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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 OCTOBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1) Religious and linguistic diversity are integral to the growth and development of our society. Elucidate.(250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article explains how religious and linguistic diversity are integral to the growth and development of our society. And in what way we must preserve them.

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to bring out the essence and need for having religious and linguistic diversity.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In first, explain what religiosity and linguistic diversity mean in Indian context.

Body:

One has to explain in detail that the majority principle militates against federalism. After all, to deny states and its people their own language is tantamount to erasing their cultural identity.

Then move on to explain how majoritarianism cannot replace diversity in terms of religion and language, later, examine the hypothesis that the indiscriminate use of the majoritarian principle leads to domination and prejudice.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of diversity and need to recognize it against the concept of Majoritarianism.

Introduction:

Plurality and multiplicity characterize Indian society and culture. India has accommodated and assimilated various outside elements into its growing culture. However, it has never been a ‘melting pot’ in which all differences got dissolved and a uniform identity was created. India is a shining example of a ‘salad bowl’ in which different elements retain their individual identities and yet, together, they form a distinct recipe.

Body:

Religious diversity:

Indian society is multi-religious. While the state is secular, the people of India belong to different religions. Apart from the tribal societies, many of whom still live in the pre-religious state of animism and magic, the Indian population consists of the Hindus (82.41%), Muslims (11.6%), Christians (2.32%), Sikhs (1.99%), Buddhists (0.77%) and Jains (0.41%). The Hindus themselves are divided into several sects; in fact, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism are all offshoots of the same root. Hinduism is also said to have incorporated many practices and beliefs of the local communities.

Articles 25 to 28 of the Constitution state that every citizen has the right to practice and promote their religions peacefully. And yet, we have witnessed religious riots in the country on several occasions.

Linguistic diversity:

India is rightly described as a polyglot country – a country of many languages. Linguistic research suggests that when means of trans­portation were less developed, there was little mobility of people. Therefore, communities confined to small areas spoke their own dialects. And these were spoken in a radius of 7-8 kms. That is why even today there are 1,572 languages and dialects that are each spoken by less than 1,00,000 speakers, besides the 18 Scheduled languages. Until recently, the Census of India collected only mother tongue statistics, which gave the wrong impression about the actual number of speakers of any language.

Religious and linguistic diversity are integral to the growth and development of our society:

  • In India, everyone is a minority depending upon the context. Hindus are the minority in Kashmir, Brahmins in Tamil Nadu, non-Christians in Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya and of course, Muslims, Christians and Parsis in the whole of India.
  • If we look beyond India, in South Asia, Muslims are a minority in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bhutan, but they are majority in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Maldives.
  • Likewise, Buddhists are minority in all South Asian countries but are a majority in Sri Lanka.
  • If we take other signifiers such as language and ethnicity, there will be a different majority-minority dichotomy.

Factors that have supported the Unity in Diversity:

  • Religious Unity: People of different religions practice their religion without any fear and also respect one another’s religion.
  • Geographical unity: The physical features of India have cut us from the rest of the world and made us feel one naturally.
  • Linguistic unity: Each state has its own language and literature. In some states, more than two languages are spoken. In India, the dialect changes every twenty kilometres. People of one language respect people speaking other languages thereby fostering unity.
  • Cultural unity: Different people from different regions look differently. They dress differently. They have different eating habits, customs, castes, creed, traditions, practices, etc. but still all of them are united since all of them are Indians. Thus, amidst diversity, there is unity among the Indians.
  • Political unity: The fact that all twenty-nine states come under one constitution and follow its rule shows that there’s political unity.

Conclusion:

India has served as an exemplar of multicultural democracy. It is in that sense that India is a unity in diversity, guided by the principle of tolerance (Sahishnuta) and mutual respect. Hence, majoritarianism should be replaced by pluralism which promotes peaceful coexistence of diversities through the spirit of accommodation as well as solidarity.


Topic:  Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2) Analyse “Beti Bachao Beti padhao scheme” from the prism of social empowerment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to evaluate the aspects of social empowerment benefits of the Beti Bachao Beti padhao scheme.

Key demand of the question:

One must bring out the social aspects of the Beti Bachao Beti padhao scheme and highlight in what way the scheme not only empowers women as a gender but empowers whole of the Indian society.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief highlight the key features of the scheme.

