeast Asia, expand its presence in East Asia, strengthen its political, economic and military cooperation with the United States and its allies, and comprehensively increase India’s influence in international affairs.

Challenges in the Indo-Pacific:

  • China’s aggression and debt trap diplomacy, which impinge sovereignty, is going to test Indian diplomacy. The various consultation groups will help India develop common strategies to keep the seas open and secure and preserve a rules-based order.
  • Maritime security would include the vital responsibility of safeguarding the sea lanes of communication in the Indian Ocean whose geo-strategic importance cannot be over-emphasized. Its four key choke-points- the Strait of Hormuz, the Straits of Malacca, and Bab-el-Mandeb Strait and the Suez Canal- if closed for any reason can play havoc with global trade and energy flows.
  • India’s enormous responsibilities for safeguarding its long coast line, its island territories, its off-shore economic assets and its EEZ. The two vital choke points in the Indian Ocean region- the Straits of Hormuz and Malacca- which are critical for unimpeded international energy and trade flows are of operational concern to the Indian Navy.
  • China is very active in India’s maritime space but takes a different view when it comes to the South China Sea considered as “Beijing’s Lake”. India, as well as the international community in general, would not want it to become a Chinese lake either.
  • The rule-based global order is also coming under tremendous pressure in the region with countries violating established norms with impunity.
  • Multilateral institutions seem utterly helpless while countries continue with activities detrimental to regional peace.
  • North Korea’s nuclear programme, developments in the South China Sea and increasing cyber violations are examples of this trend.

Way Forward for India:

  • Economically and strategically, the global center of gravity is shifting to the Indo-Pacific. If the region’s stakeholders don’t act now to fortify an open, rules-based order, the security situation will continue to deteriorate—with consequences that are likely to reverberate worldwide.
  • With joint military exercises, India will develop interoperability and standard operating procedures, which will help in any joint military operation or even possibly a military alliance in the future.
  • The Quad Security cooperation among Japan, India, the US and Australia is increasingly plausible. The time has come to proactively further this cooperation to ensure prosperity and stability in the whole of Indo-Pacific.
  • Groups like ASEAN and APEC will have to collectively approach China. Standing up to it and physically stopping illegal Chinese construction will gain international attention and the sympathy and backing of major powers.

Conclusion:

India is already assuming her responsibilities in securing the Indo-Pacific region. A strong India-US partnership can anchor peace, prosperity and stability from Asia to Africa and from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. It can also help ensure security of the sea-links of commerce and freedom of navigation on seas.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. Discuss the possible contributions that urban wetland development can make in averting the water crisis facing the urban regions of the country. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The author of the article brings to us the importance of urban wetlands in resolving/addressing the water crisis of the urban areas of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the possible contributions that urban wetland development can make in averting the water crisis facing the urban regions of the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some important statistics such as the data of report; WWF Risk Filter analysis in the context of the question.

Body:

Start by explaining in what way developing urban wetlands and watershed are crucial to containing the crisis.

Through the ages, urban wetlands have been the lifeline of most cities in India. They were preserved and looked after by the people as their main source of water supply for drinking and irrigation. These wetlands are found all over the country and are either natural or built by people. Over the years, they have gradually depleted, leading to a number of problems in urban areas such as flooding, water scarcity, and water logging.

Present a case study to substantiate the contributions of wetlands in addressing the water crisis of the urban areas.

Conclusion:

People in the urban areas must learn to live in harmony with nature in their own habitat. The wetlands, the green belts, and the flora and fauna of these areas have to be preserved for urban areas to survive and remain healthy.

Introduction:

Urban wetlands are those which are located within the urban suburbs. Urban watersheds and wetlands were critical for maintaining the water balance of a city, flood cushioning, micro-climate regulation and protecting its biodiversity. Wetlands near urban centres are under increasing developmental pressure for residential, industrial and commercial facilities.

These wetlands are found all over the country and are either natural or built by people. Over the years, they have gradually depleted, leading to a number of problems in urban areas such as flooding, water scarcity, and water logging.

Body:

According to a recent WWF Risk Filter analysis, 100 cities globally will be facing ‘severe water scarcity’ by 2050. These cities are home to around 350 million people. Climate change and rising population—the total population of these cities could increase from 17% in 2020 to around 51% by 2050—have been cited as underlying factors. Therefore, countries need to make the spread of urbanisation more even apart from undertaking urgent climate action. Two Indian cities—Jaipur (45) and Indore (75)—feature in the list. Apart from these two, 28 other Indian cities are likely to face ‘increasing water risks in the next few decades’, including Kolkata, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Lucknow, Delhi and Vishakhapatnam.

