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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 December 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Equality at the workplace is a distant dream for women, with World Economic Forum (WEF) report saying that the gender gap will be closed only by 2276; do you agree that Structural discrimination has held women back in India? Analyse. (250 words)

Hindustan Times

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of India’s ailing rank in terms of gender equality.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the issues and the causative factors with special focus on the structural discrimination aspects that have held women back in the country.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short highlight the facts of the report and comment on the status of women.

Body:

Discuss first the issues that are of primary concern such as – Women are not given equal opportunities in education; they are often the primary caregivers for children and the elderly at home; they have far less mobility than men; and there is a serious issue of safety in public places.

Then explain what the structural restraints are.

Discuss that while demands for equality at the workplace have become more vocal, the gap is actually growing despite women doing well in politics, health and education.

Provide for a comparison with other countries.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done and how these challenges can be addressed.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

1. India and Iran can make huge strides in furthering their bilateral relations beyond the Chabahar port. Comment. (250 words)

Economic Times

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of meeting of the 19th India-Iran joint commission.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the possible arenas where in India and Iran can explore and expand their bilateral relations.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In first explain the context of Chabahar port.

Body:

Briefly discuss the context and background of the question – Iran had expressed that it was disappointed that India had stopped all oil imports from Iran following the sanctions by the United States. Iran’s Ambassador Ali Chegeni had earlier suggested that India’s adherence to U.S. sanctions was also affecting Chabahar port development plans. Recently, a senior U.S. official made it clear that it would continue its “narrow exemption” to India to develop the Chabahar port, recognizing its role as “as a lifeline to Afghanistan in terms for India to be able to export humanitarian supplies and potentially helping Afghanistan diversify its export opportunities.” Subsequently, diplomats from India, Iran and Afghanistan met in Delhi and discussed several new initiatives for the trilateral project at Chabahar.

Then discuss the areas that the two countries can indulge into; comment upon the significance of the historical relations between the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. While the descent of the WTO Appellate Body represents a turbulent period in the history of trade disputes adjudication, it by no means spells the end of the WTO. Evaluate. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article provides for a detailed analysis of the weakening of the World Trade Organization Appellate Body and the after effects.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of WTO from past to present, explain the challenges currently facing it and provide for suggestions as to what needs to be done revive the ailing position of the trade body.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by tracing the significant role that the WTO Appellate Body has played in the past.

Body:

Provide briefly a background with details such as – The Appellate Body was set up in 1995 as a “safety valve” against erroneous panel reports in return for the members agreeing to adopt reports using the “reverse consensus” rule in lieu of the “positive consensus” rule.

Under the erstwhile positive consensus rule, reports issued by panels composed to hear disputes under GATT could be adopted only if each of the contracting states favored its adoption. This effectively handed a veto to the losing state etc.

Explain in what way the weakening of the Appellate Body has struck a blow to the rule of law in the realm of world trade.

Discuss the possible alternatives to circumscribe the posed challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude that although the fall of the WTO Appellate Body represents a turbulent period in the history of trade disputes adjudication, it by no means spells the end of the WTO. It presents an opportunity to the members to rethink and “iron out some of the creases” with the present system.


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

1.  Time has come to have a re-look at the whole policy for Dairy sector and move from white revolution 2.0 to 3.0 and device steps so that the interests of the Indian farmers and consumers are protected. Elucidate in the backdrop of the statement where in unveiling White Revolution 2.0 is projected to amalgamate the milk production in the country and make India as a global leader. (250 words)

Financial Express 

Why this question:

Niti Aayog estimates that the country is expected to increase its milk production to 330 million metric tonnes (mt) in 2033–34 from the current level of 176 mt.

Thus the question aims to analyse the prospects of white revolution 3.0 in the country.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss the prospects and future of the Dairy sector and the possibility of moving forward to white revolution 3.0.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In 2019, India emerged as the largest milk producer and consumer. Discuss the facts brought out by the NITI Aayog.

Body:

Explain the prospects of white revolution in the country.

Bring out the transition from past to present.

Explain the key features of white revolution 2.0 and discuss in detail how India can move forward to white revolution 3.0.

Discuss the possible challenges and how they can be addressed.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2. India Post will have to shed its half-hearted attempts to transform itself into a payments bank if it wants to convert itself into a digitally enabled, pure deposit-taking bank. Discuss in detail the issues faced by India post and suggest way forward. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The article explains that If India Post can shed its half-hearted attempts to transform itself into a payments bank and convert itself into a digitally enabled, pure deposit-taking bank; it can render a yeoman service both to the government and small savers of this country.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the trends that have recently witnessed in the Indian post and the challenges it has been facing. Also suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the current case – The confidence that ordinary Indian savers repose in guaranteed return products has been subjected to hard knocks off late.

Body:

One must provide for a detailed analysis of the issues and challenges posing the India Post despite it taking the path of digitization, online services.

Discuss the positive prospects it can have in future if the challenges are addressed.

Mention the challenges and concerns currently being faced.

Suggest solutions to the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:  Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

3.In the twentieth century, India saw an impetus in Information Technology (IT) and an enormous growth in e-commerce. Amidst such a scenario discuss the possible cyber security threats India is facing today. Also, comment upon India’s preparedness to avert such cyber security threats.  (250 words)

Reference:Indian Express

Why this question:

While the number of cybercrimes in the city is on the rise, incidents of people being defrauded over promises of winning an online lottery, or availing services of a dating website, have become a cause for concern.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the possible concerns of cyber security threats posing the country, discuss what needs to be done to handle them and specifically provide for a detailed discussion on solutions to address.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain some recent cyber breaches to substantiate the question.

Body:

Explain why cyber security breaches are dangerous, what are the key concerns.

Discuss that in twentieth century, India saw an impetus in Information Technology (IT) and an enormous growth in e-commerce. Both these sectors ride on and reside in cyberspace involving electronic transactions, software, services, devices and networks which are highly susceptible to cyber-crimes. Hence to ensure its safety, cyber-security has become one of the most compelling priorities for the country.

Discuss the need for cyber security.

Explain the challenges; discuss the efforts taken by the government to tackle the security issues on this front.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

1. Discuss in detail some of the key ideas of Confucius on morality and human character. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is intended to examine the ideas of Confucius and his philosophy.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain the key ideas of Confucius on morality and human character.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Confucianism became a major system of thought in Ancient China, developed from the teachings of Confucius and his disciples, and concerned with the principles of good conduct, practical wisdom, and proper social relationships. Throughout the feudal societies, it almost became dominant thinking.

Body:

Discuss the basic features of the Confucius’s philosophy and elaborate on the basis.

Explain the 5 key principles; discuss his ideas on human character and morality in detail.  The central idea of Confucius is that every normal human being cherishes the aspiration to become a superior man—superior to his fellows, if possible, but surely superior to his own past and present self. This does not more than hint at perfection as a goal.

Confucius taught that to pursue the art of life was possible for every man, all being of like passions and in more things like than different. He says: “By nature men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.

Quote suitable example wherever necessary and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of his teachings.