Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 NOVEMBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 NOVEMBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

 1) Do you think marriage as a social institution is losing its relevance in the society? Critically analyze.(250 words)

Timesofindia

Why this question:

The question is based on the topic from sociology subject of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

One must analyse in detail the concept of marriage as a social institution and in what way its losing its relevance owing to different factors.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First define what Marriage is. How is it a social institution?

Body:

Explain in detail the functions of marriage then analyze how many of the functions are getting replaced by rise of other institutions and attitudinal changes.

Discuss the sanctity surrounding marriage and the belief in the system has not gone out.

Provide for factors responsible for deterioration of marriage as an institution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:    

The institution of marriage is the central draft of all the forms of human society which are a part of civilization. The significance of an institution of Marriage lies in the fact that it results in the cause and effect of procreation besides providing a moral and ethical social bonding. Marriage not only brings about the union of two persons but two families as well.

Body:

Importance of Marriage as a social institution:

  • Humans are social by nature and it is not fit for them to live alone. Marriage is a bond like no other. It makes two souls become one. It gives one a life partner, a teammate, a best friend for life as we move through the challenges of life together.
  • As common as a single-parent family is in the modern day, it would be wrong to say they don’t function as well as or achieve things as a two-parent family.
  • However, studies do suggest that children raised with both mother and father do have certain advantages over children raised in households with one parent.
  • Studies also suggest that children without one parent show an increase in mental and behavioural disorders as well as criminal activities and substance abuse.
  • On the other hand, a child raised in a healthy family gets to experience the lasting benefits of a strong family.
  • Marriage also provides an opportunity to grow together and live selflessly as you serve your spouse and children. It is more than a physical union, it is also a spiritual and emotional union.

The role of marriage has been changed by the trend of the social, the culture consequence, the bond between marriage and parenthood. The reasons for the same are:

  • Cohabitation: Some people might not marry and cohabit instead, because they are not ready to make a commitment to their partner and might cohabit first instead and ‘trying before buying’, with cohabiting together as a trial run, to experience what it would be like to live with that person.
  • Compromising on a career: As an independent and strong person, he/she is completely bounded towards career and personal growth but when it comes to marriage, there comes a responsibility of the complete household and in this problem, he/she may have to give up or compromise on his/her career.
  • Increasing divorces: Today divorce is a lot more socially acceptable, with lots of media influence and more benefits for single parents and also the fact it is a lot easier. Many people don’t really see marriage as that important anymore and instead of living in an ‘empty shell marriage’, which is when a couple remain legally married even though it is technically over, in the eyes of the husband and wife, they simply get divorced, as we seem to have a lot more freedom now.
  • Choice: Some people have the notion of either marrying or not. It depends on their choice. They do not think about social pressures or the pressure from their families. Young people are mostly sided towards their choice part.
  • Adopting kids is no more considered as a taboo: Couples can adopt a child and raise it without any other formalities of marriage.
  • Expensive affair: expense of marriage, as marriages can cost up to the thousands of pounds. Many people don’t see the point in spending thousands of pounds on getting married and due to the current recession, lots of people are struggling financially and cannot afford it, so decide to just ‘cohabit’ together.

Conclusion:

As far as Indian society is concerned, the relevance of marriage is still intact. Though there might be some changes in the opinions and perspective about marriages yet we see marriage is still given much importance even today. Despite live-in relationships becoming a norm in the metropolises.


Topic: Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) “The Ring of Fire is home to over more than 450 volcanoes and is affected by 90% of the earthquakes”. Discuss the formation of the Ring of Fire due to plate tectonics. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straight forward from the static portions of the GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain in detail the formation of the Ring of Fire due to plate tectonics.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In short define what is Ring of fire.

Body:

Introduce the Ring of Fire by stating its location, shape, and characteristics. 

Discuss the formation of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Its association with plate tectonics.

Give some of the important geological features associated with it. 

Conclude by explaining the reason behind its active state due to which it hosts the largest number of active volcanoes of the world. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating relevance of the geographical feature to the world physiography.

Introduction:    

The Ring of Fire is a Pacific region home to over 450 volcanoes, including three of the world’s four most active volcanoes – Mount St. Helens in the USA, Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. It is also sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt. Around 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur in the Ring of Fire, and 80% of the world’s largest earthquakes.