Importance of wetland conservation in Urban Areas:

  • Wetlands are indispensable for the countless benefits or “ecosystem services” that they provide humanity, ranging from freshwater supply, food and building materials, and biodiversity, to flood control, groundwater recharge, and climate change mitigation.
  • Wetlands are habitat to aquatic flora and fauna, numerous species of native and migratory birds.
  • Wetlands are an important resource for sustainable tourism.
  • They carry out water purification, filtration of sediments and nutrients from surface water.
  • They help in nutrients recycling, groundwater recharging and stabilization of local climate.
  • Play an important role in flood mitigation by controlling the rate of runoff.
  • Buffer (act as a riparian buffer) shorelines against erosion and pollutants.
  • They act as a genetic reservoir for various species of plants (especially rice).

Importance of involvement of local communities in water conservation efforts:

  • Local communities are important stakeholders in using resources. Wetlands have many stakeholders at community level with diverse interests, the major ethnic groups dependent on wetlands in the kingdom are small fractions of the population and are scattered over regions and these are the major wetland users.
  • Many of them have their own language, culture, physical features and way of life they may live along the river basins and wetland sites.
  • People depended on wetlands resources own very little and they are shy and provincial in nature. They have remained unchanged in their traditional culture despite the changes taking place around them
  • Local people provide information required for making wetland inventory, necessary data and socioeconomic condition of resources.
  • They can utilize their knowledge, skill to produce wetlands products and take benefits from them.
  • They can disseminate the information regarding threats and dangers to different organization.
  • They help   in   maintaining   ecological   balances   by   wise   utilization   of   wetland
  • Active participation of local people in plan development process is essential for efficient planning phase.
  • They are more attached to wetlands hence should provide any conservation issues to handle them.
  • They should   prohibit   the   dumping   of   chemical   pollutants, domestic   garbage, industrial waste, toxic substances, and the use of electric current and explosives in the wetland sites.
  • They must not have allowed any project to take over community land or any unwanted service they are not willing to do or any illegal use of resources such as wetland drainage.
  • They must have the sense of distinguishing problem and prioritizing the conservation activities.
  • They should not overexploit the wetlands and work under safe standards set for regeneration capacity of wetland resources.
  • They must cooperate in environment management program that secures their right and gains.
  • Rural communities must cooperate with project to prioritize the problem that seeks the immediate solution.

Conclusion:

Local community dependence on wetland resources with low involvement in their management, weak, un-diversified, and insecure livelihoods based on the direct exploitation of natural resources causes hindrance in conservation. Community can play pioneering role in many functions that are necessary for sustainability and equitability; merely the conservation programs should represent local communities for the consultation in plan development phase.

 

Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Account for the concept of Conservation Agriculture and its underlying principles and suggest its importance and relevance in today’s times. (250 words)

Reference: ecaf.org

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of Conservation agriculture and the importance of it.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the concept of conservation agriculture and discuss its significance in today’s times.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what Conservation agriculture is.

Body:

Conservation agriculture (CA) can be defined by a statement given by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as “A farming system that promotes minimum soil disturbance (i.e. No-till farming), maintenance of a permanent soil cover, and diversification of plant species. It enhances Biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient use efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production.”

Discuss the key underlying principles of the concept.

One can present the case of India; with a map explain the applicability of it to different regions.

Highlight the benefits, concerns/challenges and explain future development prospects.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction:

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is defined as a sustainable agriculture production system comprising a set of farming practices adapted to the requirements of crops and local conditions of each region, whose farming and soil management techniques protect the soil from erosion and degradation, improve its quality and biodiversity, and contribute to the preservation of the natural resources, water and air, while optimizing yields.

Body

Agronomic practices included in CA are based on three core principles, which must be fulfilled concomitantly:

  • Minimum soil disturbance.
  • Maintenance of permanent soil covers.
  • Cropping system diversity, crop rotations.

