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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 August 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Temple architecture constitute a significant part of India’s cultural heritage, in this context throw light on the various types of temple architecture in India. (250 words)

Reference Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is related to GS 1 syllabus under the following heading- Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Key Demand of the question:

The question wants us to write in detail about the temple architecture its origin and evolution plus its varied varieties in the country. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The question is straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate, start by explaining what constitutes a temple.

Body:

Discuss about the Indian temple architecture and sculpture in detail.

 Deal with major topics like Nagara Temple Architectural Style, Dravida Temple Architectural Style, Vesara Temple Architectural Style, etc. and the sculptures associated with them. And also throw light upon the Buddhist and Jain architecture.

Explain the basic forms of Hindu temples, Jain temples and Buddhist temples, their structures and other associated architectural factors.

Provide for a spatial map of the country with different varieties of temples across it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting their significance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Why were the ideals of socialism and secularism explicitly added to the constitution? What do these ideals mean and how have these been reflected in the Constitution? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

The question is premised on the ideals of socialism and secularism enshrined in the Indian constitution and their significance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the significance of the ideals of socialism and secularism to Indian constitution and their relevance and importance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the terms of socialism and secularism.

Body:

Start with the historical background of secularism and socialism not beyond the constitutional assembly debates. Define both the terms in Indian context. Socialism lays emphasis on the welfare of the people, it seeks to give equality to the people and tries

to remove exploitation of one class by the others and ensures economic and political equality to all. Indian secularism includes three basic notions:  Freedom of religion, Equal citizenship to each citizen regardless of his or her religion, State neutrality in the matter of religion and equal conservation of all religions and equal religious rights to all the citizens.

Mention the reasons behind their addition to the constitution.

 Also mention the constitutional provisions which reflect these two ideas.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Socialism and secularism are inalienable features of the Indian Constitution and Indian society which found a late mention in the Constitution but they have been acting as guides to constitution makers and guarantors.

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. Discuss the Mandal moment that saw ferocious backlash by sections of upper castes. DO you think entire architecture of reservations needs a review in the country? Support your arguments with suitable examples and give solutions to the issues. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

Thirty years ago, on August 7, Indian politics and society changed. In a historic move, the VP Singh government decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission, and open up reservations for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government jobs. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the Mandal moment and the box of Pandora it opened in the Indian society with respect to the system of reservations. Discuss in what way India needs to revisit its reservation architecture and suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss what Mandal moment was.

Body:

Explain that the Mandal moment saw ferocious backlash by sections of upper castes. This opposition was articulated on two axes — the fact that reservations compromised merit, and if at all reservations should open up beyond what was offered to Scheduled Castes and Tribes, it should be on economic lines. These arguments hid beneath it a real fear of losing power and opportunities. And it launched an era of open hostility between upper castes and backward communities, particularly in the Hindi heartland. OBCs became a force to contend with, and it is no surprise that no government in Uttar Pradesh or Bihar can now be formed without their active support.

Discuss its effects on the system of reservation in India.

Suggest measures and remedies that are required to cure the current system of reservation.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Mandal empowered communities. But the entire architecture of reservations needs a review, with the aim of creating a just, inclusive and equal society, without pandering to populist movements.

 

Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Deliberate upon the security concerns associated with increasing nuclearization of the world countries. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article discusses the concerns associated with nuclear weapons.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the security concerns associated with increasing nuclearization of the world countries.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by quoting key facts such as – Since 1945, the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea have armed themselves with destructive nuclear weapons. Over 1,26,000 nuclear weapons have been built since the beginning of the atomic age.

Body:

Start by briefly discussing the damage potential these nuke weapons have, The use of existing weapons against civilian populations can cause a high number of casualties as observed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The large numbers of nuclear tests are causing grave and long-lasting damage to the environment and public health.

Highlight the vulnerabilities that such weapons expose us to. Nuclear weapons supporters have often argued that the use of nuclear weapons is impossible because of deterrence.

Take hints from the article and draw suitable touch points.

Conclusion:

Conclude what needs to be done to address such grave security concern the world is to face.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Unscientific use of irrigation water is giving rise to a variety of ecological problems in India. Elucidate.  (250 words)

Reference: The Wire 

Why the question:

The question talks about the ecological problems that are being caused owing to unscientific use of irrigation water in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the ecological problems that are being caused owing to unscientific use of irrigation water in the country. Suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce the answer by giving a brief highlight of present scenario of irrigation in India.

Body:

Irrigation consumes about 84 percent of total available water in India, while industrial and

Domestic sectors consume about 12 and 4 percent respectively. India has already realized over 80% of its irrigation potential. While this reflects significant irrigation expansion, unscientific utilization of irrigation water has raised several issues. There are multiple factors contributing to unscientific use of irrigation water like low irrigation

Efficiency; poor water management; ineffective ground water policy; heavy subsidization in Electricity etc. Discuss them in detail.

Explain in brief the issue of unscientific use of irrigation water. Enlist the ecological hazards resulting from the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Discuss in detail Gandhiji’s philosophy of Means and Ends. (250 words)

Reference Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the principle of means and ends of Gandhiji.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail Gandhiji’s philosophy of Means and Ends.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Means and Ends; in simple terms, ends are the goals or results. Means are the methods used to achieve goals.

There are differing schools of thought with some justifying any means for achieving the goals while others uphold the need for right means to achieve the objectives in true sense.

Body:

Explain Gandhian perspective on the relative importance of Means and Ends. For Gandhiji, there is some inviolable connection between means and ends similar to the one

Between a seed and a tree. Gandhiji stated that it is means, rather than ends, that provide the standard of morality. As per him, the only thing that is completely within control is the means to achieve the goal.

For Gandhiji, violence and non-violence cannot be different means to serve the same end, since they are morally different in quality and essence, they must necessarily achieve different results.

Quote relevant examples to substantiate your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the philosophy and in what way it holds true even in today’s times.

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Define the constitutional position of civil services in India. Do you think lateral entry into the civil services can undermine its neutrality? Comment.  (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question aims to analyse the constitutional position of civil services in India and questions the neutrality aspects of civil services.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the purpose of civil services, its constitutional position and debate upon the idea of lateral entry and concerns around neutrality associated with it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the purpose of civil services and then move on to mention the constitutional

basis of civil services.

Body:

Discuss in detail the constitutional position of civil services in India, talk about the articles 310,311,312,315 etc.

Then move on to talk about lateral entry; Recently, in a novel move, the central government has opened the highest echelons of the bureaucracy to skilled individuals from the private sector and academia, inviting applications for ten candidates at the level of joint secretary across various departments. Lateral entry into civil services is a mixed bag and is viewed differently for its merits and demerits.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the concerns around neutrality associated with lateral entry and conclude with way forward.


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