Topic: geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
1. India has witnessed a rapid degradation of its wetlands in recent times, Discuss the causes and explain in what way they will lead to water, food and climate insecurity in the country? Suggest solutions to address the issue. (250 words)
Reference: Hindustan Times
Why this question:
2nd Feb is World Wetlands Day, which marks the date of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands on February 2, 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea. The 2020 theme Wetlands and Biodiversity is an opportunity to highlight wetland biodiversity, its status, why it matters and to promote actions to reverse its loss. Thus the question.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must discuss why India has witnessed a rapid degradation of its wetlands in recent times, what the causative factors are and what needs to be done to address the same.
Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.
Structure of the answer:
Briefly explain what Wetlands are.
- First explain why it is important to save wetlands? What kinds of challenges do they face in India?
- Discuss the causative factors such as – urbanization, agriculture expansion and pollution etc.
- Explain the link between health of Wetlands and the water, food and climate factor.
- Discuss methods and means of saving the Wetland ecosystem and essence of it.
- Highlight the efforts being made in this direction by the Government of India.
Conclude by reasserting the significance of wetland ecosystems.