Body:

The overall goal of the scheme is to celebrate the Girl Child & Enable her Education.

  • The objectives of the Scheme are as under:
  • To prevent gender biased sex selective elimination
  • To ensure survival and protection of the girl child
  • To ensure education and participation of the girl child.

Explain in what way improving these factors will lead to a better society.

Discuss the interconnectedness of empowering women with other aspects of life.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the scheme.

Introduction:

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme was launched in January, 2015. The scheme is aimed at promoting gender equality and the significance of educating girls. The Scheme is targeted at improving the Child Sex Ratio through multi sectoral interventions including prevention of gender biased sex selection and promoting girls’ education and her holistic empowerment. It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.

Body:

Child Sex Ratio is defined as number of girls per 1000 of boys between 0-6 years of age. Hence, a decline in the CSR is a major indicator of women disempowerment. The ratio reflects both, pre-birth discrimination manifested through gender biased sex selection and post birth discrimination against girls.

Significance and the need for scheme:

  • It aims at making girls independent, both monetarily and socially.
  • Through BBBP, the government aims to generate awareness towards women issues.
  • The government also wishes to improve the efficiency of delivery of welfare services meant for women.
  • The government has launched ‘Sukanya Samridhi Yojana’ for the benefit of Girl child. This scheme carries the highest interest, 8.1% interest rate per annum. Parents of girl child aged between 2-10 years can open this account in the Post Office, with the maximum deposit limit being Rs. 1.50 lakhs per annum.
  • The impact of BBBP scheme is visible in only 2 years from its launch date. However, the sex ratio has reportedly crossed up to 950 females per 1000 males.
  • The number of women police officers has also increased from 6% to 8.5%.
  • A large number of women are now free to join fields and careers of their own choices. These careers ranging from armed forces, science, journalism, sports, wrestling, engineering among others.
  • The government is continually stressing on quality education for girls and encouraging parents to send their girl child to school.
  • The key elements of the scheme include Enforcement of PC & PNDT Act, nation-wide awareness and advocacy campaign and multi-sectoral action in select 100 districts (low on CSR) in the first phase.
  • There is a strong emphasis on mindset change through training, sensitization, awareness raising and community mobilization on ground.
  • The social construct discrimination against girls on one hand, easy availability, affordability and subsequent misuse of diagnostic tools on the other hand, have been critical in increasing Sex Selective Elimination of girls leading to low Child Sex Ratio.
  • Some major impacts are-
    • Balancing sex ratios
    • Bringing girl child rights into focus
    • Achieving girl-child access to education

Challenges faced:

  • However, the initiative though good has been largely criticized by many people.
  • The budgetary allowance is very less to the tune of Rs. 100 Crore. It is not enough to allot funds and schemes.
  • Social abuses and orthodox rituals like female foeticide, Sati, child marriage and domestic abuse obstruct the due execution of this scheme.
  • The government machinery and the police are, however, to get the magnitude of women atrocities seriously. This also weakens the effective implementation of the BBBP scheme.
  • The mind-set of people remains conservative besides the numerous campaigns spreading awareness among people.
  • The scheme needs civic body support to achieve the objectives of the scheme.
  • The Dowry system is the main obstacles in the successful implementation and impact of BBBP scheme
  • More importantly we need to rearrange and amend the laws and punish those vigorously who interfere with the peaceful existence of the girls in the society.
  • The money allotment is never the solution, it’s high time we see to it the law is punishing the culprits very severely.

Measures needed:

  • Gender respect should be taught at the school level more so from the home level by the parents.
  • We need to address the associated problems in bringing up the girl child, her marriage expenses and discrimination in the society.
  • There also is a need to launch more dedicated efforts than just allocating monetary incentives
  • We need to have a strong law meant to punish those engaged in the practice of sex determination and sex selective abortion- Pre Conception and Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act.
  • The government has to ensure that they talk tough so that doctors do not indulge in this malpractice.
  • there is a need to connect with the communities first, right from the gram panchayat level to ensure gender equality. 
  • provide an enabling environment for our girls and educate and inform person’s right at the grass root level that there should be no gender bias

Conclusion:

The BBBP initiative under the scheme have started giving fruit at small levels as the level of awareness among the people is increasing. Therefore, people now have a serious impact to work for girl child upliftment in society. The success of this scheme will add tremendously to the economic growth of the country. This is due to the fact that India cannot afford to have a large part of its population remain neglected.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) India drew up its national plan of action for countering AMR in 2017, Trace the progress of the programme made so far. Also, do you think it has reached a state of ‘limited successes? If so, why? Analyse.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article talks about how exactly a year after the State launched the comprehensive Kerala Antimicrobial Resistance Strategic Action Plan (KARSAP), there are worries that the project could be losing its momentum.

