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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 DECEMBER 2019

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 DECEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features
(including water-bodies and icecaps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes;
Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

1. What do you understand by the term ‘Invasive Alien Species’? Discuss the threats posed by them
to the native ecosystems, habitats and native species. (250 words).
The Hindu
CBD

Why this question:
Recently, a study by Biju Kumar and others from the Department of Aquatic Biology and
Fisheries, University of Kerala, revealed the role of the 2018 floods in introducing the most
dangerous fish species into Kerala’s wetlands. After a while, they slowly begin to wipe out local
diversity and the economy by altering the functions of the ecosystem. And yet no State or Union
Territory has any strong policy or law on the illegal rearing, breeding and trading of such invasive
ornamental and commercially important fish species.
Key demand of the question:
The question is straightforward and aims to throw light on the detrimental effects of Invasive
alien species on ecosystems, habitat and native species. Further, one must come up with the
measures to curb the impacts.
Directive:
Discuss – this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key
demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the
question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction:
Start by explaining the term invasive alien species.
According to Convention on Biological Diversity, Invasive alien species (IAS) are species
whose introduction and/or spread outside their natural past or present distribution
threatens biological diversity.
Body:
Provide examples and present the scenario of harm posed by IAS in India.
Explain the various threats posed by them
 threaten cultivable land and wildlife habitats alike.
 may lead to the conversion of marshy wetlands into dry land. E.g.: water hyacinth
 spread into the forests through the corridors created by landslides.
 affect the soil and destroy the microhabitat of that area
 and so on.

Strengthen your answers by providing the proven case studies.
Discuss the measures and need for a policy to control their explosive spread.
Conclusion:
Conclude with significance of impeachment in a democratic country.

Introduction:

Invasive plant species in Indian protected areas have received relatively little attention until recently. This may partly be due to a historical emphasis on wildlife protection, rather than on a broader science-based approach to conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Invasive alien species (IAS) are species whose introduction and/or spread outside their natural past or present distribution threatens biological diversity. Examples: Needle Bush, Goat weed, Prickly Poppy, Black Mimosa.

Body:

Recently, a study from the Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, revealed the role of the 2018 floods in introducing the most dangerous fish species into Kerala’s wetlands. The authors said that exotic fishes such as arapaima and alligator gar were reported or caught by the residents after the floods. These are illegally imported fish that are reared by ornamental and commercial fish traders across India.

Threats posed by Invasive alien species:

Threats to Environment:

Biodiversity is essential for the functioning of the ecosystems that provide vital resources such as food, water, fuel, building material and traditional medicines for millions of people. Invasive species alter and degrade the environment, and have a negative effect on both native species and the people who live and work there. The impacts of invasive species include:

  • Reduced biodiversity
  • Decreased availability and quality of key natural resources
  • Water shortages
  • Increased frequency of wildfires and flooding
  • Pollution caused by overuse of chemicals to control infestations

Threats to native species:

  • India is endowed with 2,319 species of finfish.
  • Studies from several parts of the country show that the diversity of freshwater fish is depleting at an alarming pace due to the invasion of commercially important and ornamental exotic fish species
  • Many native species, especially Indian major carps in various riverine systems, have been affected because of the invasion of exotic fish species such as Nile tilapia, African catfish, Thai pangus and common carp.
  • Apart from commercially important exotic species, ornamental fishes such as guppy, piranha, suckermouth, blue perch, goldfish and platy have been recorded in rivers, lakes, traditional village ponds and other inland freshwater bodies. These also accelerate the extinction of natural varieties from local water bodies.
  • The exotic ornamental Amazon sailfin catfish poses a serious threat to the native fish species of Vandiyur Lake, Madurai.
  • The biomass of the Amazon sailfin catfish is statistically significant compared to the indigenous varieties. This clearly shows the negative impact of this exotic aquarium fish on inland aquaculture in terms of diminished production/catch of edible fish.
  • Thus more than 15 exotic ornamental species have successfully established a reproductive population in our freshwater bodies and still don’t know the magnitude of the impact of this species on the native diversity of fish.

Economic threats:

Agriculture, forestry and fishing are of huge importance to the economies of developing countries. Invasive species affect the productivity of these systems, and limit the ability of producers to access export markets. This hinders sustainable economic growth and development. The impacts of invasive species include:

  • Value and quality of land degraded
  • Lower crop productivity
  • High cost of controlling pests, weeds and diseases
  • Routes to domestic and global markets blocked
  • Livestock forced into marginal, sub-optimal grazing lands

Social threats:

Invasive species are a major threat to the livelihoods of the people who live in the areas they colonize. Through disrupting ecosystems, invasive plants, insects and diseases impair many of the things humans need to sustain a good quality of life – including food and shelter, health, security and social interaction. The impacts of invasive species include:

  • Livelihood options narrowed
  • Food security decreased
  • Recreational and social opportunities limited
  • Risks to human and animal health
  • Increased social challenges

Way forward:

  • The most cost-effective measure to address the impacts from IAS is to prevent their introduction.
  • This can be achieved by establishing effective and well-resourced biosecurity measures to manage priority pathways of introduction, supported by early warning systems and rapid eradication capacity.
  • Control, containment and – where feasible – eradication, also need to be undertaken to mitigate the impacts from established IAS, including those whose impacts are likely to increase due to climate change.
  • It is essential that a cross-sectoral approach is taken in IAS prevention and management measures. This needs to include the environment, human health, agriculture, fisheries, customs and transport government departments, along with key private sector bodies and civil society.
  • Governments, donors and agencies that fund and implement projects, including projects supporting the SDGs, must ensure that current and potential impacts of IAS are understood so that relevant prevention and management measures can be incorporated into projects.

Conclusion:

Ecosystems need to be prioritized according to their vulnerability to climate change and IAS, making it possible to establish measures that will prevent IAS introduction. This should include establishing effective biosecurity measures to manage priority pathways of introduction, supported by early warning and rapid eradication to tackle alien species before they become invasive.

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2. The protests erupting across India since the passage of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) are
a testament to the centrality of secularism as the foundational principle that binds the country
together and holds the key to India’s survival as a nation. Analyse (250 words)

Hindustan Times
The Hindu

Why this question:
The recent protests across India provides the lessons that When secularism is threatened,
multiple identities are threatened. The deathly blow that the CAA and its companion, the
National Register of Citizens (NRC), have delivered to secularism threatens the foundations of
India’s plural social fabric. When secularism is threatened, India is weakened.

