Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
4. As outrage continues over the deaths of Newborns in parts of states like Rajasthan and Gujarat, the fact remains that India has the most child deaths in the world. Explain what happened in these regions and why does India have such a high child death rate. (250 words)
Why this question:
Every day, India witnesses the death of an estimated 2,350 babies aged less than one year. Among them, an average 172 are from Rajasthan and 98 from Gujarat. As outrage continues over the deaths of babies in J K Lon Hospital in Kota, Rajasthan, and in the civil hospital in Rajkot, Gujarat, the fact remains that India has the most child deaths in the world. Thus the question.
Key demand of the question:
Discuss in detail the causative factors responsible for such a scenario. Explain what needs to be done to arrest the problem while suggesting way forward.
Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.
Structure of the answer:
Quote facts that suggest the context of the question; India has an annual birth cohort of approximately 26 million. The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country currently stands at 33 per 1,000 live births
First briefly provide a detailed spatial aspect of the IMR in the country across the states.
Then discuss the reasons responsible; Among the factors that have been proved detrimental to child survival are lack of education in the mother, malnutrition (more than half of Indian women are anemic), age of the mother at the time of birth, spacing, and whether the child is born at home or in a facility.
The rates are lowest among children born to mothers between the ages of 20-24, remain low up to 25-34, and increase again after that age.
According to the Health Ministry, the vaccination cover in India after several rounds of Intensified Mission Indradhanush (MI) and the original MI, now stands at 87%. This means over 33 lakh children continue to miss out on some or all vaccinations every year.
Discuss measures that are in place for sick newborns, explain the efforts of the government in this direction.
Conclude by suggesting way forward.