Thus with the case of Kerala state it is important for us to evaluate the progress on this front and analyse the challenges involved.

Key demand of the question:

First one has to explain the coming of National action plan for countering AMR by GOI and the associated concerns in its progress. And analyse the success on this front while suggesting way forward.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Discuss in short the national plan of action for countering AMR in 2017.

Body:

Explain first the challenges involved in implementing the WHO global AMR Action Plan that was released in 2015. 

Discuss what have been the challenges in implementing these rules across all the states and UTs in the country.

Explain what are the key concerns involved and what should be the way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions.

Introduction:

Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. Today, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance continues unabated around the world. The Chennai Declaration, possibly the first-ever attempt to draw up a roadmap to tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in India was done in 2017, two years after the WHO global AMR action plan.

Body:

Progress of Chennai Declaration so far:

  • Post the AMR action plan in 2017, all the states and UTs had to prepare the state action plan, start implementation and succeed to an extent, by now.
  • However, only two states have the State Action Plans in place – Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
  • the national action plan – it is a cut and paste job of the WHO’s global action plan, and the state action plan is quite similar to the national plan.

Reasons for limited success:

  • The AMR action plans we have currently are bound to fail. And that is because the way we have gone about handling this challenge.
  • AMR is a complex challenge – it is not just a technical or scientific challenge, but also a social, economic political challenge.
  • The lack of dynamic solutions incorporating the political and social complexities involved to fight the AMR is another factor.
  • The Technical Advisory Committee has not met for a year, so no significant recommendation has been passed on to the Intersectoral Committee.

Steps needed to fight AMR:

  • There is a need to tweak the global plan for regional, national and sub national levels
  • the Union Health Ministry must drive the push, so more states formulate their own action plans.
  • Sanitation should be placed as the most important component of fighting AMR, armed with all the evidence.
  • Awareness about personal hygiene, washing hands with soap and water the right way, for instance will go a long way in promoting sanitation.
  • Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India.
  • Improving regulation of drug production and sales
  • Better managing physician compensation
  • Encouraging behavior change among doctors and patients are of immediate priority.
  • Regulation of the e-Pharmacies which gives an easy access to drugs.
  • Improved management of the health care delivery systems, both public and private, will minimize conditions favourable for the development of drug resistance.
  • Improved awareness of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication. WHO’s World Antibiotic Awareness Week is one such event.
  • Reducing the incidence of infection through effective infection prevention and control. As stated by WHO, making infection prevention and hand hygiene a national policy priority.
  • Discourage non-therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary, agriculture and fishery practices as growth-promoting agents.
  • Promoting investments for antimicrobial resistance activities, research and innovations
  • Strengthening India’s commitment and collaborations on antimicrobial resistance at international, national and sub-national levels.
  • Regulate the release of antibiotic waste from pharmaceutical production facilities and monitoring antibiotic residues in wastewater.

Conclusion:

India should tweak its own national plan to address the more urgent issues, and remember that with a challenge as dynamic as AMR, there needs to be fine tuning periodically. It is also important to make sure states also engage similarly with their local issues and draw up a state action plan suitable for themselves. There needs to be some demonstrable political intent to thrash this issue out, reflected by equally robust field level implementation by multiple stake holders. Putting people at the centre of this fight is important, especially if we need to ameliorate the social and economic contributors to contagion.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) With the Naga peace process approaching the final twitch, explain the prominence of an early settlement of the time’s old issue. Deliberate the key demands of the Centre and the Nagas.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The last leg of negotiations between the government and the representatives of the six Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) are being conducted in Delhi and the Naga peace process is expected to conclude by October 31.