Key demand of the question:
One must explain the concept of Secularism, its significance in protection of the social fabric of
India from the past till the present. The challenges posed and its implications and the way
forward.
Directive:
Analyse – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of
the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction:
In brief define the concept of Indian Secularism. Explain in brief how the CAA, NRC have led to
protests across the country and North-East states in particular.
Body:
Explain about Indian Secularism in detail and its significance
 India’s unique model of secularism has so far been a successful model which is evident from
the sustained harmonious coexistence of almost all religions of the world in the country for
centuries.
 It is the principle of secularism that has bound these multiple identities and sought forms of
peaceful coexistence and tolerance.
 it is the constitutional ethos of secularism that provided the framework for these multiple
identity claims to be articulated and negotiated in the political sphere, in the first place.

 Secularism allowed India to both celebrate its many identities and defend them, when
threatened.
 Secularism offered a pathway to peace.
 And so on.
Discuss about the challenges posed by the recent CAA and NRC to secularism in India
 The amendment upends the constitutional promise of a universal, religion-neutral idea of
citizenship.
 India belonged to all, irrespective of religion. It was this conception of citizenship that
formed the foundation of our secular promise.
 You can also mention about the other challenges to principles of secularism
 And so on.
Provide measures to safeguard the secular fabric in India.
Conclusion:
Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The protests erupting across India since the passage of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) are a testament to the centrality of secularism as the foundational principle that binds the country together and holds the key to India’s survival as a nation. The deathly blow that the CAA and its companion, the National Register of Citizens (NRC), have delivered to secularism threatens the foundations of India’s plural social fabric. When secularism is threatened, India is weakened. This is the lesson from the passage of the CAA, and the unrest it has unleashed.

Body:

India’s unique model of secularism: 

  • Secularism in India refers to the equal status and treatment of all religions.
  • Secularism in India is a positive, revolutionary and comprehensive concept which takes within its sweep all the communities in India following several religions.
  • Indian secularism recognizes the importance of religion in human life.
  • Diversity can only be effective with secularism as a foundational value.
  • India’s survival as a multi-religious, multilingual, multiracial, multicultural society will depend on how successful it is in working its secularism
  • Indian Secularism equally opposed oppression of dalits and women within Hinduism. It also opposes the discrimination against women within Indian Islam or Christianity and the possible threats that a majority community might pose to the rights of the minority religious communities.
  • Indian Secularism has made room for and is compatible with the idea of state- supported religious reform. For example- Indian constitution bans untouchability under Article 17. There is also abolition of child marriage and lifting the taboo on inter-caste marriage sanctioned by Hinduism.
  • Indian Secularism deals not only with religious freedom of individuals but also with religious freedom of minority communities i.e. individual has the right to profess religion of his /her choice. Likewise, religious minority also have a right to exist and to maintain their own culture and educational institutions.

Challenges posed by the recent CAA and NRC to secularism in India:

  • The first is that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is against the letter and spirit of our Constitution. Articles 5 to 11 of the Constitution deal with citizenship, and the Citizenship Act, 1955, lays down criteria for citizenship based on birth, descent, registration, naturalisation, and citizenship by incorporation of territory.
  • By setting new criteria, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act goes against the premise of common citizenship regardless of differences of caste, creed, gender, ethnicity and culture.
  • Further, Article 14 of the Constitution lays down that the “State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act is divisive, deeply discriminatory and violative of human rights.
  • Our national unity was won through struggle; the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is one of the many threats to its survival. Our hard-won Constitution recognizes individual and social differences, and that we must weave the cord of unity by creating a sense of belonging and inclusiveness for all.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act attempts to create and deepen communal division and social polarization in the country.
  • The Act gives eligibility for citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan who entered India on or before December 31, 2014, and specifically excludes Muslims from that list.
  • In granting citizenship on the basis of religion, it discriminates against Muslims and rejects the basic concept of secularism.
  • That the Citizenship (Amendment) Act is discriminatory and violative of human rights has been recognized by those who have come out on the streets in many States, in opposition to the Act.
  • The agenda of Hindutva and its ultimate goal of establishing a “Hindu Nation” underlie the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, is well established both by past experience and the present actions of the BJP-Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
  • In the days since the passage of the CAA, multiple protests across north and Northeast India last week. Ironically, these protests are themselves expressions of India’s overlapping multi-religious, multi-ethnic character that the CAA seeks to undermine.
  • The mobilisations in the Northeast are about anxieties of ethnicity, culture and language as much as religion while the protests in Delhi, Aligarh and Lucknow are chiefly about religious identity and discriminatory exclusion of Muslims from the CAA.

Measures to safeguard the secular fabric in India:

  • Since secularism has been declared as a part of the basic structure of the Constitution, governments must be made accountable for implementing it.
  • Define the word “minority”. The concept of secularism is based on recognition and protection of minorities. The two cannot be separated.
  • Setting up of a commission on secularism for ensuring adherence to the constitutional mandate on secularism.
  • Separation of religion from politics. It is of such urgency that no time should be wasted in bringing this about.
  • It is the duty of the secular and democratic forces to rally behind those political forces that really profess and practice secularism.
  • In a secular state, religion is expected to be a purely personal and private matter and is not supposed to have anything to do with the governance of the country.

Conclusion:

The real challenge that protests and resistance to the CAA and NRC face today is that they are bereft of a vocabulary to defend secularism’s cause even though it is the threat to secularism that sparked these protests. India urgently needs to wrest and reclaim secularism, anchoring it in a new vocabulary that redeems its credibility. Our collective ability to do so will determine whether India will reclaim itself or stay firm on its current path toward a re-imagination of its foundations.

