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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 6 November 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

1. Examine the reasons that aggravate poverty in Indian Society. Do you think the reason for poverty is not only individual but the structure of society as well? (250 words)

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Poverty and factors contributing to it in our Indian society.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to examine the reasons that aggravate poverty in Indian Society, also explain in what way reason for poverty is not just limited to individual but is also due to structure of the society.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Poverty.

Body:

Start by discussing the eminent causes that often contribute to aggravating of poverty in the country; The structural factors producing a high rate of poverty are the reproduction of the class system, macroeconomic policies, the vicious circle of poverty, the structure of the electoral process, the structure of the economy, institutionalized gender discrimination, and institutionalized ethnic discrimination.

Then discuss in detail the specific elements of the Indian societal structure that lead to aggravation of poverty.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done, comment on the efforts of the government in this direction and suggest the need to bring awareness and change in the structure of the society that are hindering the efforts to alleviate poverty in the country.

 

Topic : Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2. What are the reasons for not being able to curb the menace of Criminalisation of politics? Analyse and suggest solutions to address it. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The Supreme Court has said this in response to a report filed by a committee of the Madras High Court that has questioned the constitutional validity of setting up Special Courts to exclusively try MPs and MLAs for various crimes.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is based on the issue of criminalization of politics in the country.  

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief on the factors of Criminalisation of politics in the country, give statistics to justify.

Body:

Explain what Criminalisation of politics is. Discuss the various factors responsible for it; lack of political will, ill enforcement of laws, narrow self-interests of individuals and politicians.

In few lines explain their effect; how they are against the constitution, against the true values of a Democracy etc.

List the demerits, suggest what needs to be done to overcome and address the challenges posed by it.

Discuss the efforts of the apex court (Related judgments) to curb the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and way forward.

 

Topic : GS-2: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

GS-3: role of media

3. What is TRP rating? How these ratings are recorded? Discuss their significance. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has constituted a committee to review “Guidelines on Television Rating Agencies in India”.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concept of TRP rating; discuss the method involved in recording it while bringing out the importance of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what TRP is.

Body:

TRP = Television Rating Point, It is the metric used by the marketing and advertising agencies to evaluate viewership. It represents how many people, from which socioeconomic categories, watched which channels for how much time during a particular period. Television ratings will influence programmes produced for the viewers. Better ratings would promote a programme while poor ratings will discourage a programme.

Explain then how these ratings are recorded in India.

Discuss the significance of these ratings.  Hint at challenges if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein

4. Discuss the decreasing financial capacity of the Indian states; the causative factors and its consequences in the current times. Comment with respect to the issue of fiscal federalism in India.  (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article discusses the decreasing financial capacity of the states; the causative factors and its consequences.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the issues and challenges facing the fiscal federalism in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly explain what fiscal federalism is, and brief upon the challenges that the Indian states are facing currently.

Body:

Comment upon the decreasing financial capacity of the states; declining actual devolution, shrinking divisible pool, GST shortfall, unavailability/shortfall in central grants etc.

Discuss the consequences of the above said factors on the financial capacity of the States. Due to the combined effect of cutbacks in devolution, the shrinking divisible pool, failure to pay full GST compensation this year and fall in Central grants, the States may experience a fall of 20%-25% in their revenues for the current fiscal year.

Explain both short term and long term impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude that States are at the forefront of development and growth. Strong states lead to a stronger India. Given that the weakening of states serves neither federalism nor national interest, there is the need to guard against any such policies that weaken the states’ status or capabilities.

 

 Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. “Ganga rejuvenation is a continuous task which needs public participation”, analyse the statement and comment on the efforts being made in this direction in the recent times. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

Ganga aerial movie and Ganga Box launched, thus the question context.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the need and significance of public participation in projects like Ganga rejuvenation. Also, analyse the efforts being made for the same.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Comment on the recent initiatives taken in the context of Ganga rejuvenation.

Body:

Discuss the efforts of the government from past to present in rejuvenation of the River Ganga.

Throw light on the ongoing schemes and policies that have been launched recently in this direction.

Explain the need and significance of public participation in projects like Ganga rejuvenation. Also, analyse the efforts being made for the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of public participation in such projects.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. In “A Theory of Justice”, John Rawls has introduced a universal system of fairness. He has advocated a system of governance that would be political, social, and economic in its effects. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the principle of universal system of fairness as propounded by John Rawls.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concept and its relevance to today’s system of governance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In A Theory of Justice (1971), Rawls introduced a universal system of fairness and a set of procedures for achieving it. He advocated a practical, empirically verifiable system of governance that would be political, social, and economic in its effects.

Body:

Briefly give idea about theory of justice of John Rawls.

Explain in detail the universal system of fairness and its components.

Discuss how they can be applied to economic, social and political aspects of governance.

Conclusion:

Conclude that since Justice & social Justice have become very challenging to achieve in present context, John Rawls theory of Justice provides individuals, society & administrators, leaders to follow & propagate its ideals.

 

Topic : Case study

7. In one state, it is found that there are discriminatory practices going on in schools on the basis of caste. These includes inhuman practices such as the practice of students wearing caste band, students from oppressed castes are forced to clean toilets in schools by teachers and headmasters, Dalit students being made to sit on the back benches, parents opposing a Dalit cook in Anganwadis.

A report on the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’s functioning in the State also confirmed discriminatory practices in schools. Such discrimination is affecting the enrolment of Dalit children in schools. You are BDO in one of the districts in the state where such practices are observed. State government has issued a circular against discriminatory practices in schools.

1.     What will be your approach to effectively implement the circular?

2.     Explain the socio-psychological factors responsible for such practices.

Why the question:

The question is an ethical case study.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the ethical issues involved in the question and suggest suitable corrective measures to ensure justice that is ethically right.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First present brief summary of the case before you.

Body:

In the answer body identify the stakeholders involved.

Present the issues; Caste based discriminatory practices in the school, lack of check by the authority, dominance of the upper caste etc.

Then as the BDO of the district explain what actions would you take to resolve the situation.

Explain in detail the socio-psychological factors responsible for such practices.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.


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