Body:

Location of Circum-Pacific Region (“Pacific Ring of fire”):

  • It stretches along the Pacific Ocean coastlines, where the Pacific Plate grinds against other, smaller tectonic plates that form the Earth’s crust – such as the Philippine Sea plate and the Cocos and Nazca Plates that line the edge of the Pacific Ocean.
  • The 40,000 kilometre horse-shoe-shaped ring loops from New Zealand to Chile, passing through the coasts of Asia and the Americas on the way.
  • The chain of volcanoes extends from Aleutian Islands into Kamchatka, Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia, southward into Pacific Islands of Solomon, Tonga and New Zealand. On the other side of the pacific, the chain continues from the Andes to Central America (Guatemala, Costa Rica and Nicaragua), Mexico and right up to Alaska.
  • Example: Mt. Fuji, Mt.Vesuvius, Stromboli, Etna etc.

Formation is due to the Ocean – Ocean plate collision and Ocean – Continent plate collision:

  • The Ring of Fire is a direct outcome of the tectonic activities in the Pacific Ocean. The lithosphere plates are in constant motion and collisions.
  • These plates making up the outermost layer of the earth are always moving on top of the mantle and sometimes pull apart, collide, or slide past each other resulting in divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries, and transform boundaries respectively.
  • The Ring of Fire is the result from subduction of oceanic tectonic plates beneath lighter continental plates. The area where these tectonic plates meet is called a subduction zone.
  • Subduction zones are also predominant due to the action of the tectonic movements when heavier plates slip under lighter plates, creating deep trenches.
  • The subduction alters the heavy mantle into buoyant magma which moves up the crust to the surface of the earth. When this occurs over millions of years, the rising magma brings about a series of active volcanoes referred to as volcanic arc.
  • The volcanic arcs and ocean trenches run parallel to each other thereby bringing about the ever expanding Pacific Ring of Fire.
  • For example, the Aleutian Islands in Alaska run parallel to the Aleutian Trench. What’s more, the Andes Mountains of South America runs parallel to the Peru-Chile Trench.
  • These parallel geologic features are the ones responsible for the subductions of the Plates.
  • When it comes to plate tectonic boundaries, it leads to faulting, crashing, and formation of rift valleys on the sea floor which contributes to the ejection of magma and powerful shaking of the ocean floor.
  • This leads to the formation of more cracks, vents, and fault lines which can trigger strong earthquakes and volcanic activities.
  • The ejected magma is cooled by the seawater to form new crust, creating high ridges on the ocean floor.
  • The East Pacific Rise is one of the major locations experiencing fast seafloor spreading in the ring of fire.

Ring of fire and earthquakes:

  • The world’s deepest earthquakes happen in subduction zone areas as tectonic plates scrape against each other – and the Ring of Fire has the world’s biggest concentration of subduction zones.
  • As energy is released from the earth’s molten core, it forces tectonic plates to move and they crash up against each other, causing friction. The friction causes a build-up of energy and when this energy is finally released it causes an earthquake. If this happens at sea it can cause devastating tsunamis.
  • Tectonic plates usually only move on average a few centimetres each year, but when an earthquake strikes, they speed up massively and can move at several metres per second.

Conclusion:

Volcanoes have a huge impact on man and material as urbanization and globalization increases. The effects have impacts on flora, fauna and the global warming which can accelerate the climate change.


Topic:  Geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

3) Explain the phenomenon of Explosive cyclogenesis. Discuss its impact on local weather and flora and fauna.(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the phenomenon of Explosive cyclogenesis. And discuss its impact on local weather and flora and fauna.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Introduce briefly the phenomena of cyclogenesis and explosive cyclogenesis.

Body:

Discuss the formation of Bomb Cyclone due to explosive cyclogenesis.

Discuss its impact on the weather of a region.

Explain briefly its negative impact on the economy and disruption of normal life.

Elaborate on what needs to be done to prevent the damages caused by such phenomena.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reiterating the significance of such a natural phenomena.

Introduction:    

The term Bomb Cyclone is used by meteorologists to indicate a mid-latitude cyclone that intensifies rapidly. A bomb cyclone happens when atmospheric pressure in the middle of the storm drops at least 24 millibars over 24 hours, quickly increasing in intensity. Bomb cyclones also draw air from Polar Regions after it weakens.

