- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
What to study?
For prelims and mains: ICAO- composition, roles, functions and significance.
Context: India has approached ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) after Pakistan denied permission for PM Modi to use its air space.
The overflight clearances are granted by other countries according to ICAO guidelines.
What is it?
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a UN specialized agency, established by States in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).
- ICAO works with the Convention’s 193 Member States and industry groups to reach consensus on international civil aviation Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable and environmentally responsible civil aviation sector.
- These SARPs and policies are used by ICAO Member States to ensure that their local civil aviation operations and regulations conform to global norms, which in turn permits more than 100,000 daily flights in aviation’s global network to operate safely and reliably in every region of the world.
- ICAO also coordinates assistance and capacity building for States in support of numerous aviation development objectives; produces global plans to coordinate multilateral strategic progress for safety and air navigation.
- Also monitors and reports on numerous air transport sector performance metrics; and audits States’ civil aviation oversight capabilities in the areas of safety and security.
- Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States.
- Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established.
- It functioned from 6 June 1945 until 4 April 1947. By 5 March 1947 the 26th ratification was received. ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
- The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.