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

3. Asia’s rise is predicated on peace and stability; cooperation rests on a compact between India
and China. Discuss (250 words)
The Hindu
Indian Express

Why this question:
Both India and China are expected to contribute to global economic growth in the future. India is
also transforming into a knowledge-based, skill-supported and technology-driven society. India
attaches great importance to its relations with China, a large trade partner in goods. However,
the ups and downs in the bilateral relations between India and China is a matter of concern.
Key demand of the question:
The question wants us to write in detail about India’s bilateral relations with China, the
challenges faced, the significance of bilateral relations to Asia, and the way forward.
Directive word:
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key
demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the
question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction:
write a few introductory lines about the Indo-China bilateral ties.
Body:

Firstly, discuss in brief about the common challenges posed to both the countries and Asia in
general.
 Traditional and non-traditional security threats (economic and military competition, climate
change, piracy, radical ideology, cyber threats, drug and human trafficking, and energy and
food security) have grown in magnitude.
 Power, whether economic, political or military, is fractured.
 Trade and technology are at the heart of a new round of competition and contestation.
 Nationalism and regionalism are on the rise.
Explain how India’s bilateral relations with China, the areas of cooperation, conflicts.
 Cheaper imports from China, which practices “state capitalism”, threaten domestic
manufacturing in India.
 Movement of talent and the services sector, important for India, have not received
satisfactory attention.
 Many of these concerns are central to India’s position on the Regional Comprehensive
Economic Partnership (RCEP).
Mention the importance of peace and stability of India-China relations to Asia and world.
 Amidst the downturn, Asia is witnessing the simultaneous rise of several powers.
 Global engines of economic growth over the past three decades have shifted to Asia, first to
the Asia-Pacific and now, more broadly, to the Indo-Pacific region that includes South Asia.
 The continent, home to over half the global population, has emerged as the new fulcrum for
geo-economic and geo-strategic realignments.
 High economic growth rates across the region are accompanied by some of the highest
military expenditures in the world.
What are the measures to better the relations?
 The RCEP should have a wider ambit, including trade in services.
 China too should pro-actively work to ensure India’s membership.
 Beyond jointly training Afghan diplomats under the “India-China Plus One” framework,
China and India could explore the potential to work together on Asian infrastructure and
connectivity development on the basis of equality and an open and transparent model
under the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
 And so on
Conclusion: based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

“Indo-Pacific” is today a buzzword that has been interpreted differently by various countries in their outlook or vision documents. The world today is undergoing a fundamental transformation and there are several facets to the emerging uncertainty. Traditional and non-traditional security threats (economic and military competition, climate change, piracy, radical ideology, cyber threats, drug and human trafficking, and energy and food security) have grown in magnitude. Power, whether economic, political or military, is fractured. Trade and technology are at the heart of a new round of competition and contestation. Nationalism and regionalism are on the rise. There is less multilateralism but greater multi-polarity. Hedging and multi-alignment are the order of the day.

Body:

Recent changes in global affairs:

  • All known paradigms are experiencing stress, which calls for readjustments. At the broadest level, the inadequacies of the post-World War II international institutions are showing up because of the complexities and uncertainties characterising global politics and the economy today.
  • The old consensus is fraying and a new consensus is yet to emerge.
  • The liberal trading order has encountered protectionism in the form of tariff and non-tariff barriers, which explains why India’s service exports which touch $29.6 billion in the U.S. market, and pharma products, especially generic drugs, which account for 20% of global generic medicines, have barely been able to scratch the surface in the Chinese market.
  • Cheaper imports from China, which practices “state capitalism”, threaten domestic manufacturing in India.
  • There is a looming danger for developing countries on account of ‘zero-sum’ mercantilism and rising protectionism in western economies. There is no doubt that the U.S.-China trade war has been disruptive.
  • The momentum in manufacturing activity has weakened to levels unseen since the global financial crises.
  • Investor and business confidence even in emerging markets is at a low ebb. Low productivity growth and ageing demographics in advanced economies have further compounded the problem.
  • Key anchors in the global economy, including China, are experiencing a slowdown. Elsewhere, Europe is in the throes of a major readjustment in the context of Brexit.
  • Global engines of economic growth over the past three decades have shifted to Asia, first to the Asia-Pacific and now, more broadly, to the Indo-Pacific region that includes South Asia.
  • The continent, home to over half the global population, has emerged as the new fulcrum for geo-economic and geo-strategic realignments. High economic growth rates across the region are accompanied by some of the highest military expenditures in the world.

Importance of peace and stability of India-China relations to Asia and world:

  • Both India and China are expected to contribute to global economic growth in the future.
  • India is also transforming into a knowledge-based, skill-supported and technology-driven society.
  • A liberal FDI regime combined with a youthful demographic profile makes India an attractive destination. India attaches great importance to its relations with China, a large trade partner in goods.
  • Since 2015, there has been a spurt in Chinese FDI in India (at around $8 billion).
  • There is great scope for China to participate in flagship initiatives such as the ‘Smart Cities Mission’ and ‘Skill India’ programmes.
  • As the world’s second-largest economy, China can and must play a constructive role globally and within Asia to help the world return to higher growth rates.
  • As members of several multilateral institutions, India and China are in a unique position to give shape to their economic destinies. There are suggestions that the era of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)-anchored, Most Favoured Nation (MFN)-based regime is drawing to a close and that the future lies in a web of free trade agreements. However, there is still scope for India and China to work together to strengthen the WTO.
  • Beyond jointly training Afghan diplomats under the “India-China plus One” framework, China and India could explore the potential to work together on Asian infrastructure and connectivity development on the basis of equality and an open and transparent model under the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

Need for India and China repair their ties:

Strategic:

  • Better relationship between two countries will bring peace in the region and they can fight against terrorism and underdevelopment in the region.
  • China too faces the tune of infiltration and drug trafficking. So indulging in mutual intelligence sharing and cooperation is required for a more secured border
  • Keeping Pakistan under check and getting support for UNSC membership could happen if we have a more sustained and defined relationship with China.

Economy:

  • With Global uncertainty, growing Protectionism and anti-Globalization trend, India and China, both beneficiary of liberal international order must work closely to sustain the same.
  • China has huge forex reserve and India needs foreign investment for projects like Make in India.
  • Both nations are members in NDB, AIIB, BRICS, BCIM etc and hence good relations among them can bring economic prosperity

Asian Emergence:

  • With Russian economy crumbling, India and China are two of the great powers who would have a greater to play.
  • Thus a cordial relationship is vital for holistic development of the region

Terrorism:

  • The two countries have a common interest in curbing religious radicalism and terrorism.
  • Kashmir and Xinjiang, both contiguous neighbours, have similar challenges posed by terrorism and separatist movements.