Body:

The United States East Coast and Midwest have battled record-breaking low temperatures as cold Arctic air continues to sweep through the region followed by the freezing winter storm — bomb cyclone or Bombogenesis.

Mechanism:

  • The cyclone is essentially a storm caused by a collision of warm air and cold air which develop into rotating storm-like pattern and lead to an explosive deepening of pressure.
  • The air starts to move and the rotation of the earth creates a cyclonic effect.
  • The direction is counter clockwise in the Northern hemisphere leading to winds that come out of the northeast.
  • The East Coast’s first snowstorm of 2018 was energised by this rapid drop in barometric pressure.

Impacts:

On Weather:

  • There is a significant drop in air pressure leading to highly unstable weather conditions.
  • the storm brings with it “chilly and gusty winds” and low temperatures around the 30 and 40 degree Fahrenheit.
  • It is usually characterized by blizzard with white-out conditions, hurricane-force winds wreaking havoc and heavy rainfall.
  • There are high speed winds, of 90 miles an hour, and gusts of 70 and 80 miles an hour.
  • The storm can lead to coastal flooding in the coastal areas.

 

On Fauna:

  • In Florida, iguanas and green lizards were falling off trees after being “stunned by the cold.”
  • The temperature in Gulf of Mexico waters has “cold-stunned” sea turtles in Texas, causing them to float to the surface and making them vulnerable to predators.
  • In Massachusetts’ Cape Cod, the Atlantic White Shark Conservancy reported the strandings of three thresher sharks out of which two were probably suffering from “cold shock” while the third had frozen solid.
  • In Canada, which is also battling extreme weather conditions, the Calgary Zoo announced that it was moving its king penguins inside amid -13F (-25C) temperatures.

Conclusion:

Although a “Bombogenesis” is not as scary as it sounds, it can be dangerous, with travel conditions particularly affected. Worldwide, about 40 to 50 ‘bomb cyclones’ brew each year, but most are over open oceans. However, with rampant climate change due to global warming, the frequencies of such events are going to increase.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

4) Are the Indian states proficient enough to make laws on National Security? Remark. Also, deliberate upon the debatable provisions of the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill that may render the legislation vulnerable to legal challenges. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

President Ram Nath Kovind has given his assent to the ‘Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organized Crime (GCTOC) Bill’, controversial anti-terror legislation passed in March 2015.

Key demand of the question:

One must deliberate upon the debatable provisions of the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill and discuss in what way it may lead to legal challenges in the coming future. One has to highlight and analyse if the Indian states are ready to make laws on National security.

Directive:

Comment

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate the background of the coming of the bill for the presidential assent.

Body:

Explain what the bill is about – It is an anti-terrorism law modeled on laws such the Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act. 

Discuss the key features of the bill.

Then move to bring out the controversial provisions of the Bill, say for example the feature of interception of oral, wire or electronic conversations and their admissibility as evidence in a court of law.

Explain the challenges and concerns involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way ahead.

Introduction:    

The President of India gave his assent to the GCTOC Bill, which was considered as controversial anti-terror legislation passed by the Gujarat State in March 2015. The Bill, earlier named as the Gujarat Control of Organised Crime Bill, failed to get the presidential nod thrice since 2004 when Narendra Modi was the Chief Minister of the State.

Body:

Proficiency of states to make laws on National Security:

  • The Gujarat anti-terror law is not the only one that did not or has not got the President’s assent.
  • A Bill by Madhya Pradesh is yet to get approval.
  • The Karnataka Control of Organised Crime Bill, now a law, was not granted approval for amendments in 2009.
  • After the Andhra Pradesh Control of Organised Crime Act (APCOCA) lapsed, the state government sought to reintroduce the law in 2006 but it did not get the President’s assent.
  • Among state laws that did get Presidential assent, the Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act (MCOCA) was the first.
  • Enacted in 1999, it was extended to the National Capital Territory in 2002 by the Home Ministry. Then came Karnataka’s Bill, passed in 2000.
  • In 2006, the Chhattisgarh Vishesh Jan Suraksha Adhiniyam (Special Public Security Act), 2005 received the President’s assent.

