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What do you understand by Case fatality rate? Explain its significance in tracking a pandemic and the reasons for low case fatality rate in India.

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4. What do you understand by Case fatality rate? Explain its significance in tracking a pandemic and the reasons for low case fatality rate in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu , The Print

Why this question:

The case fatality rate (CFR) in India, which has been falling steadily, has for the first time dipped below the 2.5% mark to reach 2.49%. It was 3.2% in the second week of May. Virologists have assessed reasons ranging from a young population to the better health-seeking behaviour seen in southern India.

Key demand of the question:

One must define case fatality rate and talk about the importance of the same. Discuss the various factors that have led to low Case fatality rate. One must also provide the measures for further reduction of the same.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the term Case fatality rate-

  • Case fatality rate, also called case fatality risk or case fatality ratio, in epidemiology, the proportion of people who die from a specified disease among all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time.

Body:

Discuss the importance of tracking the case fatality rate during a pandemic.

  • Case fatality rate typically is used as a measure of disease severity and is often used for prognosis (predicting disease course or outcome), where comparatively high rates are indicative of relatively poor outcomes.
  • It also can be used to evaluate the effect of new treatments, with measures decreasing as treatments improve.

Explain the various factors that have led to low Case Fatality Rate in India vis-à-vis other countries.

  • One of the reasons for the dip in case fatality rate could be ascribed to the increased number of fresh cases detected daily.
  • There could be biological reasons for it.
  • Young population (75% below 45 years);
  • exposure to other infections making innate immunity stronger
  • genetic background
  • and so on.

Also talk about the poor medical facilities, reduced access to supportive healthcare, lack of incessant testing and illiteracy about the health and existing co-morbidities are few of the reasons for existing fatalities.

Provide measures that can help further reduce the Case Fatality rare.

Conclusion:

Provide a good way forward.