Key demand of the question:

The question is based upon the ongoing happenings around Naga peace process. Students must trace the process so far and the implications along with the possibilities of way ahead.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief trace the negotiations so far.

Body:

Explain first the factors that have triggered the present situation so far.

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • How did the Naga issue start?
  • Is the peace process with the NSCN the first?
  • How have the divisions impacted the peace process?
  • What are possible solutions ahead?

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Introduction:

Four years after the government inked the Naga peace accord in 2015, the Centre has now said that the process had almost concluded, despite the fact that the talks had hit a roadblock in its final stages. The Centre’s push for a solution to the vexed issue by October this year and the non-flexibility of the Isak-Muivah faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM) on the “Naga national flag” and “Naga Yezhabo (constitution)” are said to be the primary reasons. But the issue is more complex than the twin conditions, as it affects Nagaland’s neighbours in northeast India.

Body:

Prominence of early settlement of the issue:

  • The Peace accord augurs well with the internal security dimension of the North-East given its geo-political position as being surrounded by four countries China, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Bhutan.
  • North-East is linked with the Indian heartland through the 21 km wide Siliguri Corridor, commonly known as the chicken neck.
  • With the abatement in armed insurgency, development work can be carried with greater pace which will help in the integration of North-East with the Indian mainland.
  • North-East has a tremendous economic potential which has remained unexplored till. It can emerge as the cradle of tourism and organic farming.
  • With greater normalcy security forces involved in internal security can be moved to border areas for its optimum management.

NSCN (IM) demands:

  • A “Greater Nagalim” comprising “all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas”, along with Nagaland. That included several districts of Assam, Arunachal and Manipur, as also a large tract of Myanmar.
  • The Nagaland Assembly has endorsed the ‘Greater Nagalim’ demand — “Integration of all Naga-inhabited contiguous areas under one administrative umbrella” — as many as five times: in December 1964, August 1970, September 1994, December 2003 and as recently as on July 27, 2015.
  • The current demands of the NSCN (IM) have toned down from complete sovereignty to greater autonomous region within the Indian constitutional framework with due regard to the uniqueness of Naga history and traditions.
  • NSCN (IM) seeks a “Greater Nagalim” comprising “all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas”, along with Nagaland. That includes several districts of Assam, Arunachal and Manipur, and also a large tract of Myanmar.

Government of India’s stand:

  • A mutually agreed draft comprehensive settlement, including all the substantive issues and competencies, is ready for inking the final agreement. Respecting the Naga people’s wishes, the Government of India is determined to conclude the peace process without delay.

Naga Peace-Accord provisions:

  • NSCN – IM has been derecognized as a militant organization and talks have been initiated with the government.
  • GOI is open to discuss the Naga territorial issue within the existing boundaries of the neighboring states of Manipur, Assam etc. which are being claimed as part of Greater Nagalim.
  • Key issues that have been put under consideration includes AFSPA, demographic changes due to cross border migrations and other tribals like Meitei who are diluting the local populations in the Naga areas.

Loopholes in the Naga Peace Accord:

  • The foremost challenge of the peace accord is the framework without clear mandate or objectives. The accord although remains out of public view but there has been talks about ‘special arrangement’ providing great scope of confusion to both government and the insurgents.
  • The Naga issue not only pertains to the Nagas but also impacts the whole region, including Naga-inhabited areas of Myanmar.
  • The issue of integration of contiguous Naga-inhabited areas of Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in view of the demand for territorial unification of ‘Greater Nagalim’ will trigger violent clashes in the different affected states.
  • There is a demand for a separate “frontier Nagaland or Eastern Nagaland” under the aegis of the Eastern Nagaland Public Organization (ENPO) which will undermine any attempt at making one greater nagalim.
  • Another major hindrance to the peace process in Nagaland is the existence of more than one organisation, each claiming to be representative of the Nagas.