Provisions of the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill:

  • Under this Act, confessions before the police are admissible as evidence and the investigation period or the period of filing an FIR has been extended from 90 to 180 days.
  • The new law defines a terrorist act as “an act committed with the intention to disturb law and order or public order or threaten the unity, integrity and security of the state”, apart from economic offences.
  • Economic offences include ponzi schemes, extortion, land grabbing, contract killings, cyber-crimes, human trafficking, multi-level marketing schemes and organised betting.
  • The intercepted telephonic conversations would now be considered legitimate evidence
  • Creation of a special court as well as the appointment of special public prosecutors.
  • The bill provides for attachment of properties acquired through organised crimes. It also empowers authorities to cancel transfer of properties.
  • Other provisions of the Act is the admissibility of confession made before a police officer as evidence.

Previous incidents of rejection of the law:

  • After it was passed for the first time, the Bill was returned in 2004 by President Kalam who objected to provisions relating to the interception of communication.
  • In 2008, President Patil returned it over provisions on confessions made to a police officer.
  • After this, when some changes were made to the Bill and it became GCTOC in 2015, President Mukherjee did not give his assent seeking some clarifications on the provisions.

Positives of the act:

  • Gujarat shares a border with Pakistan, and hence, such legislation is required for better safety and security, especially in a coastal and border state.
  • It will give sufficient power to police officials and enhance the security of the state.
  • It will also help control cybercrime and narco-terrorism fuelled by terrorist outfits from across the border.

Controversial provisions in the act:

  • The Bill provides for admissibility of evidence collected through interception of mobile calls of an accused or through confessions made before an investigating officer, in a court of law. It is violative of the Right to Privacy (Article 21).
  • Clause 16, which makes confessions before police officers admissible in court. This is violative of the fundamental rights of an accused (Article 20).
  • The bill empowers police to tap telephonic conversations and submit them in court as evidence.
  • It extends period of probe from stipulated 90 days to 180 days before filing of charge sheet.
  • The legislation makes offences under the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime Act, 2015, non-bailable.
  • The Bill provides immunity to the State government from legal action.

Conclusion:

                It is rued that The Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill 2015 carries disturbing echoes of draconian anti-terror laws such as the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) and the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA). Given the strong provisions of the act, it must be seen to that the fundamental rights of the citizens is not violated.


Topic  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. . Disaster and disaster management.

5) What do you understand by Chhattisgarh model for disposal of agri-waste? Explain how it offers a solution to the pollution crisis.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article explains in what way Chhattisgarh model for disposal of agri-waste offers a solution to pollution crisis.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what is Chhattisgarh model for disposal of agri-waste and in what way it offers a solution to pollution crisis.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the pollution caused owing to stubble burning across the Northern India.

Body:

First discuss what is the Chhattisgarh model for  mitigating the harmful effects of stubble burning.

Chhattisgarh has undertaken an innovative experiment by setting up gauthans. A gauthan is a dedicated five-acre plot, held in common by each village, where all the unused parali(pairain Chhattisgarhi) is collected through parali daan (people’s donations) and is converted into organic fertiliser by rural youth. This provides them a living. 

Discuss the benefits of such a process/model.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a positive note that it is a good step forward in mitigating the effects of stubble burning that has led to huge climate crisis in the country.

Introduction:    

The pollution caused by burning of Parali (stubble or crop residue) is a unprecedented crisis which has held New Delhi and its citizens to a ransom.  The agri-waste burning has not only choked Delhi or there is a 50 per cent rise in respiratory illnesses, be it COPD or asthma cases, in the National Capital Region (NCR) area, but also there is a loss of soil fertility and there is a rise in incidents of cancer in Punjab and Haryana. Parali can be mixed with cow dung and few natural enzymes under MGNREGA to generate high-grade compost, and also reduce air pollution in North India.

Body:

Air pollution crisis in NCR:

  • Farmers in Haryana and Punjab burn up to 35 million tonnes of parali, which is responsible for significant percentage of Delhi-NCR’s air pollution levels.
  • One study estimates that crop residue burning released 149 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, nine million tonnes of carbon monoxide, 0.25 million tonnes of suphur oxides and 1.28 million tonnes of particulate matter.

