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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 December 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 December 2019

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General Studies – 2


Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

1. What do you understand by the term ‘impeachment’ in Indian Polity? Compare and contrast the process of impeachment of the Presidents of India and the United States of America. (250 words).

The Hindu

Why this question:

Republican Donald Trump is likely this week to become the third U.S. president to be impeached when the Democratic-led House of Representatives votes on charges stemming from his effort to pressure Ukraine to investigate political rival Joe Biden.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and aims to throw light on the impeachment process of President in India and discuss in what way it is different from that in United States.

Directive:

Compare and Contrast – Identify the similarities and differences between two or more phenomena. Say if any of the shared similarities or differences are more important than others.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the significance of the post of President in India and in US.

Body:

Explain the term impeachment in context of Indian Polity.

ARTICLE 61 provides the procedure for impeachment of the president. The president may also be removed before the expiry of the term through impeachment for violating the Constitution of India by the Parliament of India.

Explain the procedure of impeachment in both the countries; discuss how they are different from each other. Explain the significance of the process in the respective constitution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of impeachment in a democratic country.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. PMJAY has a strong potential to empower women to take decisions on their health and wipe out the gender gap in use of health services. Critically comment. (250 words)

Indian Express 

Why this question:

There is a large gap in the use of public services in the country. The “2018 Gender Gap Index” of the World Economic Forum and its sub-index, “Health and Survival” — India ranks 108 in the overall index and 147th out of 149 in the sub-index — shine a light on this challenge.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain how the Ayushman Bharat PM-JAY seeks to bridge the gender gap in the use of healthcare services by addressing a key constraint — healthcare costs. The challenges faced in this

Directive:

Critically comment – When asked to comment, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief highlight the various problems faced by girls and women in access to healthcare.

Body:

Explain in detail as to how PM-JAY scheme aims to empower women healthcare in India

  • Cashless services through PM-JAY are helping to narrow the gender gap in availing healthcare.
  • First, families with no adult male members is one of the deprivation criteria for identifying target beneficiaries, which will help a large number of women.
  • Second, there is no cap on the size of families.

Discuss about the challenges faced in delivering the healthcare

  • there are large gender gaps in the use of cardiology and nephrology-related services. PM-JAY will need to analyse the reasons for this.
  • Some of the variation may be explained by the gender-wise difference in the prevalence of various diseases.
  • Men and women may also have varying incidence of certain diseases because of the degree of exposure to the proximate cause or an individual’s biological disposition.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

3. India’s concept of Indo-Pacific is inclusive and across oceans. Discuss (250 words)

Ministry Of External Affairs

Why this question:

Indo Pacific is one of the new concepts and approaches thrown up by the changing world. It is a multipolar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and population. The acceptance of the Indo-Pacific as a single strategic construct linking the contiguous waters of the western Pacific and the Indian Ocean has gained currency in the last few years with the shift in the geopolitical center of gravity to this region.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to write in detail about India’s approach in the Indo-Pacific region, the significance of Indo-pacific region for India, the challenges faced and the way forward.

Directive word:

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the Indo-Pacific region.

Body:

Firstly, discuss in brief about the significance of Indo-pacific region.

Explain how India’s approach towards Indo-pacific has been an inclusive one.

  • Open, integrated and balanced approach.
  • India has emphasized on a few major aspects which reflect India’s policy perspective on Indo-Pacific, which included “inclusiveness”, “openness”, “ASEAN centrality” and that the concept was not directed against any country.
  • The focus of the Indo Pacific initiative is on connectivity, enhancing maritime security, counterterrorism, non-proliferation and cyber issues
  • The government has introduced the concept of SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) and believes in an Indo-Pacific that is free, open and inclusive, and one that is founded upon a cooperative and collaborative rules-based order.
  • India is also trying to make innovative use of trade and diplomacy as its strategic arsenals.
  • And so on.

Mention the challenges/concerns faced.

What are the measures to overcome the same?

Conclusion:

based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

4. The concept of cooperative security is panacea to address threats concerning national security and harmony. Examine with respect to India and her South Asian neighbours. (250 words)

IDSA

Why this question:

In today’s challenging times, security is indivisible. Events in one region of the world have an impact, both positive and negative, on other regions. This highlights the necessity of combining strengths to forge new compacts that can appropriately deal with the emerging challenges.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us talk about the cooperative security scenario in South Asia, the need for such a cooperation. Further, one needs to talk about the measures undertaken in realising the cooperative security in South Asia with India as a forerunner. Then discuss about the challenges faced in achieving the cooperative security and measures needed to tackle the same.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the concept of Co-Operative security. Talk about the lack of co-operative security in South Asian region leading to various security threats.

  • cooperative security implies that countries have, or seek, a degree of convergence with regard to threat perceptions, and challenges and opportunities with a conviction that it is advantageous to their security, stability and prosperity.
  • the South Asian experience in building cooperative security architecture has been mixed.

Body:

Discuss the needs for cooperative security in South Asia.

  • South Asia can truly prosper only when it is free from the scourge of terrorism.
  • The greatest challenge before South Asia is the fight against illiteracy and poverty, climate change and natural disasters, and food and energy security issues.
  • These are indivisible and transcend borders.
  • Cooperation on these issues will ensure the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Discuss about India’s commitments on cooperative security in South Asia.

