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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 DECEMBER 2019

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 DECEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. The empowerment of religion via ‘Indian secularism’ and a caste-laden political discourse has served to keep out a public discussion of the ‘women’s question’ in India”, Do you agree? Critically analyse.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses the lack of vision in the Indian society to foresee the role women play in its growth and development.

Key demand of the question:

One must provide for a critical analysis of how and in what different ways caste-laden political discourse has served to keep out a public discussion of the ‘women’s question’ in India. And suggest solutions to overcome such a problem.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In first explain briefly the status of women in the Indian society.

Body:

One has to discuss strongly means and methods of disrupting the gender-blind political discourse in India.

Explain what the issues with Women participation in India are, what are the hurdles and challenges to it.

Deliberate upon the fact that India is a country forging ahead economically while upholding freedoms for its people. Recent reports of gruesome assaults on women, involving rape and ending with murder, have jolted this narrative.

Explain that When a society adopts democracy as its form of governance, it presumes the beginning of a social transformation.

Emphasize on the need and urgency of this social transformation.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude by recommending solutions to address these key challenges and help ensure women are centric to the growth and development of the country.

Introduction:

India slipped to the 112th rank from its 108th position in the 2018 in the recently released Global Gender Gap Index report 2020. An Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UN Women report — Women in Politics 2017, revealed that 16th Lok Sabha had 65 (12 percent of 545 MPs) and Rajya Sabha 27 (11 per cent of 245 MPs) women MPs. 22 years since the initial proposal, the Women’s Reservation Bill remains out of reach.

Body:

Present situation of women’s political representation in India:

  • India ranks 153 out of 190 nations in the percentage of women in the lower house of world parliaments.
  • The Economic Survey 2018 said there are developing countries like Rwanda which has more than 60 per cent women representatives in Parliament in 2017.
  • In India, between 2010 and 2017 women’s share rose 1 percentage point in its Lower House (Lok Sabha).
  • As on October 2016, out of the total 4,118 MLAs across the country, only 9 per cent were women.
  • The highest percentage of women legislators come from Bihar, Haryana and Rajasthan (14%), followed by Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal (13%) and Punjab (12%).
  • The factors such as domestic responsibilities, prevailing cultural attitudes regarding roles of women in society and lack of support from family were among main reasons that prevented them from entering politics.
  • The introduction of the Women’s Reservation Bill in 1996 that would reserve 33 percent of seats in Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for women on a rotational basis, lapsed in 2014 with the dissolution of the 15th Lok Sabha.
  • The constitution allocates total seats to states by population, the resultant women’s representation at 12% is far below the actual population of women. So, on grounds of fairness, this is an anomaly.

Reasons for poor representation:

  • Political parties in India tend not to follow provisions in their constitutions reserving seats for women in different committees.
  • The Women’s Reservation Bill is pending since a decade in the Parliament.
  • The second barrier is the lack of education and leadership training
  • Additionally, since women are not integrated in any local political process initially, and, unlike men, are not part of the relevant social and power networks, women leaders are prone to inefficiencies.
  • Lack of confidence and finance were the other major deterring factors that prevented women from entering politics.
  • Ahead of any election campaign in the country, sexist and derogatory remarks start doing the rounds against women contestants, in some cases forcing them to withdraw their nomination.

Enhancing women participation in parliament would ensure the upliftment of status of women:

  • In 1994, India ratified the 73rd and the 74th amendments to the Indian Constitution, granting women 1/3 reservation in rural and urban democratic bodies.
  • There are 13.72 lakh elected women representatives (EWRs) in PRIs (Panchayati Raj Institutions) which constitute 44.2 per cent of total elected representatives (ERs) as on December, 2017.
  • Women sarpanchs accounted for 43 per cent of total gram panchayats (GPs) across the country, exhibiting active leadership of women in local government.
  • There is documented evidence both at the international level and at the gram panchayat (village) level to suggest that a greater representation of women in elected office balances the process and prioritizations that elected bodies focus on.
  • In terms of policy styles, for instance, the inclusion of women adds behind the scenes discussion rather than direct confrontation on the floor of the House.
  • In terms of agenda (as measured in Rwanda), a wider range of family issues get tackled.
  • Esther Duflo and Raghabendra Chattopadhyay (NBER Working Paper 8615) showed that in a randomised trial in West Bengal, women pradhans (heads of village panchayats) focus on infrastructure that is relevant to the needs of rural women, suggesting that at least at the local level outcomes can be different.
  • The role model effect also erases the gender disparity in educational attainment of young girls.
  • A study by IndiaSpend reported women panchayat leaders in Tamil Nadu invested 48 percent more money than their male counterparts in building roads and improving access.
  • Another study by the United Nations found that women-led panchayats delivered 62 percent higher drinking water projects than those led by men.