Chhattisgarh model for disposal of agri-waste:

  • In Chhattisgarh, we have already undertaken this innovative experiment by setting up gauthans.
  • A gauthan is a dedicated five-acre plot, held in common by each village, where all the unused parali (paira in Chhattisgarhi) is collected through parali daan (people’s donations) and is converted into organic fertiliser by rural youth.
  • This provides them a living.
  • It involves an integrated regenerative rural development model of narwa (rivulet regeneration), garuwa (cattle conservation), ghuruwa (composting) and baari (kitchen garden) through a participatory process using MGNREGA.
  • Role of state Government in the initiative:
    • Farmers cannot do this alone as it involves capital expenditure.
    • In Chhattisgarh, the government supports only the transportation of parali from the farm to the nearest gauthan.
    • The state has successfully developed 2,000 gauthans.

Importance of recycling in Agriculture:

  • Agriculture is a regenerative process, one which recycles.
  • What we need is to utilise every product in the process and return it to the soil in one form or another.
  • From 35 million tonnes of parali, we can obtain 21 million tonnes of high-grade organic fertiliser.
  • The total amount of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and sulphur in the 23 million tonnes of parali annually burnt in Northwest India is about seven lakh tonnes, valued at Rs 1,000 crore.
  • This apart, organic carbon is also destroyed during stubble burning.
  • Thus, parali offers an important source for meeting the nutrient requirements of crops and improving soil health.
  • These nutrients also reduce the risk of cancers in Punjab by reducing the levels of carcinogens in soil.

Way forward:

  • Supreme Court could constitute a committee consisting of economists, agricultural experts, farmer delegates and bureaucrats to evaluate the parali burning crisis and explore the possibilities of expanding schemes like the MGNREGA to harvesting and composting.
  • The state needs to step in and engage already-existing mechanisms like the MGNREGA for this purpose.
  • To do this, the Centre needs to allow states to include activities like harvesting and composting in MGNREGA. This has been a longstanding demand of many states.

Conclusion:

A collective intervention using traditional wisdom and local resources and facilitated by sound administrative support can upturn this national problem.


Topic: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

6) Livestock is the lifeline of the Indian Agro-based economy, in this context Discuss the role that Livestock plays in the socio-economic life of India. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The tariff clauses for agriculture in the RCEP are much more severe compared to the existing World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. While the WTO allows a country to fix tariffs up to a certain maximum, or bound tariff, for a given commodity line, the RCEP binds countries to reduce that level to zero within the next 15 years. Currently, India’s average bound tariff for dairy products is about 63.8% while its average applied tariff is 34.8%.  Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to ascertain the significance of Livestock to Indian Agro-based economy and its role in the socio-economic life of the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the Indian Dairy scenario with key facts and statistics.

Body:

A key feature of India’s dairy sector is the predominance of small producers. In 2017, if the average herd size in a dairy farm was 191 in the U.S., 355 in Oceania, 148 in the U.K. and 160 in Denmark, it was just 2 in India.

Consequent to Operation Flood of the 1960s, India’s contribution to world milk production rose from 5% in 1970 to 20% in 2018. Today, India is largely self-sufficient in milk production. It does not import or export milk in any significant quantity. 

Give a brief account on the global scenario.

Explain the Significance of Dairy sector to India. 

Discuss that In India, livestock provides regular, supplementary income to producers engaged in secondary and tertiary forms related to livestock business.

Discuss the effect of recently concluded negotiations at RCEP.

Conclusion:

Conclude that any future negotiations must keep in mind the significance of the dairy sector to India not just in the economic context but also in its unique role in the social transformation of the rural landscape.

Introduction:    

India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.

India’s withdrawal from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is considered as a major victory for the farmer’s organisations, trade unions, MSME organisations and civil society groups, which had protested against the free trade agreement. RCEP would have proven suicidal for India’s dairy sector.

Body:

Trends in livestock population: (Source: 20th Livestock Census)

  • Total Livestock population is 535.78 million- an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012.
  • Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak)-79 Million in 2019- an increase of about 1% over the previous census.
  • A decline of 6 % in the total Indigenous/ Non-descript cattle population over the previous census.
  • The population of cows in the country has risen by 18 per cent in the last seven years, while that of oxen dipped by 30 per cent, according to the latest census of livestock.
  • there was a spectacular 16.8 per cent increase in the poultry population in the country to 851.81 million, mainly on account of a 46 per cent rise in backyard poultry birds, whose numbers have gone up to 317 million.
  • The number of female cattle is 145.12 million, which is 18 per cent over the 122.98 million in 2012. The number of male cattle, on the other hand, dropped to 47.4 million as against 67.92 million in 2012.
  • While cattle accounted for 35.94 per cent of total livestock in the country, goats accounted for 27.80 per cent, buffaloes: 20.45 per cent, sheep: 13.87 per cent and pigs: 1.69 per cent.