Significance of Indo-Pacific region:

  • The Indo-Pacific is a geographic region of Earth’s seas, comprising the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, the western and central Pacific Ocean, and the seas connecting the two in the general area of Indonesia.
  • The Indo-Pacific concept is also moving beyond economic, cultural and historical linkages to include an overarching strategic imperative.
  • Since 2011, the term ‘Indo-Pacific’ is being used increasingly in the global strategic/ geopolitical discourse.
  • India earlier opposed the presence of foreign powers in the Indian Ocean but it now carries out joint exercises with a number of them to promote interoperability.
  • The US military presence on land and sea in the region was taken for granted after World War II.
  • The French and British too, as in the Indian Ocean, continued to have their colonies.
  • As a legacy state of the Soviet Union, Russia has never ceased to be an Indo-Pacific power.
  • It avenged the humiliating destruction of its navy in the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese war by driving Japan out of the northern Korean Peninsula and taking South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in 1945.
  • Today, it holds joint exercises with China in the South China Sea and a trilateral exercise with China and South Africa in the Indian Ocean.

Way forward:

  • Regional disputes should be resolved through dialogue and consultation.
  • Maintaining close high-level exchanges.
  • The two sides can strengthen cooperation under the WTO framework, jointly safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries.
  • The two sides should speed up negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP).
  • Increasing mutual investments and encouraging Indian companies to participate in China International Import Expo
  • Upgrading Nathula border trade port to make the pie of cooperation even bigger
  • India needs to suggest ways and means to prevent Pakistan from intruding in its relationship with China.
  • Both need to identify roadmaps to address the burgeoning trade deficit favouring China.
  • People to people contact, tracing the work of Chinese traveller Huen zang and Indian counterpart Kashyap Matenga in relation with Buddhism.
  • A strong India-China relationship is important not only for the mutual benefit of the people of India and China, but also for the region and the world.

Conclusion:

India will have to manage its relations with China, no matter the challenges. Ties with Japan would remain a key component of India’s vision for a stable Indo-Pacific and a cornerstone of its Act East policy. India at this juncture does not have to make a binary choice in the Indo-Pacific between a development-centric agenda with ASEAN centrality and a security-centric outlook revolving around the Quad. Both are likely to remain parallel tracks with some overlap for the foreseeable future.

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

4. India-Japan relations must also imbibe and secure their relationship with innovative ideas while
keeping it parallel to their domestic developmental discourse. Examine. (250 words)

WION

Why this question:
In the charged Indo-Pacific geopolitical scenario, Narendra Modi and Shinzo Abe have set an
ideal example of using personal chemistry to forward mutually advantageous policy outlooks.

If the annual leadership summits strengthened their political narrative, the recently concluded
two-plus-two ministerial dialogue brought strategic substance, strengthening the narrative that
both have been nurturing with frequent dialogues, official mechanisms and visits.

Key demand of the question:
The question expects us talk about the bilateral relations between India and Japan in light of the
recently concluded first ever ministerial level 2+2 dialogue. Further, one must give a detailed
account of the potential of the India-Japan relations at bilateral, multilateral and
regional/international levels with the challenges. Provide with a way forward.
Directive:
Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail,
inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question.
While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their
implications.
Structure of the answer
Introduction:
Talk about the fact that the two countries in several joint statements have called each other
natural partners.
Body :
 Discuss the outcomes of the visit such as a 2+2 framework institutionalisation of the
relationship.
 Highlight the potential of the relationship and the pitfalls that the two countries need to be
aware of.
 Discuss the perfect fit that exists between the two countries when it comes to technology,
infrastructure, manufacturing etc.
 Discuss that there should be an increasing emphasis on innovation front in the foreign policy
objectives between the two nations.
Conclusion:
Give your view on the progress of relationship and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

Not many relationships in Asia have influenced the Indo-Pacific undercurrents as much as India-Japan relations have in recent times. If the annual leadership summits strengthened their political narrative, the recently concluded two-plus-two ministerial dialogue brought strategic substance, strengthening the narrative that both have been nurturing with frequent dialogues.

Body:

Background of Bilateral Relations:

  • The Japan-India Association was set up in 1903, and is one of the oldest international friendship bodies in Japan.
  • Japan had pledged Rs 33,800 crore in government and private sector investments.
  • Japan has been one of the biggest sources of investment flows into India, accounting for $28.16 billion in FDI between April 2000 and June 2018.
  • The two countries signed a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in 2011 to facilitate growth in bilateral trade.
  • This was described as the most comprehensive of all such agreements concluded by India.
  • As of October 2016, there were 1,305 Japanese companies registered in India, an increase of 76 companies (6% growth) as compared to 1,229 in October 2015.
  • Japan has ratified the framework agreement for the International Solar Alliance.

Progress of relationship between two countries:

Significance of 2+2 Dialogue:

  • Till now India and Japan had a 2+2 dialogue at the secretary-level.
  • Now they decided to have a 2+2 dialogue mechanism between Defence and Foreign ministers.
  • This is aimed at giving political muscle to the existing diplomatic, security and defence cooperation.
  • Both sides believe that the new era of India Japan relations will be strengthened by the 2+2 dialogue.
  • So far, India only had a 2+2 dialogue between Defence and Foreign Ministers with the US.
  • The decision to hold a ministerial level 2+2 dialogue was taken this summer during a telephone call between India’s new foreign minister, Dr. S. Jaishankar, and his Japanese counterpart, Taro Kono.
  • The inaugural US-India 2+2 dialogue was held in September 2018.
  • The mechanism itself is quite significant. Japan is only the second country (after the United States) with which India has such a dialogue format.
  • The India-Japan 2+2 dialogue is an endorsement of the special strategic partnership between New Delhi and Tokyo.
  • More broadly, the dialogue has been driven by the mutual desire to frame an Asia that is not dominated by a single country and to see the emergence of a multipolar Indo-Pacific that is free, open, and inclusive.
  • India and Japan have both approached the emerging Asian strategic framework with that goal in mind and both want an inclusive approach in the region. Both see China’s approach in the region as being exclusivist. There is a clear clash between these two visions of the region.
  • The idea of such a 2+2 meeting was initiated during the summit meeting between Modi and Abe in Tokyo in October 2018.
  • The joint statement following the summit meeting recognized the need for such a dialogue. This would be in addition to existing strategic dialogue formats such as the Annual Defense Ministerial Dialogue, Defense Policy Dialogue, and the National Security Advisers’ Dialogue.
  • Most recently, the India-Japan defense ministerial level dialogue held in September also acknowledged the importance of a 2+2 ministerial level strategic dialogue.
  • Similar, but lower level, India and Japan dialogues have gone on for close to a decade now. The two have had a 2+2 foreign and defense dialogue led by secretary level officers from 2010. This dialogue was established as per the Action Plan to Advance Security Cooperation agreed between the two countries in December 2009.
  • Discussions on global commons including maritime, outer space, and cyber space have been key themes in this dialogue.