Way forward:

  • India should have an Election Commission-led effort to push for reservation for women in political parties.
  • Reservation for women in political parties – a more viable option.
  • Quotas for women in Parliament as envisaged in the Women’s Reservation Bill.
  • Awareness, education and role modelling that encourage women towards politics and wipe out Gender stereotypes which perceive women as weak representatives.
  • Inclusive economic institutions and growth—both necessary for and dependent on social empowerment—require inclusive political institutions.
  • Women’s leadership and communication skills need to be enhanced by increasing female literacy especially in rural areas. They should be empowered in order to break socio-cultural barriers and improve their status in the society.

Conclusion:

B.R. Ambedkar once said that “political power is the key to all social progress”. Ensuring proportional representation to women in parliament is seen by policy makers as a panacea to the issues surrounding women empowerment. Recognizing the significance of roles of women in decision making process in the society is critical to strengthen women’s agencies for building a progressive society with equality of opportunities among all citizens. Male politicians must take a lead role in challenging traditions which foster inequality and also unequivocally condemn the misogynistic language that their counterparts use when it comes to women.

 

Topic: Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Antiquities and Art Treasuries Act must be revised so as to make trading in Indian art more institutionalized. Do you agree? Comment.(250 words)

Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania

Why this question:

The question is based upon the importance of Antiquities and Art Treasuries Act in preserving the art and culture of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the need for ensuring an institutionalized framework for the protection of the art and culture of the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what are antiquities and art treasures.

Body:

An art treasure is a human work of art, other than an antiquity, declared to be a treasure by the Centre for its artistic value after the artist’s death.

According to the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, an “antiquity” is an article or object that is at least 100 years old. These illustrate the science, art, crafts or customs or religion or literature of a bygone age, or anything of historical interest.

Discuss the key features of the Act.

Explain the lacunas in the present form of the Act.

Highlight the Proposed Amendment to Antiquities Act, 1972.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

According to the Global Financial Integrity (GFI) Report, the Illegal trade of artifacts and antiquities is one of the world’s most Profitable Criminal Enterprises worth 6 billion dollars. The Indian artifacts contribute more than 30% of this illegal trade.  The various recovery of antiques from a house in Chennai by the Idol Wing of CID Tamil Nadu highlights the issue of illegal possession and trade of antiques and art treasures in India.

Body:

 The huge loss of antiquities and cultural heritage presents itself as a double jeopardy as most of the money earned from art smuggling goes into the hands of terrorists or money launderers which undermines the security and economic integrity of the country.

 Need for revision of the act:

  •  The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972 has long outlived the purpose for which it was drafted.
  • A promised amendment has been floated on the website of the Union Ministry of Culture, but its status is still largely unknown.
  • Importance is ascribed by virtue of religious sentiment, age or provenance to every significant and insignificant work of art.
  • But this hampers purposes of scholarship or understanding of what constitutes a beautiful work of art or a national treasure.
  • The view that once-sacred objects today only belong to temples is a myopic view and stems from a lack of understanding of –
    • the role and purpose of these objects
    • the temple economy that maintained them
    • the constant process of renewal that occurred within historic sites
  • It thus denies the process of regeneration of these living cultural sites.
  • Every object in a private collection is now seen as the result of temple desecration and robbery.
  • The laws that govern the ownership of historical objects, their purchase and sale have been a disincentive for the average collector.
  • Registering antiquities with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a cumbersome and difficult procedure for most collectors.
  • Cultural vigilantism, the presumption of guilt without trial, public shaming and the resultant media trial have led to a dangerous state of affairs.
  • Vigilante movements neither follow the rule of law nor do they respect the ASI’s time-honored process of registration of such artefacts.
  • It is casting a long shadow on the production of knowledge of the country’s past.
  • The rule is that every object over a 100 years is an antique.
  • With every passing year, the number of objects that shift from 99th year to a 100-year status will increase.
  • This would soon result in the transfer of vast numbers of objects to a status of national antiquity.
  • But is the state geared to handle and maintain this vast emerging enterprise remains uncertain.
  • The state is also not equipped to handle the needs of a growing populace of collectors.