Role of livestock in socio-economic life of India:

The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways.

  • Income:
    • Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals.
    • Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk.
    • Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc.
    • The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners.
  • Employment:
    • A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods.
    • But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year.
    • The land less and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
  • Food:
    • The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners.
    • The per capita availability of milk is around 355 g / day; eggs is 69 / annum;
  • Social security:
    • The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society.
    • The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not.
    • Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country.
    • Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions.
    • Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons;
    • Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
  • Gender equity:
    • Animal husbandry promotes gender equity.
    • More than three-fourth of the labour demand in livestock production is met by women.
    • The share of women employment in livestock sector is around 90% in Punjab and Haryana where dairying is a prominent activity and animals are stall-fed.
  • Draft:
    • The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture.
    • The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs.
  • Dung:
    • In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).

Conclusion:

With increasing population, persistent rise in food inflation, unfortunate rise in farmer’s suicide and majority of the Indian population having agriculture as the primary occupation, the practice of animal husbandry is no more a choice, but a need in contemporary scenario. Its successful, sustainable and skilful implementation will go a long way in ameliorating the socio-economic condition of lower strata of our society.  Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.


Topic:  Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) Define work culture. Explain in what way work culture is shaped through the observations and experiences of the individual in the work place. Illustrate with suitable examples.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Key demand of the question:

Explain what work culture is and then discuss how it is defined and shaped through observations and experiences of the individual in the work place.

Use suitable case studies and examples to justify better.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what work culture is.

Body:

Discuss the significant features of work culture like – Creates a sense of identity for employees, reflects and shapes the mentality of employees, defines the character of organization etc.

Use suitable example and discuss the importance of observations and experiences of an individual in defining work culture.

Conclusion:

Conclude with strength and quality of work culture.

Introduction:    

Workplace culture is the environment that you create for your employees. It plays a powerful role in determining their work satisfaction, relationships and progression. It is the mix of your organisation’s leadership, values, traditions, beliefs, interactions, behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the emotional and relational environment of your workplace. These factors are generally unspoken and unwritten rules that help to form bonds between your colleagues.

Body:

Importance of Work culture:

  • Attracts and keeps talented staff: When you spend more time per week at work than at home, it’s natural to want to work in an environment you enjoy spending time in. This means that if you want the best staff for your team, you’ll have to invest in creating a strong workplace culture. In a study from the Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends 2015, ‘culture and engagement’ was the highest priority on the corporate agenda and companies with the strongest cultures were much more able to attract and keep talent.
  • Drives engagement and retention: You can successfully recruit employees but it becomes a cost to your business if they leave. A good workplace culture is proven to keep your employees engaged in their work. It’ll allow your employees to better understand what is expected of them and how they can achieve their professional goals. This will then allow you to keep them onboard for longer.
  • Creates an environment for healthy development: A good workplace culture provides everyone with the opportunity to initiate change and to grow on a professional and personal aspect. It also promotes openness and encourages your employees to voice their opinions and chase after the values they believe in.
  • Creates satisfied employees and increases productivity: A healthy workplace culture will make your employees feel happy to come to work day-in and day-out. A happy work environment increases your employees’ concentration, thus, this leads to increases in their productivity levels.
  • Drives financial performance: 92% of leaders from from successful companies believe that workplace culture and financial performance are closely interrelated. Workplace culture directly influences the way your employees perform, which subsequently has a direct impact on your business’ financial profit.

Conclusion:

Work culture is an intangible ecosystem that makes some places great to work and other places toxic. This is why work culture is so important in bringing out the best from your employees even in adverse circumstances. Negativity not only kills creativity and will to perform but also does not allow an employee to develop a sense of affection and ownership with the organization. Human beings are fundamentally simple and a positive work environment impacts the way they think, act and reflect.