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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 October 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1. Despite laws, workers in the field of sanitation in India still face stigma and are devoid of essential rights. Explain. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us the dismal picture of sanitation workers in the country and the underlying causes that factor into it.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the plight of sanitation workers in the country and the underlying causes that have led to such a situation.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Despite multiple laws and provisions, even in 2020, India continues to grapple with the inhuman nature of manual scavenging.

Body:

Explain in detail why despite laws, workers in the field in India still face stigma and are devoid of essential rights.

Discuss one by one the laws and policies taken by the government in this direction.

Explain what are the underlying factors that are responsible for such plight of sanitation workers.

Give example and explain the scenario in detail.

Suggest solutions to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done and suggest solutions.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Critically analyse the recently proposed FCRA 2020 amendments and explain how they have often been misused. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains to us in what way the FCRA 2020 amendments come as a blow to Indian civil society.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the recently proposed FCRA 2020 amendments and explain the possibility of its misuse.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining briefly the background of the question.

Body:

Explain in what way the recent amendments of FCRA cut out access to foreign contributions as a source of funding for most organisations and bring to an end an era of collaboration among FCRA registered civil society organisations (CSOs).

List down the concerns pointed out in the article and discuss their ill impacts on the actual mandate of the Act. Give examples to justify better.

Suggest what needs to be done to resolve the issues that have arose due to the recent amendments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3. 75 years of its inception the UN body continues to see a tussle between ‘principle’ and ‘power’. Discuss the underlying problems facing the UN and suggest what needs to be done to overcome these challenges. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

October 24 marks the diamond jubilee of the United Nations. But far from joyous celebration, it is an occasion to somberly reflect on why the UN is stagnating at 75 and how it can regain its lost luster.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the tussle between ‘principle’ and ‘power’ that the UN body still continues to face and suggest what needs to be done to overcome these problems.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Although much has changed in the international system since 1945, the world body continues to see a tussle between ‘principle’ and ‘power’.

Body:

Narrate brief background of UN and its coming into picture.

Discuss the working model of UN and explain the lacunae present in it.

Explain how UN today stands to be a surplus of multilateral challenges, deficit of multilateral solutions.

List down the issues associated and suggest the need to focus on UN reforms.

Conclusion:

Conclude that On the 75th anniversary of the UN, there must be a global push against ossifying ‘rules’ which have privileged ‘rule’ of the few over the many. That is the only way to restore some balance between ‘power’ and ‘principle’ and ensure a renaissance of the UN.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.   

4. The declining influence of the US in West Asia could have serious geopolitical consequences for the region. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article analyses U.S. President Donald Trump’s West Asia policy. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the effects of declining influence of the US in West Asia could have serious geopolitical consequences for the region.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first what USA’s West Asia policy is about.

Body:

Discuss the West Asia policy of the US from past to present.

Present the West Asia policy and its inclination during Barack Obama and now of Donald Trump.

There has been a reversal of the US’s West Asia policy after Mr Donald Trump assumed office in 2016.

The plan was to remake the regional dynamics in favour of America’s allies like the Saudis and Israel and push rivals like Iran to a corner.

Discuss the concerns associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the declining influence of the US in West Asia could have serious geopolitical consequences for the region and might be an indication of an upcoming troublesome future.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : role of media

5. “Managing the infodemic has been a serious challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic”, do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Chief Scientist, World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted that managing the infodemic has been a serious challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way managing the infodemic has been a serious challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly, define what an Infodemic is.

Body:

“Infodemic” is defined as having too much information, including false or misleading information, particularly on social media.

It was asserted that infodemic led to confusion, risk-taking and ultimately mistrust towards governments and the public health response.

WHO has been working with technology companies to address this challenge by directing the public to credible sources of information, taking down false and misleading information from online platforms, and developing chatbots in different languages that the public could use for accessing information.

Suggest solutions to overcome such a challenge.

Discuss the efforts being made in the country to overcome such challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. In the current conditions of impact of climate change on India’s coastal regions, deliberate upon the importance of proposed National Coastal Mission. (250 words)

Reference: Business Standard 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the plans of the Govt of setting up National Coastal Mission to address climate change impact.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to deliberate upon the importance of proposed National Coastal Mission.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by presenting key facts related to climate change issues in the country.

Body:

The answer body must deliberate upon the importance of proposed National Coastal Mission.

The Mission aims to address impact of climate change on coastal and marine ecosystems, infrastructure and communities in coastal areas through a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures. Some of these measures include strengthening natural shields against extreme weather conditions to protect shorelines, adaptation, improved employment generation opportunities for coastal communities to reduce pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems and enhancing productivity of coastal and marine ecosystems in a sustainable manner.

NAPCC is a comprehensive action plan which outlines measures on climate change-related adaptation and mitigation while simultaneously advancing development.

Discuss the past efforts of the govt. and suggest the positives of such a mission.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7.  “Leadership is Situational”. In the light of this statement discuss the various theories of leadership in brief. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and P N Chowdhary

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Leadership and various theories of it.

Key Demand of the question:

One needs to elaborate on the fact as to how leadership is situational. 

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Leadership.

Body:

First explain the various theories associated with leadership.

Situational leadership refers to when the leader or manager of an organization must adjust his style to fit the development level of the followers he is trying to influence.

Then explain that Leadership requires a complex collection of many attributes that include follower-desired personality traits, communication skills, leadership skills, and teaching ability, to name a few.

A preferred leadership style is developed by the leader through learning and experience. And the leader’s tendency is to fit the situation to his or her particular style.

Discuss the merits and demerits of situational leadership.

Conclusion:

Give suitable example and conclude with fair and balanced opinion.


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