  • India believes in the ancient Sanskrit saying “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”, which means that the entire world is one family.
  • to build   regional   cooperation and   security India’s initiatives are   anchored   in   its ‘Neighbourhood First‘ policy.
  • India has time and again taken efforts to straighten the SAARC initiative.
  • India is   keen   to   strengthen   other regional groupings and partnerships such    as    the    BBIN, BIMSTEC
  • India remains optimistic about the future of South Asia

Explain the challenges faced in achieving cooperative security.

  • The South Asian family, unfortunately, has its own black sheep. The weakest link in the chain continues to be Pakistan, which views security as a zero-sum game, and uses terrorism as an instrument of state policy against its neighbours.
  • The consequences of such a policy pursued in one country in South Asia, aimed at systematically nurturing radical jihadi groups, has been felt in other South Asian countries as well – from Afghanistan to India and from Bangladesh to Sri Lanka.

Provide measures to tackle the challenges posed.

  • One of the measures to improve regional security is to strengthen connectivity linkages.

Conclusion

Give a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

1. India needs to formally come up with its national strategy on synthetic biology — both policy and regulatory. Discuss. (250 words)

The Hindu Business line

Why this question:

India established the Department of Biotechnology during the late 1980s to harness the emerging science to the benefit of the country. However, there has been a long-standing lack of clarity and consensus among scientists, policymakers, industry, farmers and civil society organisations on how India needs to deal with synthetic biological methods like the genetic modification technology in areas like agriculture.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the concept of Synthetic biology. Thereafter, we need to highlight the pros and cons of technology, its possible applications. Further we need to analyse India’s need to come up with a policy to regulate the affairs in synthetic biology. And finally give a fair and balanced view regarding the kind of policy needed.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction

Explain the term Synthetic biology and need to come up with a policy on the same in India.

  • Synthetic biology is a field of science that involves redesigning organisms for useful purposes by engineering them to have new abilities. This technology, of developing new life forms, is being pursued by industry despite there being no regulatory framework in place

Body

Explain the concept in detail.

Discuss the various applications of the technology.

  • genetic modification technology in areas like agriculture
  • Cloning technologies
  • In less than nine years, synthetic biology has caught the imagination of scientists and the industry’s market of $11 billion in 2016 is expected to grow to $100 billion by 2025.

Discuss the pros and cons of Synthetic biology.

Finally, talk about need for India to come up with a policy on synthetic biology.

  • The lack of policy is a cause of serious concern after decades of work in this area compromising research, investments and decision-making.
  • In the absence of India undertaking a proactive approach to this technology, there is ample chance that we will end up having the same, if not more, contentious debates about synthetic biology organisms and products as those on genetically modified organisms.

Conclusion

Give your opinion on what kind of policy should India come up with respect to synthetic biology.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

2. If climate change is the defining issue of the century, the UN conference in Madrid failed miserably in galvanising action to address it. Elaborate.(250 words)

The Hindu

The Wire

Why this question:

At COP 25 in Madrid, the countries party to the Paris Agreement failed to agree on rules and procedures to govern a global carbon market, on finance for losses caused by extreme weather events, on meeting the commitments made before the agreement and on raising their ambitions. The final declaration was desultory, merely expressing serious concern at the emissions gap in seeking to limit temperature increase to 1.5° C.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss the reasons for failure of the COP25 meeting and the implications of failures of the talks on the planet Earth as well as the developing and small nations.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start off with the quoting the various facts of climate change using the scientific reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warning of near-certain catastrophic consequences of inaction, and an analysis from the UN Environment Programme on the gap between current greenhouse gas emissions and the limit over the coming decade.

Body:

Discuss in brief the challenges faced due to climate change effects.

  • the real losses from extreme weather events that climate-vulnerable countries, India included, are facing with frightening regularity.
  • even insured losses worldwide during 2017 and 2018 together stood at a record $225 billion

       Now, discuss the various reasons for the failure of the COP25 talks.

  • unproductive wrangle over establishing a market system to trade in carbon credits earned through reductions in emissions, with some countries eager to cash in on poorly audited emissions savings from the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol that preceded the Paris pact
  • the divergence between the developed and developing countries grew over the course of two weeks as the developed world – led by the US – blocked any attempt at a compromise using a ‘take it or leave it approach’.
  • Developed countries also refused to relent on the question losses suffered by developing countries due to climate impact.

       What are the implications of the failure of talks?

       What are the measures needed to overcome?

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships; Human Values

1. “With rising intolerance and polarization in today’s world, forgiveness and compassion are much needed values.” Examine. (250 words).

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The increasing incidents of hatred, violence against women, communal violence and other such grave incidents makes it important for individuals to respect, uphold and practice the human values of forgiveness and compassion.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the relevance of these values in the age of rising intolerance and polarization the world is witnessing.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief narrate what are values and their importance in general.

Body:

Explain that to forgive, we must be ready to let go of our anger and resentment toward someone or something. However, the meaning of forgiveness that I prefer is simply “letting go.” The act of compassion is the desire to alleviate the suffering of others. In other words, it is showing care for others while understanding that they are fully responsible for their actions.  It doesn’t mean that we are justifying their behavior; instead, by being compassionate, we are making space for others to have their experiences without attaching our reactions to them.

Use suitable case studies to justify how these values play crucial role in today’s rising intolerance and polarized world.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of compassion and forgiveness for the humanity.