Way forward:

  •  It is well within the rights of every citizen to acquire and collect objects of their past.
  • Nevertheless, this acquisition should definitely be governed by a legal process of buying.
  • With changing ideas, the role of private connoisseurship, individual collectors, trusts and foundations should also be considered.
  • Their proactive agency has safeguarded the ancient Indian art from being channeled abroad or being destroyed.
  • An urgent amendment to existing laws is essential to save the material culture from being examined purely from the prism of religious sentiment.
  • It should foster the creation of secular spaces where everyone can enjoy and appreciate the past.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. How is the National Population Register compiled? How is it related to citizenship and the decennial census? Elucidate on the pros and cons of such an interaction between the three.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

As protests spread all across the country against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019 and the proposed National Register of Indian Citizens (NRIC), West Bengal and Kerala suspended work related to the preparation and update of the National Population Register in their respective States.  Thus the context of the question.

Key demand of the question:

Bring out the interaction of the three things – the National Population Register, citizenship Act and the decennial census.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the ongoing issue in short.

Body:

Explain what is the National Population Register (NPR) – The NPR is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country. Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country.

 It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the census, which is held once in 10 years. The last census was in 2011, and the next will be done in 2021.

Discuss the legal basis for the above.

Debate on the link between the NPR and Aadhaar.

Explain What is the relationship between the NPR and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act.

Conclusion:

Conclude that There is no direct link. But remarks by the Home Minister that the CAA would be followed by the NRC has given rise to fears that when people are excluded from the final citizenship register, the CAA may help non-Muslims take the CAA route to apply for citizenship, and leave Muslims with no option. However, the government seeks to allay these fears.

Introduction:

National Population Register (NPR) is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country. Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country. It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the census, which is held once in 10 years. A usual resident for the purposes of NPR is a person who has resided in a place for six months or more, and intends to reside there for another six months or more.

Body:

NPR, citizenship and census relation:

  • NPR is a register of residents of the country with demographic and biometric details, was supposed to be prepared between April 2020 and September 2020 ahead of the Census slated for 2021.
  • The census involves a detailed questionnaire aimed at eliciting the particulars of every person, including age, sex, marital status, children, occupation, birthplace, mother tongue, religion, disability and whether they belonged to any Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe. On the other hand, the NPR collects basic demographic data and biometric particulars.
  • While the census is legally backed by the Census Act, 1948, the NPR is a mechanism outlined in a set of rules framed under the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • Unlike the NRC, the NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive, as it would record even a foreigner staying in a locality for more than six months.
  • There is no direct link between the NPR and the CAA.
  • However, In the amendment to the Citizenship Act of 1955, a Section 14A had been inserted. Section 14A relates to issue of national identity cards.
  • According to Section 14A of the Citizenship Act, “the Central Government may compulsorily register every citizen of India and issue a national identity card to him.”
  • The same Section 14A of the Citizenship Act says, “The Central Government may maintain a National Register of Indian Citizens and for that purpose establish a National Registration Authority.”

Pros of NPR:

  •  It will streamline data of residents across various platforms.
  • For instance, it is common to find a different date of birth of a person on different government documents. NPR will help eliminate that.
  • NPR would help the government formulate its policies better and also aid national security.
  • NPR would help to target government beneficiaries in a better way and also further cut down paperwork and red tape in a similar manner that Aadhaar has done.
  • It will help in implementing the idea of ‘One Identity Card’ that has been recently floated by the government.
  • ‘One Identity Card’ seeks to replace duplicate and siloed documentations of Aadhaar card, voter ID card, banking card, passport, and more
  • With NPR data, residents will not have to furnish various proofs of age, address and other details in official work.
  • It would also eliminate duplication in voter lists, government insists.

Cons of NPR:

  • NPR comes in the backdrop of the NRC excluding lakhs of people in Assam.
  • It intends to collect a much larger amount of personal data on residents of India.
  • There is yet no clarity on the mechanism for protection of this vast amount of data.
  • Privacy issue: There is no clarity on the mechanism for protection of the vast amount of data that will be collected through NPR.
  • With the government insisting that the NRC would be implemented across the country, the NPR has raised anxieties around the idea of citizenship in the country.
  • NRC or NPR exercise, in combination with the recently enacted Citizenship (Amendment) Act, or CAA, could lead to disenfranchisement and harassment of the poor and undocumented segments of the population was not born out of anyone’s imagination

Conclusion:

The NPR is not about citizenship but only about residency. However, when additional questions such as “place of birth of father and mother”, etc. are being proposed for the forthcoming exercise, the concern that this may be a prelude to the NRIC is logical.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

1. Critically examine the double trouble Indian economy is facing – the problem of decreasing economic growth rate and increasing. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article brings out a detailed discussion of the double whammy Indian economy is facing.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the double trouble Indian economy is facing – the problem of decreasing economic growth rate and increasing

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define inflation and the trends of growth witnessing the Indian economy.

