Bougainville and nationhood
What to study?
For Prelims: Where is Bougainville?
For Mains: How a region becomes an independent country? And why UN recognition is necessary?
Where is Bougainville?
It is an island in the Pacific.
Why in news? It is holding a referendum to decide if it wants to remain a part of Papua New Guinea or become an independent country.
How does a territory become a new country?
There is no straightforward rule. A region’s quest for nationhood mainly depends on how many countries and international organisations it manages to convince to recognise it as a country.
The biggest sanction of nationhood is the United Nations recognising a territory as a country.
Why UN recognition matters?
With UN recognition, a new country has access to the World Bank, the IMF, etc.
- Its currency is recognised, which allows it to trade.
- There is protection against parent country’s aggression, and international trade.
And as per 1933’s Montevideo Convention, a region wanting to become independent should meet 4 criteria:
A country-hopeful must have a defined territory, people, government, and the ability to form relationships with other countries.
Sources: Indian Express.