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“Urbanization spurs a unique set of issues to both humans and animals. “Elucidate.

Topic:   Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Effects of globalization on Indian society.

2. “Urbanization spurs a unique set of issues to both humans and animals. “Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Human geography by Majid Hussain

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper 1 and aims to argue for the unique issues that the urbanization poses to humans and animals.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the problems and challenges posed by the developments on the urbanization front on the life of humans and animals.


Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:


Define first what you understand by urbanization.


Explain that Half of the global population already lives in cities, and by 2050 two-thirds of the world’s people are expected to live in urban areas. But in cities two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation.

Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments.

Discuss specific threats it poses; Intensive urban growth can lead to greater poverty, with local governments unable to provide services for all people, Animal populations are inhibited by toxic substances, vehicles, and the loss of habitat and food sources etc.

Suggest solutions to address these problems such as – promoting economic development and job creation, Involve local community in local government, Create private-public partnerships to provide services such as waste disposal and housing etc.


Conclude with way ahead.