Way forward:

  • The history of Indo-Naga conflict shows that various past agreements have broken down due to different interpretations of the provisions by the parties at their convenience.
  • Failure of government to address the issue holistically will result in new revolutionary Naga movement which will be much dangerous due to globalisation, greater availability of resources for sustaining any rebellion, and greater scope for international intervention in case of a violent struggle.
  • A greater understanding of the issue, especially the tribal factor and changing aspirations of the civil society, needs to be developed in order to bring an acceptable and comprehensive solution to the Naga problem.
  • One way of dealing with the issue can be maximum decentralisation of powers to the tribal heads and minimum centralisation at the apex level, which should mainly work towards facilitating governance and undertaking large development projects.
  • For any peace framework to be effective, it should not threaten the present territorial boundaries of the states of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh. As it will not be acceptable to these states.
  • Greater autonomy for the Naga inhabited areas in these states can be provided which would encompass separate budget allocations for the Naga inhabited areas with regard to their culture and development issues.
  • A new body should be constituted that would look after the rights of the Nagas in the other north-eastern states besides Nagaland.
  • Any final resolution package must also have the consent of the NSCN (K) as well. Only then will the Naga inhabited areas in Northeast India witness real peace after decades of violence.
  • A non-territorial resolution for one of the oldest armed ethnic conflicts in the Northeast will offer a way forward to resolving many other ethnic conflicts such as those involving the Kukis, Meiteis, Bodos, Dimasas, Hmars, and Karbis.
  • Any arrangement thus worked out should lead to social and political harmony, economic prosperity and protection of the life and property of all tribes and citizens of the states.

Topic:  Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5) Discuss the need of a strong agriculture/veterinary patent regime to augment India’s agricultural research and development sector, also, analyse how it can prove to be a road map for agricultural technology transfer and commercialization?(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

The article highlights the aspects of a clear road map for agricultural technology transfer and commercialization.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate India’s agricultural research and development sector scenario.

Body:

Explain that the management and transfer of agricultural technologies for commercialization purposes is considered to be a new concept in India. However, there is an upward surge in the technology protection, incubation and other commercialization activities in recent times. This can be attributed to the recent transformation of the agribusiness ecosystem in the country due to policy initiatives and more focused research in applied and frontier areas.

Discuss the various aspects, ways to augment agricultural systems, role of patents etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Appropriate policies should combine the concern with international norms with the specifics of India’s economic and social needs to ensure the success of agricultural systems through the aid of technological advancements.

Introduction:

Technologies developed in research or academic institutions are typically transferred through an agreement in which the university or the research institution grants to a third party a licence to use its intellectual property in the defined technology, sometimes for a particular field of use and/or region of the world.

There is an upward surge in the technology protection, incubation and other commercialisation activities in recent times. This can be attributed to the recent transformation of the agribusiness ecosystem in the country due to policy initiatives and more focused research in applied and frontier areas.

Body:

Need for a strong agriculture/veterinary patent regime:

  • The management and transfer of agricultural technologies for commercialisation purposes is considered to be a new concept in India.
  • The technology transfer process promotes commercialisation, reach of better products to the market and job generation.
  • The expenses incurred towards intellectual property protection and its maintenance can be justified in view of introduction of better products, increased completion in the market, enhanced customer satisfaction, and more revenue and tax generation.
  • A stronger intellectual property enforcement and providing more timely resolution of infringement complaints can help combat intellectual property theft, which is not uncommon in India.
  • They can forge strategic alliances with global business houses and their counterparts in foreign universities.
  • In spite of the many agencies, schemes and government departments in the country that act as support mechanisms for intellectual property protection and subsequent commercialisation, the benefits have not been reaching to needy entrepreneurs, especially in the case of micro, small and medium scale agribusinesses.