Key Principles of Conservation Agriculture

Conservation Agriculture is based on three main principles adapted to reflect local conditions and needs:

  • Minimum mechanical soil disturbance: Minimum soil disturbance refers to low disturbance no-tillage and direct seeding. The disturbed area must be less than 15 cm wide or less than 25% of the cropped area (whichever is lower). There should be no periodic tillage that disturbs a greater area than the aforementioned limits. Strip tillage is allowed if the disturbed area is less than the set limits.
  • Permanent soil organic cover: Three categories are distinguished: 30-60%, >60-90% and >90% ground cover, measured immediately after the direct seeding operation. Area with less than 30% cover is not considered as CA.
  • Species diversification: Rotation/association should involve at least 3 different crops. However, repetitive wheat, maize, or rice cropping is not an exclusion factor for the purpose of this data collection, but rotation/association is recorded where practiced.

Significance

Conservation Agriculture prevents losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. It promotes maintenance of a permanent soil cover, minimum soil disturbance, and diversification of plant species.  It is significant for following reasons:

  • Enhanced biodiversity: It enhances biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient use efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production.
  • Carbon sequestration: No till fields act as a sink for CO2 and conservation farming applied on a global scale could provide a major contribution to control air pollution in general and global warming in particular. Farmers applying this practice could eventually be rewarded with carbon credits.
  • Labour savings: Soil tillage is among all farming operations the single most energy consuming and thus, in mechanized agriculture, air-polluting, operation. By not tilling the soil, farmers can save between 30 and 40% of time, labour and, in mechanized agriculture, fossil fuels as compared to conventional cropping.
  • Sustainable: Complemented by other known good practices, including the use of quality seeds, and integrated pest, nutrient, weed and water management, etc., CA is a base for sustainable agricultural production intensification.
  • Mixed Farming possible: It opens increased options for integration of production sectors, such as crop-livestock integration and the integration of trees and pastures into agricultural landscapes.
  • Increased yields: Conservation agriculture is by no means a low output agriculture and allows yields comparable with modern intensive agriculture but in a sustainable way. Yields tend to increase over the years with yield variations decreasing.
  • Reduced costs: For the farmer, conservation farming is mostly attractive because it allows a reduction of the production costs, reduction of time and labour, particularly at times of peak demand such as land preparation and planting and in mechanized systems it reduces the costs of investment and maintenance of machinery in the long term

Conclusion

Today, approximately one-third of the planet’s soils are degraded. In many countries, intensive crop production has depleted soils, to the extent that future production in these areas is jeopardized. Healthy soils are key to developing sustainable crop production systems that are resilient to the effects of climate change. CA facilitates good agronomy, such as timely operations, and improves overall land husbandry for rainfed and irrigated production.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

6. Evaluate the role of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in disaster management in the country with special reference to the current pandemic situation. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents to us the crucial expertise of CAPFs in managing disasters in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must evaluate the role of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in disaster management in the country with special reference to the current pandemic situation.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief about the occurrence of disasters, both natural and man-made in the country in general.

Body:

When disaster strikes our country in any manner, be it natural or man-made, the government summons the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) to carry out the task of overcoming the disaster, by not only carrying out rescue and relief operations, but also mitigating the pains and problems arising out of the disaster.

Explain the role of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in detail, brief on their working profile.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the role of CAPFs in Disaster management.

Introduction:

The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) refers to seven security forces in India under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs. The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), which assists in internal security and counterinsurgency. The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), which protects vital installations like airports, nuclear plants and public sector undertakings. The National Security Guards (NSG), which is a special counterterrorism force. Four border guarding forces, which are the Border Security Force(BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB), and Assam Rifles (AR). Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are headed by officers of the Indian Police Service.

Body:

Major Functions of CAPFs:

  • Safeguard the security of borders of India and promote a sense of security among the people living in border areas.
  • Prevent trans-border crimes, smuggling, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India and to prevent any other illegal activity.
  • Provide security to sensitive installations, persons at security risk.
  • Restore and preserve order in any area in the event of disturbance therein.
  • Miscellaneous functions: Counter Insurgency Operations, Anti Naxal Operations, Internal Security Duties, VIP Protection, Lead Intelligence Agency, Security to Diplomatic Missions Abroad, UN Peacekeeping Operations, Disaster Management, Civic Action Nodal agency for UN Police Missions, etc.

Role of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in disaster management in the country:

Contingency measures:

  • Even before the country got to know about the oncoming hydra of COVID-19, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) had already set up its 600-bed quarantine centre in Chawla on the outskirts of New Delhi.
  • The confidence reposed in the ITBP was not misplaced is evident from the fact that the Director-General of ITBP was given just two days to establish the 600-bed quarantine, and it was ready within the given time.
  • Another 10,000-bed quarantine centre was established in Chhatarpur in New Delhi by the ITBP, where over 10,000 patients have been treated till now. This is the largest quarantine centre in the world.

