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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 January 2020

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 January 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Social empowerment

1. The share of the elderly in the population is expected to increase to 20 per cent of the population by 2050. Thus to ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety, enabling them to actively participate in economic development and the process of nation building is an absolute necessity. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference: Economic Times

Why this question:

The question pertains to the importance of involving the elderly in the process of nation building and ensuring their due participation in economic development.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the relevance of the elderly population to the demographics of a population and the need to have them involved in the process of economic development and nation building.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly start with key facts/data showing the increase in the elderly population.

Body:

  • Explain that equipping people in earlier age cohorts will help them remain in good health and involved in the community throughout the ageing process.
  • Discuss how ageing is irreversible and inevitable.
  • Explain that stronger partnerships between civil society, community and families are necessary to complement the actions taken by Governments in this regard.
  • Discuss aspects like – The Madrid International Plan of Action adopted at the Second World Assembly on Ageing in 2002 offered a bold new agenda for handling the issue of ageing in the 21st-century.
    It focused on three priority areas: older persons and development; advancing health and well-being into old age; and ensuring enabling and supportive environments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the significant contributions that aged people can make to the society.

 

Topic:  Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation. Role of women.

2. Do you agree that the recent move to amend the MTP Act, 1971 is a progressive step towards empowerment of women as it looks beyond mere termination of pregnancy and aims to assure greater reproductive rights to women? Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why this question:

Moving to ease abortion laws in the country, the Union Cabinet is set to consider a host of changes to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the impact of such a move taken by the government and explain in what way it shall ensure reproductive rights to women of the country.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background – In recent years, there have been strong demands to raise the foetal gestation period for abortion beyond 20 weeks.

Body:

  • Discuss first the existing scenario.
  • Comment on the changes suggested by the Union govt.
  • Explain the pros and cons of such a move.
  • Discuss that the changes in law were proposed after an extensive consultation process with experts representing a range of stakeholders from central and state governments, NGOs, academic institutions, professional bodies and associations like Indian Medical Association, Indian Nursing Council and legal professionals.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the move to amend the MTP Act, 1971 is a progressive step towards empowerment of women. It will provide greater reproductive Rights to women as abortion is considered an important aspect of the reproductive health of women. Deaths and injuries from unsafe abortions are largely preventable provided services are performed legally by trained practitioners.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:   Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these

3. Recently the State of Andhra Pradesh was in news for the abolishment of the legislative council; going by the assertion that the ‘Upper House’ didn’t deserve to exist if it is rejecting key bills by violating rules . In such a situation critically examine the significance of the Legislative councils in the Indian parliamentary system. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why this question:

The Andhra Pradesh assembly Monday passed the statutory resolution to abolish the state legislative council, with 133-0 votes. Thus the question aims to examine the significance of having legislative councils.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of Legislative councils; explain the pros and cons associated.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what legislative councils are.

Body:

  • Discuss what is a legislative council? – India has a bicameral parliamentary system, with two Houses of Parliament. So, states have a legislative assembly, and may or may not have the legislative council.
  • Explain that while on one hand the creation of legislative councils is supposed to put in place checks and balances for hasty decisions, on the other hand, it is often criticized for being an entry point for leaders who could not win an election.
  • The arguments against creation of legislative councils also centre around the financial strain that it has on a state.
  • Explain why some states do have it and others don’t?
  • Discuss the role played by legislative councils.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

4.The Supreme Court’s decision to allow the introduction of African cheetahs into the Indian forests is a significant step forward in the conservation of the breed. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The Supreme Court on Tuesday lifted its seven-year stay on a proposal to introduce African cheetahs from Namibia into the Indian habitat on an experimental basis. The plan was to revive the Indian cheetah population. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail about the move by the court and arrangements made by it and in what way it is a significant step in conserving the species.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe briefly the background of the question.

Body:

There have been previous proposals to introduce African cheetahs in India, as part of a plan to revive the Indian cheetah population. The proposal was to introduce African cheetahs into the Palpur Kuno Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh on an experimental basis.

However, the Supreme Court had stalled the plan in 2012.

Explain that Following a favorable view from the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), the Supreme Court has lifted its seven-year stay on a proposal to introduce African cheetahs from Namibia into the Indian habitat on an experimental basis.

Discuss the significance of such a step.

Explain concerns if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Linkages between development and spread of extremism. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

5. Has the world entered a new normal where the space has become the next frontier? Elucidate with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme that space security is next frontier that the world countries must aspire for.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the possible threats that space as the new frontier poses upon the security aspects of a country. Explain with possible examples.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain that It’s a brave new world for business leaders and emerging economies that want to flex their strength at zero gravity.

Body:

Explain that today we are in a complex, multifaceted geopolitical situation than the over-simplistic East-versus-West narrative of the past and that Space has occupied a new perspective.

Discuss the efforts being made by countries to explore space as the new frontier.

Explain the challenges that it may pose to internal security of a country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to address the new threat.

 

Topic:  Linkages between development and spread of extremism. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

6.Discuss the role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.  (250 words)

Reference: Idsa

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is from the static portions of the syllabus.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First explain who constitute external state and non-state actors.

Body:

Highlight that India has been facing internal security threats from various external and internal state and non-state actors since independence.

  • Explain about external non state actors – Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. They include NGOs, MNCs, religious outfits, Drug Cartels, Mafias, terrorist groups etc. they may work in tandem for the peace, stability and development of a country or they may work against the State.
  • Discuss the threat that they pose to internal security in India such as insurgency, terrorism, cyber security , communalism, counterfeit currency etc.
  • Discuss how should India deal with such challenges

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and ways to address the problems.

 

Topic:   Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability. Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

7. Discuss the recently released enforcement and monitoring Guidelines for Sand Mining 2020. How far will the new guidelines help in Sustainable Sand Management? Explain.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why this question:

Following a series of orders by the National Green Tribunal in 2018, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF) has for the first time released guidelines to monitor and check illegal sand mining in the country. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the new guidelines for sand mining and its significance; about illegal sand mining in India and government’s efforts to curb it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First discuss the status of sand mining in the country, use data and quote facts.

Body:

  • Discuss briefly the background – The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 has empowered state governments to make rules to prevent illegal mining, transportation and storage of minerals.
  • But in the recent past, it has been observed that there were a large number of illegal mining cases in the country and in some cases, many of the officers lost their lives while executing their duties to curb illegal mining.
  • Illegal and uncontrolled illegal mining leads to loss of revenue to the State and degradation of the environment.
  • Discuss the aspects of Sustainable Sand Management.
  • Explain how these new rules would aid in Sustainable Sand Management of the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such a move.