Strong patent system can be a roadmap

  • Promotes Agricultural extension system:
    • Public extension played a major role in ushering in the green revolution in Indian agriculture.
    • Though agriculture development in India is basically a state subject and the agricultural sector plays a crucial role from the perspective of ensuring food and livelihood security of its large population.
    • The central government plays a major role in formulating policies that has direct bearing on the growth of the agricultural sector.
  • Encourage public–public and public–private partnerships for intellectual property management:
    • To increase industrial competitiveness in India, possibilities of new partnerships should be explored among the research producers, technology providers, users (including start-ups), and funders.
  • Concerted approach for promoting business incubation and start-ups:
    • By default, agricultural technologies are low-cost technologies, and entrepreneurs consider them less enterprising because of the lower purchasing power of the target market.
    • Therefore, ICAR and SAUs should initiate facilities for incubation of new business ideas based on innovative agricultural technologies by providing cheap space, facilities and required information and research inputs.
  • Bringing an act in Parliament like Bayh-Dole Act in the US:
    • The US Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 allows universities and other non-profit institutions to have ownership rights to discoveries resulting from federally-funded research, provided certain obligations are met.
    • Crafting Indian legislation analogous to the Bayh-Dole Act in the us will ensure more legal clarity and support, lower transaction costs, and facilitate more efficient channels for technology transfer.
  • Changes in existing research ecosystem:
    • ICAR’s and SAUs’s policies have to be modified in such a way that will encourage public institutions to share patent revenues with individual inventors or researchers.
    • It should also encourage universities and research institutes to patent all patentable discoveries and make it mandatory for all public research institutions to set aside a portion of royalty revenues to maintain internal systems for updating innovation, filing new patent applications, litigating, licensing, and building intellectual property awareness and competence.
  • Catalyse change in legal system and industrial culture:
    • Apart from strengthening the institutional innovations and delivery mechanism, the NARS can also play a vital role in strengthening intellectual property laws and regulations in India with respect to agriculture, plant variety, geographical indicators, biodiversity and traditional knowledge.
    • It can also moot new guidelines for IPR policies within and outside NARS for issues related to agriculture, food and water.

Way forward:

  • More concerted approaches of state and private players through effective PPPs are required to revitalise the Indian agricultural scenario to a more profit-oriented, technology savvy and productive one.
  • Innovative institutional mechanisms should be designed for promoting intellectual property protection and technology commercialisation among researchers and academia.
  • Legal and other supportive framework should also be strengthened to support the ever-changing intellectual property regime.
  • The role of a strong intellectual property education among agricultural, business and law schools is also important in the present-day scenario.
  • More open and pragmatic approaches would aid in developing a strong intellectual property platform for Indian agricultural research system.
  • Forming protocols and guidelines for operating patents derived through public research funds coupled with appropriate innovations in institutional governance will enhance the prospects for technology transfer from laboratories to commercial markets.
  • Appropriate policies should combine the concern with international norms with the specifics of India’s economic and social needs.

TOPIC: :  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6) What are Organoids? Discuss the role played by them in helping to understand diseases better. Also explain ethical challenges associated with them.( 250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently, at Neuroscience 2019, the Society for Neuroscience’s 49th annual meeting, held in Chicago, U.S., two neuroscientists warned the gathering that fellow scientists are “perilously close” to crossing the ethical red line of growing mini-brains or Organoids in the laboratory that can perceive or feel things.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss the concept of Organoids in detail, its advantages and disadvantages along with the critical analysis of the ethical concerns involved. 

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what Organoids are.

Body:

Explain that Organoids are a group of cells grown in laboratories into three-dimensional, miniature structures that mimic the cell arrangement of a fully-grown organ. They are tiny (typically the size of a pea) organ-like structures that do not achieve all the functional maturity of human organs but often resemble the early stages of a developing tissue.

Discuss their salient features.

Explain how Organoids are grown in the laboratory?

Discuss the ethical concerns involved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Organoids are a group of cells grown in laboratories into three-dimensional, miniature structures that mimic the cell arrangement of a fully-grown organ. They are tiny (typically the size of a pea) organ-like structures that do not achieve all the functional maturity of human organs but often resemble the early stages of a developing tissue. Most organoids contain only a subset of all the cells seen in a real organ, but lack blood vessels to make them fully functional. In the case of brain organoids, scientists have been able to develop neurons and even make specific brain regions such as the cerebral cortex that closely resemble the human brain. The largest brain organoids that have been grown in the laboratory are about 4 mm in diameter.

Body:

Role of Organoids in understanding diseases:

  • Organoids offer new opportunities to studying proteins and genes that are critical for the development of an organ.
  • This helps in knowing how a mutation in a specific gene causes a disease or disorder.
  • In a study in Europe using intestinal organoids from six patients with an intestine disorder, it became possible to identify the mutation in a gene that prevented the formation of a healthy intestine.
  • Researchers have used brain organoids to study how the Zika virus affects brain development in the embryo.
  • Scientists are already using stem cells taken from tumours to grow organoids that are poised to develop cancer.
  • The ability to grow organoids using cancer stem cells allows researchers to study the genes, proteins and signalling pathways that cancer cells use to develop and grow.
  • They are also using healthy organoids to identify and verify the gene mutations that cause cancer.