Relief measures:

  • The expertise acquired by ITBP personnel and the Standard Operating Procedure prepared by the ITBP came handy for the States and other police forces in establishing their own quarantine centres and COVID-19 hospitals.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) had directed the CAPFs to establish 5,400-bedded quarantine centres with 75 isolation wards, spread over 37 centres across the country.
  • A sum of ₹10 crores was sanctioned for the CRPF by the MHA to carry out relief work for those displaced in the aftermath of the lockdown.
  • Immigration officials entrusted with conducting COVID-19 tests of the passengers arriving in New Delhi were trained by the NDRF.

Far-off corners:

  • With 12 battalions of the NDRF— each comprising 1,149 personnel — spread across the country, its experts have the core competency to tackle biological disasters like COVID-19.
  • There is, however, a need to augment the strength of trained personnel.
  • Since NDRF personnel are wholly drawn from the CAPFs, there is a good reserve of trained personnel who go back to their parent force after their stint with this specialised force is over.

Conclusion:

Keeping a strong vigil on its border is very important for any nation to check any kind of illegal activities or intrusion through them. For India, the task becomes difficult where terrain and climate is very complex across some of its border areas. Focussing on improved technology will help in making the task easier for the security forces and make its borders more secure.

It is these CAPF personnel who give a semblance of existence of government administration even in the remotest corners of the country. Their versatile experience can be utilised to the nation’s advantage.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Why some values are considered as human values? What the relevance they have for society? Explain.(250 words)

Reference: hrkatha.com

Why the question:

The question is about the relevance of human values to today’s society.

Key Demand of the question:

Define what human values are, explain their importance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define human values briefly.

Body:

Human values are most important in life—so important that people are and should be ready to sacrifice almost anything to live with their values.

Honesty, integrity, love, and happiness are some of the end values or destination values that human beings seek to attain, practice and live with. On the other hand, values such as health, money, fame, status, intelligence, and so on are the means values or path values which help achieve the end values.

Discuss how such values are formed.  Explain why it is important to know about values.

Explain their importance in general to society, give examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Values are the guiding principles of our lives. They are essential for positive human behaviour and actions in our daily lives. Basic human values refer to those values which are at the core of being human.  The values which are considered basic inherent values in humans include truth, honesty, loyalty, love, peace, etc.  because they bring out the fundamental goodness of human beings and society at large

Body:

Human values are the values which are considered basic inherent values in humans include truth, honesty, loyalty, love, peace, etc. because they bring out the fundamental goodness of human beings and society at large. Further, since these values are unifying in nature and cut across individual’s social, cultural, religious and sectarian interests; they are also considered universal, timeless and eternal applying to all human beings. These values are directly associated to physical, intellectual, emotional psyche and spiritual facets of human personality.

Common human values are as under:

  • Fraternity, friendship, empathy, compassion, and love.
  • Openness, listening, welcoming, acceptance, recognition, and appreciation.
  • Honesty, fairness, loyalty, sharing, and solidarity.
  • Civility, respect, and consideration.

The function of these basic values enable every human to realize or maintain highest or human value for establishing relations of peace and yet it remains indefinable.

Relevance of human values for society:

  • Since the human element is common among all people, human values will also be common to all across situations, circumstances, conditions. While other values like socio-cultural values may change from place to place.
  • Human values are related to the core identity of human i.e. dignity and respect.
  • Human values are present inherently in human beings by virtue of being a human while other values are inculcated in human beings through the process of socialization.
  • Human values are more responsible for binding people to live in a society or country as there are many divisive forces because of different socio-cultural values.
  • Provides understanding of the attitudes, motivation and behaviours
  • Influences our perception of the world around us.
  • Represents interpretation of “right and wrong”.
  • Provides a way to understand humans and organisation.
  • Peaceful co-existence of entire human civilisation rests on adherence to human values.
  • When forces of Nationalism and Patriotism try to take the front seat, there is a kind of hostility, protectionist feelings generated among the people of different countries. Therefore, Humanity should be always at a higher pedestal than other such values.

Conclusion:

Human values are necessity in today’s society and business world. Human values are the features that guide people to take into account the human element when one interacts with other human. They have many positive characters that create bonds of humanity between people and thus have value for all human beings. They are strong positive feelings for the human essence of the other. These human values have the effect of bonding, comforting, reassuring and procuring serenity. Human values are the basis for any practical life within society.


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