Bilateral Cooperation:

  • The Ministers welcomed the progress made in deepening bilateral defence cooperation last year. In this regard, the welcome of the recently conducted second “Dharma Guardian-2019” and the second “SHINYUU Maitri-2019”. They also concurred to proceed with coordination for the first India-Japan joint fighter aircraft exercise in Japan.
  • The Ministers welcomed the significant progress made in the negotiations of Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) since the announcement to commence the negotiations in October 2018.
  • Acknowledging the importance of ensuring maritime safety in achieving a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific, the Ministers expressed their intention to further promote cooperation in the field of capacity building in maritime security and Maritime Domain Awareness including through cooperation with other countries.
  • Emphasized the need to further strengthen the defence equipment and technology.
  • Appreciated the existing exchange programs between the defence educational and research institutions of the two countries and expressed their desire to continue and expand the exchange programmes.

Multilateral Cooperation:

  • Recalling the Japan-India-US Summit Meetings in November 2018 and June 2019, the Ministers acknowledged the trilateral cooperation with the US. The Ministers expressed their satisfaction at trilateral cooperation represented by the “Malabar 2019” held from September-October 2019 off the coast of Japan, mine-countermeasures exercise (MINEX) held in Japan in July 2019 and “Cope India 2018” in which Japan participated as an observer in December 2018.
  • The Ministers welcomed the recent Japan-India-Australia-US Foreign Ministerial consultations in New York in September 2019.

Regional and International Affairs:

  • A frank and fruitful exchange of views on the regional issues of mutual interests particularly on the security situation in the Indo-Pacific.
  • The Ministers reaffirmed the importance of supporting ASEAN centrality and unity for promoting peace and prosperity of the Indo-Pacific.
  • The Japanese side appreciated India’s announcement of “Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative” at the recent 14th EAS to create a safe, secure, stable, prosperous and sustainable maritime domain and confirmed their willingness to discuss concrete cooperation based on the Initiative.
  • The Ministers exchanged views on the recent developments in the South China Sea.
  • The importance of freedom of navigation and overflight, unimpeded lawful commerce and peaceful resolution of disputes with full respect for legal and diplomatic processes in accordance with the universally recognized principles of international law, including those reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
  • It condemned in the strongest terms the growing threat of terrorism and acknowledged that it constituted a major threat to peace and security in the region.
  • It was emphasized the need for stronger international partnership in countering terrorism and violent extremism, including through increased sharing of information and intelligence.

Challenges:

  • Trade engagements have been below potential.
  • On the list of countries that India exports to, Japan is at 18th position in the list of top 25 countries. On the list of countries importing into India, Japan ranks 12th.
  • India’s exports to Japan in FY18 were lower than in FY15 in value terms.
  • India struggling to penetrate the Japanese market as a result of language barriers, high quality and service standards.
  • Negotiations to purchase amphibious US-2 planes have dragged on for years.

Way Forward:

  • Experts say that a strong India is in Japan’s best interest and for that, Japan must provide even more support.
  • India must leverage Japan’s strengths in areas such as medical equipment and hospitals.
  • India and Japan must endeavour to work together for a rules-based and inclusive world order.
  • Enhancing communication and connectivity for unimpeded trade and flow of people, technology and ideas for shared prosperity.
  • Further cooperate for peace, stability and prosperity of Indo-Pacific.

Conclusion:

Overall, the India-Japan ministerial level 2+2 strategic dialogue is an important initiative emphasizing the deep interest in both India and Japan to further strengthen their security and strategic engagements. The two countries have built a strong strategic partnership in the last decade. While China may have been a factor, building this relationship was easier because of the absence of any baggage, unlike, for instance, with the United States.  But India and Japan also need to build a larger coalition if they are to balance China effectively.

 Topic: Indian Economy – issues.

5. Tourism has the potential to be one of the main pillars of India’s economy. Examine. (250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:
As the fourth largest city in the Tamilnadu, Tiruchi — projecting a fine blend of tradition and
modernity — serves as a good base for visitors’ keen on exploring tourist destinations in central
Tamil Nadu. Yet a lot of potential has been left untapped, rue a section of stakeholders in
tourism and travel industry.

Key demand of the question:
The question expects us to highlight the potential of tourism sector in India, the shortcomings in
the sector, the steps that India needs to take to boost tourism in the country. Finally, we need to
mention the impact of focussing on tourism sector in India.
Directive word
Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail,
inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question.
While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their
implications.
Structure of the answer
Introduction:
Mention that there was a marginal growth of 5.6% in Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) during the
period January-November 2018, as compared to the same period of the previous year. India’s
Tourism is ranked at 7th position in terms of its contribution to World GDP in World Travel and
Tourism Council’s report in 2017.
Body:
Discuss the status of tourism in India. Give facts and figures related to revenue and forex
earnings, tourist footfalls. Also highlight the diverse nature of tourist circuits in the country.
Highlight the areas where work is needed – security, infrastructure, connectivity and so on. give
details of these three aspects
Mention the steps taken by the government in improving the aforementioned areas through
schemes and programmes like PRASAD, e tourist visa etc.
Discuss the steps that need to be taken still to fill in the gaps
Conclusion:
Give your view on the potential of tourism sector in India and the impact it can have.

Introduction:

India is a large market for travel and tourism. It offers a diverse portfolio of niche tourism products – cruises, adventure, medical, wellness, sports, MICE, eco-tourism, film, rural and religious tourism. India has been recognized as a destination for spiritual tourism for domestic and international tourists.

Travel and tourism industry contributed a tenth of India’s GDP in 2018 and accounts for 42 million jobs in the country, report says. In India, over Rs 16 trillion were created by this sector alone. The same is expected to double by 2029, reaching Rs 35 trillion mark. Also, the industry has given a major boost to the global economy as well with it contributing over 10% to the global GDP.