Body:

Uneven inflation and sluggish growth present serious dilemmas for policymakers in the country as prices in the economy continue to rise even as economic growth has plummeted to well under 5%. Food inflation, now in double-digits, has caused significant pain. The International Monetary Fund on December 23 called for “urgent” policy measures to reverse the current slowdown that has weighed down global economic growth.

Discuss the causative factors in detail.

Explain what needs to be done to overcome the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions to the problem.

Introduction:

India’s GDP growth rate has been decreasing. From the level of 8.1% in the fourth quarter of 2017-18, its quarterly GDP growth has fallen to 5% in the second quarter of 2019-20 (six-year low). Uneven inflation and sluggish growth present serious dilemmas for policymakers. The prices in the economy continue to rise. Food inflation, now in double-digits, has caused significant pain.

Body:

GDP_Growth

Concerns:

  • the non-uniform nature of the current price rise.
  • food inflation has crossed the 10% mark for the first time in many years
  • Even as food prices have risen rapidly, sectors such as manufacturing have witnessed mild deflation as demand for products drops.
  • The central bank’s hands have been tied down by the recent spike in inflation, and it has halted its rate cut spree that began in February this year.
  • Policymakers, however, tend to view the economy as an entity with a general price level that responds in predictable ways to their policy actions. Such an assumption is likely to cause practical difficulties in implementing policy.
  • Indian economy just witnessed a debt-fueled boom followed by a sharp bust in growth rates, it is natural to expect the prices of various goods to adjust in accordance with underlying consumer desires to varying degrees.

Inflation – real or anomaly:

  • RBI has termed the recent spike in inflation as a transient phenomenon.
  • the rise in food prices may just be an anomaly amid widespread low inflation in the rest of the economy.
  • The current food price inflation may be the result of seasonal factors that have affected crop production.
  • If so, it should certainly be a transient phenomenon that will not trouble policymakers for anything beyond a few quarters.

Way forward:

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor has called for countercyclical measures and structural reforms to help the economy.
  • The government should concentrate on the supply-side reforms to both rein in inflation and reverse the economic slowdown.
  • Exports can help to stimulate the economy since exports are influenced by the state of the economy in the rest of the world.
  • A focused increase in capital expenditures of the Government and the Central public sector undertakings (PSUs) may help to apply the brakes on the slowdown. It might also help to “crowd in” private investment.
  • Reform of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) is very much needed.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

2. Deliberate upon the reform measures that can aid India to rise in terms of economic growth to the baseline medium-term potential and help drive growth in a sustainable way. (250 words)

Business Standard

Economic Times

Why this question:

The article is in the backdrop of the recent IMF that has listed reform measures that might help India increase economic growth to the baseline medium-term potential of 7.3 percent.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the necessity of reforms that can help India to increase economic growth to the baseline medium-term potential and help push up growth in a sustainable way.

Directive:

Deliberate – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In general discuss the persistent issues brought out by the IMF.

Body:

Briefly discuss the suggestions made by the IMF.

What are the issues with the economy in the country?

Suggest what reforms can be made to overcome the challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting reforms – both long term and for short term.

Introduction:

India is in the midst of a significant economic slowdown. Declining consumption and investment, and falling tax revenue, have combined with other factors to put the brakes on one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The IMF has listed reform measures that might help India increase economic growth to the baseline medium-term potential of 7.3 per cent.

Body:

Reforms_Must

Reasons for growing slowdown despite measures:

  • Although the government has infused a significant amount of capital into PSBs, there is practically no movement in terms of governance reforms.
  • In the absence of such reforms, PSBs would remain prone to the same errors and undermine an efficient allocation of credit, which will affect overall economic growth in the medium term.
  • crowding out caused by higher public sector borrowing requirement, which exceeds the net household financial savings of 6.6 per cent of GDP.
  • the Reserve Bank of India has started managing yields by buying longer-dated bonds and selling short-tenor bonds, which would also help the government borrow at lower rates. However, measures like these have limitations and could unnecessarily complicate policy management of the central bank.
  • the policy space on the fiscal side is virtually non-existent and there are limitations to the extent monetary policy can support growth in the given macro environment

Reform measures:

