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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 July 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Discuss the reasons for increasing frequency of Cyclones in the Arabian Sea, and their possible negative effects. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in 

Why the question:

The article talks about the report on the Severe Cyclonic Storm – NISARGA. Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is from the basics and aims to discuss the reasons for increasing frequency of Cyclones in the Arabian Sea, and their possible negative effects.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by quoting facts related to cyclones in Arabian Sea.

Body:

Discuss the recent trends of cyclones. Explain the cyclone trends in the Arabian Sea.

Highlight the concerns associated with it. The basic mechanism of monsoons is the winds getting attracted to the low pressure areas. In SW Monsoon also, winds get attracted towards intensely heated lands of Central Asia, Tibet, Indian Subcontinent. Bay of Bengal is said to be warmer, for the cyclones to happen, but Arabian Sea also witnesses certain low-pressure areas, and it is very rare for them to turn into cyclones or severe cyclones. But last year, Cyclone Vayu, was a severe cyclone, which delayed the Monsoon. These cyclones,  being very agile low pressure areas when compared to land, quickly draw the monsoonal winds towards them and sucks out all the moisture that is present in them. Hence, a cyclone in Arabian Sea, is a severe threat to the Indian Monsoon.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

2. Elucidate upon the idea of ‘One Nation One Voter ID’, also suggest how ensuring domestic ballot portability can empower migrant voters in the country? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article discusses the difficulties faced by the migrant laborer class in exercising their franchise and suggests policy measures to mitigate these challenges.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the idea of ‘One Nation One Voter ID’ and its relevance to migrant voters.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the light of the pandemic crisis, the Election Commission of India (ECI) has made it possible for senior citizens above the age of 65 to vote by postal ballot, given that they are at greater risk from exposure to the novel coronavirus. Previously, this option was available only to disabled citizens and those above 80 years.

Body:

Explain the concept of ‘One Nation One Voter ID’.

The article argues for a similar empowering approach towards migrant workers.

Talk about the voter-turn out; explain the relevance of such a novel idea to the migrants, explain how it can empower them.

Discuss the associated challenges. Suggest policy measures to address it

Conclusion:

Voting must be viewed as a civic right. Well-thought-out initiatives that facilitate voting and remove obstacles to voters exercising their franchise must be emphasized on. Ensuring that every Indian voter can participate in elections is imperative to ensure a democratically inclusive India.

 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. “The lack of government welfare schemes or one-time monetary assistance to domestic workers has compounded their woes during the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic”, discuss the issue and suggest measures to address it. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article titled “No help for the helps” brings to us the dismal picture of domestic workers amidst pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the lack of government welfare schemes or one-time monetary assistance to domestic workers has compounded their woes during the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief set the context of the question.

Body:

List down first the issues being faced by the domestic workers.

Unfortunately, domestic workers fall within the large informal sector where nearly 90% of Indian workers are placed. Therefore, they do not have any recourse to law for safety, payment or welfare.

There is a need to include all domestic workers, irrespective of the category, in the social security net.

Suggest measures to address the issue.

Conclusion:

COVID-19 is going to result in a new normal in many ways, it presents an opportunity and challenge – to enhance the value of the work of care and domestic work, address its deeply gendered nature, and reflect on ensuring their basic rights.

 

 Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

4. Analyse the consequences of demographic transition that India is going to witness in the near future, what measures should the government take to ensure it harnesses this opportunity. (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

The article brings to us detailed analysis of demographic transition that India is about to witness.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the possible consequences of demographic transition that India is going to witness in the near future, suggest measures and initiatives that to harness the demographic potential.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the nuances of the question.

Body:

Explain briefly what you understand by demographic transition. Take cues from the article and explain what Indian demographic is about to witness. Explain the transition; its pros and cons.

Discuss why there is need to recognise the importance of skill development at this point. Discuss the dimensions associated with it.

Explain what needs to be done in terms of policy measures, highlight the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

5. Write a short note on WHO. ​Also discuss what are seen as its major successes and failures? (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

The article brings to us detailed narration of the working of WHO as a global health organisation and its major successes and failures of the recent past.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward; one must write a short note on WHO and bring out its major successes and failures.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain briefly the background of WHO.

Body:

The WHO is an agency of the United Nations set up in 1948 to improve health globally. 

Its primary aim is “to promote health, keep the world safe and serve the vulnerable”. It has no power to impose health policies on national governments, but acts as an adviser and offers guidance on best practice in disease prevention and health improvement. It has three main strands of work: aiming for universal health coverage in every country, preventing and responding to acute emergencies, promoting health and wellbeing for all.

Discuss its constitution; explain its mode of working.

List down its major successes and failures. Present case study on recent COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics based case study

6. Mobota is a small and very poor country in Africa. A major epidemic of a new disease breaks out in Mobota. The only medicine in the market for this disease is a drug made in India by a new pharmaceutical company called Biomed. Since the drug has been developed at heavy cost and Biomed is partly owned by a major international company, the medicine is priced very high. Mobota cannot not afford to pay the price for the large quantities it needs to control the outbreak. What are the different options for Mobota’s health minister to deal with this situation? What according to you would be the best option & why. (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the nuances of the case study and highlight the associated concerns of it. And suggest options available to the Mobota’s health minister to deal with this situation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Identify the ethical issues involved in the case study and the stakeholders associated.

Body:

Explain that access to medicines’ is crucial to sustenance of human lives and preservation of human dignity. It also provokes the concept of social equity as seen from developing countries suffering around the world due to lack of essential healthcare/ medicine.

Deliberate in detail the Options available to the health minister according to you. India being a country with good humanitarian record may provide subsidized medicines for urgent relief. Moreover, if India approves, the issue can be addressed at the earliest than through other intermediaries.

Since the drug company is based in India, it would be easy for Indian officials to take up the issue with the drug company and reach a decision consistent with the values India uphold as a nation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with best way forward.

 

Topic : Conflict of Interest and Probity

7.  ‘Regulation of the issue of Conflict of Interest is a crucial step in probity’. Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of conflict of Interest.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way regulation of the issue of Conflict of Interest is a crucial step in probity.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what you understand by conflict of interest.

Body:

Conflict of interest is the performance of public duties where the public official has a personal interest or appears to be in conflict with their official duty.

If a conflict of interest is kept behind closed doors it is more likely to attract suspicion and allegations of possible misconduct. Hence, regulation of Conflicts of interest is crucial for accountability and transparency in public life.

Substantiate as to why it is important to regulate it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of regulating the conflict of interest and its importance of probity.


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