Body:

India’s Tourism Industry:

  • Currently India is the seventh largest tourism industry.
  • 29 states, 4000 cities, rich history, incredible diversity
  • India all set to become third largest in next 10 years.
  • Tourism contribution to economy to double
  • Expected to add 5.23 crore jobs in 2028
  • India doing well in medical tourism, business tourism, ecological tourism, pilgrimage tourism, historical tourism, adventure tourism.

Tourism has the potential to be one of the main pillars of India’s economy:

Reasons why rural tourism need to be promoted:

  • Seeing the stressful urban lifestyles leading towards “counter-urbanization” syndrome
  • Growing curiosity of urban people regarding rural culture and heritages
  • Downfall of income level from agriculture and related works
  • Lack of alternative way outs for earning sufficient money
  • Scope for new business opportunities
  • Changing attitude in Indian and global tourists behaviour in terms of nature awareness and increasing demand for niche tourism and green products. So it is evident that the future of Rural Tourism in India is going to be very promising one.

Maintaining the sustainable livelihood:

  • It has a great impact in case of maintaining the sustainable livelihood of the rural population, promoting local culture and heritages, empowering local women, alleviating poverty, conserving and preserving natural resources, improving basic rural infrastructure, adopting new work culture and overall developing a better impression of locality and its people in tourists’ mind.

Reduces migration:

  • Tourism facilitates the declining areas to be developed with basic infrastructure facilities and provides the host community alternative ways of employment and side by side it reduces out-migration.
  • It fosters a closer relationship between city dwellers and rural communities.

Alternative Way of Earning: 

  • Tourism can be a potential tool to reduce over-dependency on cultivation especially in rural areas and it contributes to the overall economic development of an area that would otherwise be deprived.

Employment: 

  • Tourism creates a large number of semi-skilled jobs for the local population in not only local hotels and catering trades but also in other fields like transport, retailing, heritage interpretation etc.
  • Moreover, it ensures revival of traditional arts, crafts, building art etc. and brings marketing opportunity for rural producers to sell their products directly to the tourists.
  • It allows alternative sources of earning opportunities from non-agricultural sectors that improve living standards of the rural dwellers to some extent.

Job Retention: 

  • Cash flows generating from rural tourism can assist job retention in services such as retailing, transport, hospitality, medical care etc. It provides additional income for farmers, local fishermen and local suppliers
  • Alternative Business Opportunities
  • Tourism generates new business opportunities through developing close relationships with tourist facilities.
  • For example, a number of tourists love to taste local cuisines of different tourist spots. Therefore, any restaurant serving ethnic foods can also attract tourists though many of these restaurants are not directly related to tourism business.

Poverty Alleviation:

  • Rural Tourism is being admired all over the world because such form of tourism can shape up rural society both by economic and social terms.
  • It brings both monetary and social benefits to the rural people.
  • It alleviates poverty by creating alternative sources of earning.

Empowerment of Localities

  • Tourism cannot be flourished without the involvement of local people in it.
  • Accommodation facilities are being provided by local hotel owners whereas local suppliers supply food and beverages to the local hotels.
  • Local producers produce locally made products as per tourists’ demand and earn money by selling them in the local market.
  • To entertain tourists, local organizers conduct different cultural programmes where local performers exhibit their art and culture through live performance.
  • Not only that, people also become engaged in different decision-making processes. All such engagement actually empowers the localites.

Entrepreneurial scope:

  • Tourism has increased career options for the young entrepreneurs.

Arts and Crafts Sale:

  • Arts and crafts are the evidence of local culture and heritages of a community belonging from any region or any nation. The urban tourists, wherever they go, generally prefer to have a collection of local arts and crafts to make their trip-experience a remembering one.
  • Such tendency motivates them to purchase local arts and crafts from the local producers and artists.
  • Side by side it encourages the local community to sell their products in local market. Such practice opens an alternative way of earning to the rural people.

Environmental Improvement:

  • Environmental improvements such as village paving and traffic regulation schemes, sewage and litter disposal can be assisted by tourism revenues and political pressures from tourism authorities.
  • These help develop pride of place, important in retaining existing population and businesses, and in attracting new enterprises and families.

Heritage Preservation:

  • Tourism brings a strong sense of emotion in everyone’s (both community and tourists) mind to preserve and reserve the local culture and heritages to make any place attractive for the tourists to visit it and also for the host community to live in.
  • Such sense is maintained through rural museums that play a significant role in local heritage preservation.

Source of Foreign Exchange Earnings:

  • Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in India. This has favourable impact on the balance of payment of the country.
  • The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.

Challenges tourism industry faces:

  • Communication Skill: The difference in languages and lack of basic education are the two basic obstacles.
  • Legislation Problem: Generally, owners of licensed accommodation units pay taxes to the government. But it is kind of burden for the poor rural marketers to pay tax at a regular basis as they lack sufficient financial backing and many a time they face losses in business because of seasonal demand.
  • Insufficient Financial Support: Most of the tourism marketers especially in rural areas come from the poor family background and not every time they are financially supported by the local banks or local government bodies through loan facilities.
  • Lack of Trained Human Resource: Lack of trained human resource is a common issue that affects directly the tourism and hospitality industry badly. Moreover, the trained people from urban areas normally are not interested in going to rural areas to work due to lack of basic infrastructure facilities.
  • Lack of Proper Physical Communications: Proper drinking water, sufficient electricity, good telecommunication, safety and security, etc. are the few basic needs of a tourist while he or she is visiting any place individually or in a group. It is unfortunate but true that nearly half of the villages in this country do not have all- weather roads and above said basic facilities.
  • Deprivation, Improper Communication Facilities and Embryonic Stage of Rural Market:
  • Markets are often characterized by population and majority of them still come under below Poverty Line. These villagers are less involved in showcasing their culture and heritages in front of the tourists visiting their places as they are not very much aware of the potentiality of rural tourism that can act as an alternative source of earning
  • Moreover, most of the rural markets are underdeveloped with lots of hindrances like absence of proper mode of surface transportation, lack of basic infrastructure etc.