  • the clean-up of bank balance sheets should be completed along with strengthening governance in public sector banks (PSBs) and better oversight of non-banking financial companies (NBFCs).
  • the central bank will need to augment regulatory capacity for better oversight of the system, including the NBFC sector.
  • fiscal consolidation in the medium term should be anchored to the recommendations of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act review committee.
  • the use of off-budget financing, which makes the headline deficit number less meaningful. There is an urgent need to improve transparency.
  • fiscal stimulus should be avoided at this stage, as evidently, a significantly higher level of government borrowing will push up the cost of money.
  • The government would need to be mindful of the risks associated with fiscal slippage at this stage.
  • to boost growth, among other things, the government should focus on reforms in product, labour and land markets.
  • the government should focus on wider reforms that will help increase growth in the medium term

Conclusion:

India’s substantial growth potential depends critically on the implementation of the growth-enhancing structural reforms. Further, there is a strong case for trade liberalization to support growth and employment. The economy clearly needs policy intervention to help push up growth in a sustainable way. There is a need for urgent steps to reverse slowdown while continuing with credible fiscal consolidation and cautioning against fiscal measures to support growth.

 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

1. Good governance index has been scientifically designed to reflect various parameters of governance. Discuss in detail the key features of GGI and the role it plays in measuring governance. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:

Recently, Minister of State for Personnel Jitendra Singh launched the Good Governance Index (GGI). December 25, the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, was declared Good Governance Day by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the key features of GGI and the role it plays in measuring governance.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what you understand by Good Governance.

Body:

According to a Good Governance Index Report submitted to the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, “Good governance can be referred as an effective and efficient process of decisionmaking and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented) keeping the amelioration of citizens as the topmost priority. Resource allocation, creation of formal establishments, setting up rules and regulations etc., are part of achieving this goal.

Define what is GGI – GGI is a uniform tool that will help in assessing the status of governance and the impact of interventions undertaken by governments across all states and UTs.

Discuss its key features and objectives in detail.

Highlight the performance of Indian states on the GGI.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its significance.

Introduction:

Good governance index (GGI) is a uniform tool that will help in assessing the status of governance and the impact of interventions undertaken by governments across all states and UTs, as per the press release issued by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. Good Governance Day is observed on the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee (25th December). It was observed for the first time in 2014.

Body:

Good governance can be referred as an effective and efficient process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented) keeping the amelioration of citizens as the topmost priority. Resource allocation, creation of formal establishments, setting up rules and regulations etc., are part of achieving this goal.

Key features of GGI:

  • The objectives of GGI are to provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all states and UTs, enable states and UTs to formulate and implement suitable strategies for improving governance and shift to result oriented approaches and administration.
  • Various principles have been kept in mind while selecting the indicators, i.e. it should be easy to understand & calculate, citizen-centric & result driven, leading to improved results and applicable to all states and UTs, among others.
  • Various consultation meetings were held with the stakeholders, including consultations with sector experts, ministries, states & UTs.

Key Findings of the first GGI Report:

  • Top performers among the big states: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The bottom six states are Odisha, Bihar, Goa, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  • Among the North-East & Hill States: Top 3 states are Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Tripura. The bottom 3 states are Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Pondicherry leads among the UTs followed closely by Chandigarh with Delhi bagging the third spot. Lakshadweep is at the bottom among the UTs.
  • Sector-wise ranking: In the environment sector:
    • The top three states are West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
    • The bottom 3 states are Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Goa.
  • Judicial and public security ranking: West Bengal is at the bottom two in the judicial and public security ranking. Tamil Nadu tops the chart here.
  • Economic governance: Karnataka is at the top under the economic governance category.
  • Health: Kerala is at the top in the public health sector.

GGI’s role in measuring governance:

  • The GGI takes into consideration ten sectors: 1). Agriculture and Allied Sectors, 2). Commerce & Industries, 3). Human Resource Development, 4). Public Health, 5). Public Infrastructure & Utilities, 6). Economic Governance, 7). Social Welfare & Development, 8). Judicial & Public Security, 9). Environment and 10). Citizen-Centric Governance.
  • These ten Governance Sectors are measured on total 50 indicators.
  • Difference indicators are given different weightage under one Governance Sector to calculate the value. E.g. Under Agriculture & Allied Sector, there are 6 indicators with different weightage, namely: Growth rate of agriculture and allied sector (0.4), growth rate of food grains production (0.1), growth rate of horticulture produce (0.1), growth rate of milk production (0.1), growth rate of meat production (0.1) and crop insurance (0.2).
  • The states and UTs are divided into three groups: a). Big States, b). North-East & Hill States and c). UTs.
  • The states and UTs are ranked on all indicators separately, at the same time composite ranking is also calculated for these states and UTs under their respective groups based upon these indicators.

Conclusion:

It goes without saying that the GGI requires fine-tuning and improvement. But that does not take away the inherent strength of the work that has been accomplished, keeping in mind India’s size and complexity.