Other benefits:

  • Organoids can be used to study the safety and efficacy of new drugs and also test the response of tissues to existing medicines.
  • Organoids will bring precision medicine closer to reality by developing patient-specific treatment strategies by studying which drugs the patient is most sensitive to.
  • Since the use of animals during drug development studies is becoming increasingly difficult, the focus has been on refining, reducing and replacing them.
  • While scientists have been increasingly using human cell lines and other methods, such alternatives have some inherent limitations — they cannot mimic the whole organ system.
  • Organoids are a far superior alternative to cell lines.

Ethical concerns posed:

  • In some cases, scientists have already transplanted such lab-grown brain organoid to adult animals.
  • These are seen as a step towards potential “humanisation” of host animals.
  • Scientists argue that organoids do not have sensory inputs and sensory connections from the brain are limited.
  • Isolated regions of the brain cannot communicate with other brain regions or generate motor signals.
  • Thus, the possibility of consciousness or other higher-order perceptive properties, such as the ability to feel distress, emerging seems extremely remote.

Conclusion:

Despite organoids providing bright prospects which can change the future of medicine and technology in medicine, the associated concerns must be tackled at the earliest.


TOPIC: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

7) What are Nano pharmaceuticals? Discuss their key features and elucidate on the role played by them in extending the economic life of proprietary drugs. (250 words)

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Why this question:

Recently, Guidelines were released for Evaluation of Nano pharmaceuticals in India.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what are Nano pharmaceuticals, their utility, advantages and possible concerns.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what Nano pharmaceuticals are.

Body:

Nano pharmaceuticals represent an emerging field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the Nano scale. 

Describe briefly the recently launched guidelines.

Explain the significance of such guidelines.

Bring out the applications of Nano pharmaceuticals.

Conclusion:

Conclude with advantages; suggest that Nano pharmaceuticals have the ability to extend the economic life of proprietary drugs, thereby creating additional revenue streams.

Introduction:

Nano pharmaceuticals are a relatively new class of therapeutic-containing nanomaterials that often have unique “nanoproperties” (physiochemical properties) due to their small size (compared with their bulk-phase counterparts) a high surface-to-volume ratio and the possibility of modulating their properties. Recently, the Government of India released “Guidelines for Evaluation of Nano-pharmaceuticals in India”.

Body:

Nano-pharmaceuticals key features:

  • A Nano-material can be defined as material having a particle size in the range of 1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension.
  • Nano-formulations are not entirely new drugs but medicines that have better quality because of the technology-led delivery mechanisms that are used to make its administration in the body more effective.
  • Nanopharmaceuticals are rapidly emerging sub-branch that deals with the drug-loaded nanocarriers or nanomaterials that have unique physicochemical properties and minute size range for penetrating the Central Nervous system
  • Nano-pharmaceuticals can be tailored with functional modalities to achieve active targeting to the brain tissues.
  • The magic behind their therapeutic success is the reduced amount of dose and lesser toxicity, whereby localizing the therapeutic agent to the specific site.
  • Role played by them in extending the economic life of proprietary drugs:
  • They present novel reformulation opportunities for active agents (e.g., single molecule drugs, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) that were previously insoluble or could not be targeted to a specific site of the body where they were needed.
  • Nano-pharmaceuticals can also increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity and diminishing drug metabolism.
  • They are expected to bring about a revolution in treatment strategies as they would enable targeting specific delivery of drugs and therapeutic molecules.
  • They offer higher efficacy and lower toxicity in many disease conditions.
  • They are expected to be of great use particularly in cancer treatment.
  • With these advantages, nano-pharmaceuticals have the ability to extend the economic life of proprietary drugs, thereby creating additional revenue streams.

Conclusion:

Nanopharmaceuticals have enormous potential in addressing this failure of traditional therapeutics which offers site-specific targeting of active agents. Such precision targeting via nanopharmaceuticals reduces toxic systemic side effects, resulting in better patient compliance.