Steps to promote Tourism:

  • Atithi Devo Bhavah Campaign
  • Incredible India Campaign
  • Swadesh Darshan Scheme
  • PRASAD
  • Reforms in Visa process
  • Online option of applying for tourist visa
  • E-visa facility available to citizens of 163 countries
  • India ranks 8th among 100 countries on most valuable nation brands list

Way forward:

  • Government should educate people to enhance their communication skill, create sense of ownership, make them aware of the value of their culture and heritages and motivate them to take active participation
  • Encouraging local entrepreneurs, private enterprises, investors and other tourism stakeholders to come under a common umbrella for basic rural infrastructure development activities is also essential.
  • Product development as per tourists changing demands.
  • Proper planning and conservation of natural resources and local heritages for the sustainable development of Tourism.
  • Educate the people and develop their communication skill and language proficiency.
  • Creating awareness regarding rural tourism benefits.
  • Democratic movement that helps rural people at all levels to participate in tourism development activities.
  • Conduct regular Government and/or private sponsored skill development programmes in identified rural area to train the rural people appointed in tourism business.
  • Encourage young and potential business entrepreneurs for their businesses.
  • Government initiatives to support the young entrepreneurs by providing loans.
  • FDI or Private investment to introduces latest technology.
  • Taking Tourism Circuit development approach for overall regional development.
  • Take necessary safety and security measures for the tourists.
  • Share information to make better business decisions.
  • Any museum or interpretation centre can be set-up to provide information to tourists.

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and
social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security.

6. India is widely considered to be a world leader in cutting off access to the Net. Critically discuss the issues and concerns raised against pre-emptive internet shutdowns as a security measure. (250 words)

Indian Express

Why this question:
The Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC), the global tracker for Internet shutdowns, was
inundated with messages of shutdowns across the country — a frequently recurring
phenomenon in India over the past several years. The world’s fastest growing Internet market is
also the global leader by far in cutting off access to small and large sections of its population.
Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the concerns caused due to shut down of internet by the
Government under the garb of maintenance of Internal Security. Further, explain the concerns
faced
Directive word
Critically discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going
through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give
reasons for both for and against arguments. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a
directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.
Structure of the answer
Introduction:
Provide a brief outlook on the internet shutdowns in India recently. Discuss about the laws and
the provisions under which it can be applied.
Body:
Discuss the reasons for which the internet shutdown is clamped by authorities
 To stop the unrest or communal violence from perpetuating
 To deter the influence of non-state actors and miscreants in shaping the future course of
unrest.
 And so on.
However, the clampdown of internet has other effects too like:
 curtails the democratic principles and implicitly the fundamental rights of freedom and
liberty
 economic cost to shutdowns is immense: Over the past five years, some 16,000 hours of
Internet shutdowns cost the economy a little over $3 billion
 and so on.
Provide the possible measures to tackle this.
Conclusion:
Give a balanced way forward.

Introduction:

The Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC), the global tracker for Internet shutdowns, was inundated with messages of shutdowns across the country — a frequently recurring phenomenon in India over the past several years. Recently as protests over a controversial citizenship law rage across India, authorities resorted to shutting down the internet in cities where demonstrators flooded the streets. A country that is now seen as the internet shutdown capital of the world.

Body:

Recent internet shutdowns in India:

  • 136 days and counting: Internet services were suspended on 4 August in Jammu and Kashmir this year
  • 133 days: An internet shutdown in Indian-administered Kashmir which lasted from 8 July to 19 November in 2016
  • 99 days: Authorities shut off the internet in India’s West Bengal state from 18 June to 25 September in 2017
  • Most internet shutdowns in India are ordered under article 144 of the Indian Penal Code, which empowers local authorities to issue prohibitory orders to deal with situations of potential unrest. (Software Freedom Law Center)
  • The current sweeping shutdowns come after access to the Internet was cut off as a preventive measure in several states last month ahead of the Supreme Court’s Ayodhya verdict, when there were apprehensions of tension and violence
  • The Internet was suspended around the death anniversary of the slain Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani, and on Independence Day 2017, Republic Day 2016, and Eid 2015.

Indias_Longest_internet

Type of Shutdown:

Of the 278 Internet shutdowns recorded between January 2012 and January 2019, 160 were observed to be preventive measures i.e. restrictions imposed in anticipation of law and order breakdowns, whereas 118 shutdowns were reactive in nature i.e. imposed in order to contain on-going law and order breakdowns.

Nature of Shutdown:

Of the 278 reported incidents, 224 were targeted at mobile Internet services alone (3 in 2012, 5 shutdowns each in 2013 & 2014, 8 in 2015 and 20 in 2016, 51 in 2017, 126 in 2018 and 6 till January 2019), 19 targeted both mobile and fixed-line Internet services (4 each in 2015 and 2016, 9 in 2017, and 4 in 2018), while only 2 shutdowns targeting fixed-line services alone were recorded during the period of study.

Issues and concerns involved:

  • Shutdown is a violation of fundamental rights of Freedom of speech and expression.
  • Internet shutdowns can erode democratic institutions and values. For example, if citizens are using the internet to mobilize themselves, then shutting down the internet is not different from suppressing dissent.
  • Does a democratic government have the right to shut down the internet? Is a basic question regarding internet shutdown. After the Gujarat government suspended internet services for almost a week during the Patidar protest in 2015, the matter was taken to the courts.
  • Internet shutdowns are not particularly effective—people always find other ways to communicate, and studies have shown that such censorship in times of political unrest actually leads to more violent uprisings as the information void fuels uncertainty and causes panic.
  • The Internet is pretty much a basic human right, even if not legally defined as such, for most parts of the world — without access to the virtual world, a very large number of vital human activities simply stop.
  • In countries that have “medium” Internet penetration — 49% to 79% of the population — a shutdown could dent daily economic activity by $6.6 million per 10 million people, according to an analysis by Deloitte, quoted in The New York Times article.
  • Between July 2015 to June 2016, Internet shutdowns caused global losses of more than $2.4 billion, according to an analysis by The Brookings Institution quoted in the same article.
  • Over the past five years, some 16,000 hours of Internet shutdowns cost the economy a little over $3 billion, according to estimates in a report by the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER).
  • Cutting off communication in itself is an enormous public safety risk. Citizens are left without access to information about emergency services like the volunteer-built solutions like chennairains.org.
  • Because internet shutdowns affect every section of society – especially those who need it the most. And these restrictions, targeting the ‘common people’, are becoming increasingly ‘common’.

