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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 OCTOBER 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 09 OCTOBER 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Noakhali presented for Gandhi the first field demonstration of two-nation theory in its intense and most frightening form, Analyse the role played by Gandhi in the situation. (250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article examines the role played by Mahatma Gandhi’s in Noakhali, where widespread communal riots had broken out after Partition.

Key demand of the question:

Narrate the situation of two nation theory that was put forth in Noakhali during the partition and the role that Mahatma Gandhi played in resolving the situation.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First explain what the Noakhali incident was.

Body:

Communal violence had broken out on October 10, 1946, and rapidly swept the district of Noakhali; poor Hindu families slaughtered, women raped and murdered and forcible conversions. 

Then explain in what way Noakhali presented for Gandhi the first field demonstration of two-nation theory in its intense and most frightening form.

Brief on the role played by Gandhi to resolve the situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the outcome of the Noakhali incidence in the history of modern India even as of today.

Introduction:

The Noakhali riots were a series of semi-organized massacres, rapes, abductions and forced conversions of Hindus to Muslim and looting and arson of Hindu properties organized by the All India Muslim League and perpetrated by the Muslim community in the districts of Noakhali in the Chittagong Division of Bengal (now in Bangladesh) in October–November 1946.

Body:

Role of Gandhi in diffusing the Noakhali riots:

  • Gandhi’s peace missions had three broad aims: To stop the violence, stem the deluge of Hindus fleeing to Calcutta and stitch back the social fabric.
  • Gandhi was 77 when he set out for Muslim-majority Noakhali from what was then Calcutta on November 6, 1946. Communal violence had broken out on October 10, 1946, and rapidly swept the district.
  • Reports poured in of poor Hindu families slaughtered, women raped and murdered and forcible conversions.
  • The state ministry, under the Muslim League at the time, was accused of doing nothing as perpetrators rampaged across the delta and flatlands.
  • The violence was seen to be a continuation of conflagrations in Calcutta in August that year — where a large section of victims were Muslims — after Direct Action Day was announced by the league to cement support for the creation of Pakistan.
  • Gandhi spent four months in Noakhali, choosing to stay in the half-burnt hut of a weaver and conducting peace marches and prayer meetings through villages.
  • He walked barefoot, halved his already frugal food intake and walked at least 10 kilometres each day.
  • His associates describe his mind in turmoil as he tried to devise a remedy to the communal riots, even as the rest of India hurtled rapidly towards independence.
  • By January 1947, local resentment against Gandhi was mounting. Dirt was thrown on the road before his marches, local Muslim league leaders wanted him to leave and many boycotted his prayer meetings.

Views of scholars:

  • Scholars remain divided on why Gandhi chose Noakhali, despite calls to go to Bihar, where Muslims were being attacked, and why his mission was not as successful as previous movements.
  • Gandhi’s pilgrimage to Noakhali was summed up well by Nirmal Kumar Bose.
  • He recounts how in a speech on January 4, Gandhi said, “he had not come to talk to the people of politics, nor to weaken the influence of the Muslim League and increase that of the Congress, but in order to talk to them of the little things in their daily life.
  • According to Rakesh Batabyal wrote in the 1997 book, ‘Communalism, the Noakhali riot and Gandhi’, Noakhali presented for Gandhi the first field demonstration of two-nation theory in its intense and most frightening form.
  • Gandhi’s visit to Noakhali, therefore, had a combating element to it as he tried to counter the ideological underpinnings of the riot.

Causes for shortcomings and resumption of violence:

  • An overwhelming majority of the victims from the Hindu population in Noakhali comprised the Namashudra community, who now form a bulk of the scheduled castes in West Bengal.
  • Many Namashudras were organised into the Matua cult, which has its distinct rituals that stem from an aversion to caste practices. This is different from Hindu faith, and had no representation in Gandhi’s interfaith prayers.
  • Matua was unfamiliar to Gandhi but the most important local faith. He could never penetrate into the masses because of the strong hold of Matuas.
  • Some leaders of the Congress and Hindu Mahasabha, who did relief work, focused on the upper-caste Bhadralok even though many Namashudras were part of Gandhi’s prayer meetings.
  • Gandhi’s intervention, which did not appear to have the full backing of the Congress machinery.
  • The problem Gandhi faced was that the communal divide and hatred had gone to an extent that it was impossible for one person to stop it.

