__Insights into Editorial: What is quantum supremacy?__

Google announced that it has achieved a breakthrough called ** quantum supremacy in computing**.

For the first time ever, a quantum computer has ** performed a computational task** that would be essentially impossible for a conventional computer to complete, according to a team from Google.

Quantum computers could one day result in huge advances in science research and technology. Among areas that stand to gain are ** artificial intelligence, and new drug therapies**. All that, however, is a long way away.

__what is quantum supremacy?__

It is a term proposed **in 2012 by John Preskill,** professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology.

It describes the point where __quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot.__

In Google’s case, researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara have claimed to have **developed a processor** that took __200 seconds to do a calculation that would have taken a classical computer 10,000 years.__

__What are qubits?__

A qubit is the ** physical carrier of quantum information** and can take values of

__zero, one, or both at once.__Classical computes encode information in bits whereas quantum computers use qubits.

__Each qubit can represent both a 1 and a 0 at the same time.__

Using qubit, Quantum Computers can hold more information than classical computers and ** solve problems faster and more efficiently**.

In designing a standard computer, engineers spend a lot of time trying to make sure the status of each bit is independent from that of all the other bits.

But in a quantum computer, each qubit influences the other qubits around it, working together to arrive at a solution.

** Superposition and entanglement** are what give quantum computers the ability to process so much more information so much faster.

__Difference between a standard computer and a quantum computer:__

- A classical computer performs calculations
.__using bits that is 0 representing off and 1 representing on__ - It uses transistors to process information in the form of
More transistors more processing ability.__sequences of zeros and ones called computer binary language.__ - A quantum computer uses the
.__laws of quantum mechanics__ - Just like a classical computer that uses zeros and ones. These states can be achieved in particles due to their
.__internal angular momentum called spin__ - The two states 0 and 1 can be represented in the spin of the particle.
**For example:**clockwise spin represents 1 and counter clockwise represents 0. The advantage of using a quantum computer is that the particle can be in**multiple states simultaneously.**This phenomenon is called- Due to this phenomenon a quantum computer can
. Thus, in a classical computer information is expressed through single number either 0 or 1.__achieve both 0 and 1 states at the same time__ - A quantum computer uses quits which is described as a 0 and 1 at the same time giving us
.__more processing power__ - For Instance: In a 2 bit classic computer to analyse 00 01 10 11 , it has to grow through each step to get to a result . In a
__2-qubit quantum computer can analyse all the possibilities at the same time. Hence reducing time.__

__ __

__The dark side: That needs to define its legitimate use:__

- The dark side of quantum computing is the
**disruptive effect**that it will have on**cryptographic encryption**, which.__secures communications and computers__ - Encryption depends on
**very large prime numbers**, which serve as the seeds from which cryptographic keys are generated and exchanged by the parties to a conversation. - It works because
**encryption and decryption**are**operationally asymmetric**. It is easier for a computer to multiply very large prime numbers than it is to factor a product down to its constituent primes. - This differential keeps your WhatsApp messages private, but if the odds were evened by exponentially powerful computers, privacy online would be dead.
. Often, it creates new problems, and the solution lies in the law. Long after the birth of social media and artificial intelligence, there are now demands to regulate them.__Technology isn’t always the solution__- It would be prudent
before it becomes widely available.__to develop a regulatory framework for quantum computing__ - It is a
**transformative technology**whose future uses, across a wide spectrum of sectors from data analysis to geopolitics, cannot be fully anticipated. - In that sense, it is rather like nuclear technology, which was regulated by a global regime 23 years after Hiroshima by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. It would be
__useful to regulate quantum computing now, or at least define the limits of its legitimate use.__

__Conclusion: What Quantum computers can achieve?__

This can lead to **a severe and ground-breaking foundation** in the field of computer science. This helps to ** solve many unsolved or virtually solvable problems** with the unified space and time complexities.

It can lead to the ** discovery of new medicine and materials** by unwinding the complexities of molecular and chemical interactions.

They can **help financial industries** to make better investments by finding new ways to model financial data and isolate key global risk factors.

They can ** transform supply chain and logistics** by finding the optimal route across the global systems.

Quantum computers won’t replace our classic computers but it will open up a ** new universe of information** and

**.**

__ability to solve complex problems__In quantum chemistry there will be a big impact, which could be important in __agriculture and human health.__

It could help with the development of new pharmaceuticals, new energy sources, new ways to collect solar power, and new materials.

That might be quite a way down the road, but it’s part of what gets people excited about the potential applications.