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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 October 2019

[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 October 2019

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General Studies – 1


Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1) Italy was united by the heart of Mazzini, the sword of Garibaldi and brain of Cavour. Elucidate.(250 words)

Reference

World history by Norman Lowe

Why this question:

The question wants to link the three major personalities behind the Unification of Italy.

Key demand of the question:

One must.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Introduce with the how Italy was fragment across various principalities and the need for unification.

Body:

The first body should elaborate on Mazzini and his contribution in kindling Italian Nationalism. Young Italy as an organization and spread of nationalism must be explored.

Cavour as Brain. His works a PM of Piedmont-Sardinia, his politics, Plombeirs pact, agreement with Bismarck must be touched upon.

The contributions of Garibaldi and his red shirts must also be added and also the disagreement between Cavour and Garibaldi.

Conclusion:

The conclusion touch upon how others such as King Victor Emmanuel also played a part in Unification process but the above mentioned three were its heart, brain and sword.


Topic:History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2) Explain how conflicting geographical differences between the northern and southern states of America led to outbreak of American Civil War. (250 words) 

World history by Norman Lowe

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of American Civil War.

Key demand of the question:

The question seeks to ascertain the geographical causes of the American Civil War in detail.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly introduce the contrast between geography of northern American and Southern American (Confederate) states.

Body:

First brief a little on the context of the question, explain the American civil war.

Explain in detail the various geographical factors that led to the War.

Interlink the aspects of geography to economy, socio-cultural advancement, political philosophy etc. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying how the election of Abraham Lincoln lit the spark of Civil War with secession of southern states


General Studies – 2


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

3) Review of its State Science and Technology Councils (SSTC) Programme by the government of India is a step forward in decentralization of the agenda of science and democratization of access to science and its methods, which was long overdue. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article discusses the importance of decentralization of Science and access to science in the development of the country.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss the significance that the State Science and Technology Councils (SSTC) Programme holds for Indian advancement in science, in decentralizing access to science and its benefits.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the significance of science in general to the country.

Body:

Explain in detail first the features of State Science and Technology Councils (SSTC) Programme.

Discuss why is it important that the State Science and Technology Councils (SSTC) Programme be reviewed – The SSTCs were formed to spearhead the use of science and technology (S&T) for regional problems and to foster “scientific temper” within states, and the DST programme was mandated “to provide core support”.

Discuss how it helps address the developmental problems and other issues, also discuss the hurdles or challenges associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


Topic:   Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Active participation of the multiple stakeholders in defence manufacturing can help make the Indian defence industry more competitive. In the context of this statement explain the role of greater inclusion of indigenous technology

in building robust defence system.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

The question seeks to analyse the role of multi-stakeholder approach in indigenization of defence systems.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse the pros of an indigenous ecosystem for the defence sector of the country and discuss its overall impact on the development of the defence system.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by quoting data like – India is one of the largest importers of weapons and ammunition and highlight the need for indigenization of technologies for the greater interest of the country.

Body:

Explain first the need for greater inclusion of indigenous technology in the armed forces.

Discuss why we need to focus on these aspects? – quote the security dimensions, changing warfare’s.

Explain the possible interventions and steps that the government should take in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude that All stakeholders must come together and hold interactions and come up with action plans as far as research is concerned, so as to increase our defence capabilities to take India to a new height.


Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

5) The fate of the Kurds is a parable for the future of West Asian geopolitics. Analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article explains in detail who are the Kurds, and why is Turkey attacking them in northern Syria. What role did Kurdish fighters play in the complex war in Syria, and what are the ramifications of US troops’ withdrawal from the conflict?

Key demand of the question:

The question aims to discuss in detail the fate of the Kurds in the future of West Asian geopolitics.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief first explain who Kurds are.

Body:

Explain that the Kurds used the collapse of central authority in Syria and Iraq to carve out semi-autonomous regions for themselves. Baghdad has since reasserted its authority. In Syria, the Kurds leveraged the United States to maintain their independence from Damascus and shield themselves from a hostile Turkey.

Discuss the current scenario in Syria.

Explain the geopolitical trends from past to present.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced opinion and way forward highlighting future possibilities of West Asian politics.


General Studies – 3


Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) What is a randomised controlled trial in the context of research that won the Nobel Prize in Economics 2019? Why is it so popular? Explain. Also discuss few criticisms of randomised controlled trials. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article provides an in-depth analysis of randomised controlled trials – the method that was used in the research of recently won Noble prize for economics 2019.

Key demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the concept of randomised controlled trial, reasons for its popularity and criticism if any.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the origin of randomised controlled trial.

Body:

Explain that the use of randomized controlled trials as a research tool was largely limited to fields such as biomedical sciences where the effectiveness of various drugs was gauged using this technique. Mr. Banerjee, Ms. Duflo and Mr. Kremer, however, applied RCT to the field of economics beginning in the 1990s. Mr. Kremer first used the technique to study the impact that free meals and books had on learning in Kenyan schools. Mr. Banerjee and Ms. Duflo later conducted similar experiments in India and further popularized RCTs through their book Poor Economics, published in 2011.

Discuss the concept in detail, its popularity.

List down criticisms; take hints from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


TOPIC: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

7) Do you think it is imperative that India’s legal prowess be applied to the situational complexities of space exploration? Discuss in the backdrop of world’s first space crime.  ( 250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the need for legal system in addressing any crimes arising out of space.

Key demand of the question:

One must bring out and reason with substance the need to have a legal system to address situational complexities of space exploration.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

One can start by highlighting the space race that the world countries are into.

Body:

First discuss how far world countries have come in terms of space explorations and what has made space exploration systems complex to address.

Explain that it is time to answer the questions like – What will happen when legal issues that are beyond the foresight of existing agreements arise? What will happen when crimes take place on commercial space vehicles sent by private corporations, third-party nations, and jurisdictions not already covered?

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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