Way forward:

  • Perhaps the solution can be found in renegotiating our law enforcement approaches in keeping with the changing times and technologies.
  • Police and government agencies could increase their presence online so that they can actively fight back against rumour-mongering.
  • Empowering local law enforcement so they can tackle tensions without shutting the Internet down.
  • The solution to internet misuse is to build stronger laws for data privacy and protection. Stopping access to internet services altogether is definitely not the solution.
  • Social media can be the solution, not just the problem: Particularly in the Kaveri River water dispute, the Bangalore police used texts, Twitter, and Facebook to send out information on emergency contacts to reassure people.

On a resolution on “The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet”, the UN Human Rights Council, guided by the Charter of the UN, said it was “deeply concerned by all human rights violations and abuses committed against persons for exercising their human rights and fundamental freedoms on the Internet, and by the impunity for these violations and abuses”, and “also by measures aiming to or that intentionally prevent or disrupt access to or dissemination of information online, in violation of international human rights law”.

Conclusion:

Shutdowns, which are a negative expression of the idea of digital sovereignty, are not just for undemocratic societies any more. An internet shutdown compromises our democratic freedoms and should only be allowed in the rarest cases, rather than as a first response. Also an independent body could be a substitute for legislation which impose shutdown arbitrarily and that it also be empowered to review the necessity of shutdowns in the first place.

Topic: Ethics in International relations.

7. Conditional Funding is regarded as both an “Effective” and “Less Drastic Means”. Discuss (250
words).
Ethics by Lexicon
The Guardian
DE Gruyter

Why this question:

In addition to its easy availability, conditional funding is regarded as both an effective and in
comparison with legal prohibitions, less drastic tool for the prevention of discrimination. Such
conditions are thought to be efficient because they increase the relative cost of the
discriminatory practice and in doing so create an economical incentive to avoid discrimination.
Key demand of the question:
Discuss in detail the challenges related to conditional funding provided to the countries in need
of funds.

Directive:
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key
demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the
question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Structure of the answer

Introduction:
write a few introductory lines about the term conditionality. E.g. Conditionality is a concept
which describes the use of conditions attached to a loan, debt relief, bilateral aid or membership
of international organizations, typically by the international financial institutions, regional
organizations or donor countries.

Body:
Discuss the ethical issues raised by conditional funding in international arena. E.g.
 The donors shape the policy framework and strategies through impositions, seriously
undermining the rights, choices and decisions of the people to determine their own
demands and actions needed for their own development.
 Local societal diversities and local ownership are ignored.
 Policy conditions can interfere with the formation of an independent and mature democracy
and political framework.
 Democratic ownership implies mutual accountability, transparency, and participation in
policies and programmes, where both donors and governments feel equal, sharing.
 Domination by the government or the donors in the process undermines the basic principles
of democratic ownership etc.
Also, explain how conditional funding is effective. E.g.:

Conclusion:
Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

Conditional funding is a concept which describes the use of conditions attached to a loan, debt relief, bilateral aid or membership of international organizations, typically by the international financial institutions, regional organizations or donor countries. Example: IMF’s loan to India during the financial crisis of 1991.

Body:

Conditional Funding is regarded as both an “Effective” and “Less Drastic Means:

  • In an age in which the regulatory state frequently deals with spending, licensing, and employment, the use of allocating powers is perceived as an appealing means by which to prevent discriminatory practices against individuals within illiberal communities.
  • In addition to its easy availability, conditional funding is regarded as both an effective and in comparison with legal prohibitions less drastic tool for the prevention of discrimination.
  • Such conditions are thought to be efficient because they increase the relative cost of the discriminatory practice and in doing so create an economic incentive to avoid discrimination.
  • Moreover, these conditions are thought to be less-coercive (in comparison with criminal law), because they still allow those subject to them to choose between the more expensive option of discrimination and the cheaper option of non-discrimination.
  • In other words, these conditions are perceived as “Less Drastic Means.”

Concerns:

  • When applied to the poor such conditionality is not less coercive than prohibitions in criminal law.
  • It is more than reasonable to assume that attempts to rectify this flaw by exempting poor people from conditional funding will render such funding ineffective in preventing discrimination.
  • When one takes into account both the problem of the commodification of values and the inequality between rich and poor
  • the use of conditional finding as a means of promoting liberal values will, in most cases, be unjust.
  • If we believe that the antidiscrimination principle has a lexical priority over a parent’s right to educate their children in accordance to their culture, we should choose the path of prohibition and abandon that of conditional funding.

The various ethical issues that are related to International funding are:

  • “Me First” Attitude: The developed countries are moving towards protectionism and an attitude of self-centrism. This goes against the moral responsibility of humanity to help other humans. Example: USA’s moving out of Paris Climate deal has now cast an aspersion on Global Climate Fund.
  • Harsh terms and conditions: The donors shape the policy framework and strategies through impositions, seriously undermining the rights, choices and decisions of the people to determine their own demands and actions needed for their own development. Example: China’s vulture capitalism policies of sucking countries into debt.
  • Ethnocentrism: Local societal diversities and local ownership are ignored by conditionality. Example: Global Gag Rule by USA
  • Against Democratic values: Aid conditionality infringes on countries democracy and sovereignty. Policy conditions can interfere with the formation of independent and mature democracy and political framework. Example: Neo-colonial policies followed by few developed Countries.
  • Economic policy decisions, such as whether to privatize essential services or liberalize trade barriers within any given country developing or developed should be made by national governments and not influenced by leverage of increased external funding. Example: The IB report revealed that certain foreign funded NGO’s were trying to stall developmental process in India and in turn affect its Growth.
  • Human rights: Issue of government funding for international NGO’s as many of these do accept funds from developed countries. Their independence and legitimacy is therefore suspected by the government of host countries especially by the less than democratic governments.

Way Forward:

  • International funding should be based on the principles of Utilitarianism.
  • Emulate the global best practices. Example: Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria works, as one important example. It’s a model of success.
  • The concept of Global Social Justice should be upheld.
  • Humanitarian Aid should be the motive of International Funding. Example: Building houses in war-torn Jaffna region by India, Parliament house and schools in Afghanistan.

Conclusion:

According to John Rawls, it is our duty as help others living “under unfavorable conditions that prevent their having a just or decent political and social regime”. This should be the mantra for International Funding.