Conclusion:

The riots put Gandhiji’s idea and practice of non-violence to its ultimate test. Gandhi knew that the large scale violence in Noakhali was meant to help the Muslim League’s case for Partition. The communal riots presented a serious challenge not only to the idea of a unified Indian nation, but also to Gandhi’s lifelong efforts to establish communal harmony.


Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2) “What the reforms of 1909 gave to people of country were merely a shadow rather than substance.” Elucidate.(250 words)

Modern history of India – spectrum publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the theme of Morley Minto Reforms.

Key demand of the question:

One as to discuss that the Reforms of 1909, commonly known as the Morley Minto Reforms were introduced to placate the moderates and driving them away from the extremists. It was a part of the three pronged approach of repression-conciliation -suppression. However, it failed to satisfy moderates.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Body:

Explain the following aspects: 

  • Discuss what the demands of the moderates were – like expansion of legislative council, responsible government etc.
  • How these reforms were just shadow of what was actually demanded. For example  – Indians were allowed to participate in the election of various legislative council but on the basis of class and community
  • Numbers of elected members in legislative councils were increased but overall non official majority was introduced in provincial councils.
  • Separate electorate for Muslims was introduced

Conclusion:

Conclude that the reforms of 1909 instead of solving the political problems of the country created more chaos.

Introduction:

The Morley-Minto reforms named after the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs Lord John Morley and the Viceroy Lord Minto was the alternative name given to Indian Councils Act 1909. It introduced for the first time the method of election, an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians in the governance. The Act amended the Indian Councils Acts of 1861 and 1892.

Body:

Background of the Act

  • In October 1906, a group of Muslim elites called the Shimla Deputation, led by the Agha Khan, met Lord Minto and demanded separate electorates for the Muslims and representation in excess of their numerical strength in view of ‘the value of the contribution’ Muslims were making ‘to the defence of the empire’.
  • The same group quickly took over the Muslim League, initially floated by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca along with Nawabs Mohsin-ul- Mulk and Waqar-ul-Mulk in December 1906.
  • The Muslim League intended to preach loyalty to the empire and to keep the Muslim intelligentsia away from the Congress.
  • John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India, and the Conservative Viceroy of India, Minto, believed that cracking down on uprising in Bengal was necessary but not sufficient for restoring stability to the British Raj after Lord Curzon’s partitioning of Bengal.
  • They believed that a dramatic step was required to put heart into loyal elements of the Indian upper classes and the growing Westernised section of the population.

Features of the Act

  • It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
  • It retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
  • The elected members were to be indirectly elected. The local bodies were to elect an electoral college, which in turn would elect members of provincial legislatures, who in turn would elect members of the central legislature.
  • It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.
  • It provided (for the first time) for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.
  • It introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. Thus, the Act ‘legalised communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
  • It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.

Evaluation of the Reforms:

  • The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer and could afford no answer to the Indian political problem. Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India.
  • The ‘constitutional’ reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates.
  • The Government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism.
  • The officials and the Muslim leaders often talked of the entire community when they talked of the separate electorates, but in reality it meant the appeasement of a small section of the Muslim elite only.
  • Congress considered separate electorate to be undemocratic and hindering the development of a shared Hindu-Muslim Indian national feeling.
  • Besides, system of election was too indirect and it gave the impression of infiltration of legislators through a number of sieves.
  • And, while parliamentary forms were introduced, no responsibility was conceded, which sometimes led to thoughtless and irresponsible criticism of the Government.
  • Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use the opportunity to debate in the councils by demanding universal primary education, attacking repressive policies and drawing attention to the plight of indentured labour and Indian workers in South Africa.
  • The position of the Governor- General remained unchanged and his veto power remained undiluted and the Act was successfully maintained relentless constitutional autocracy.
  • The reforms of 1909 gave to the people of the country a shadow rather than substance.

The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:

  • It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time, though previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils.
  • The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.
  • It also gave recognition to the elective principle as the basis of the composition of legislative council for the first time.
  • It gave some further avenues to Indians to ventilate their grievances. They also got opportunity to criticise the executives and make suggestions for better administration
  • After Jinnah’s death in September 1948, Pakistan lurched towards Islamic orthodoxy and Dalits faced mounting attacks.

Conclusion:

Indian Council Act of 1909 was instituted to placate the moderates and appeasement to the disseminate Muslims from National Movement by granting them separate electorate. The people had demanded self-government but what they were given was ‘benevolent despotism’.


Topic:  The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

3) “Tribal movements under British rule were the most frequent, militant and violent of all freedom movements”. Explain.(250 words)

Modern history of India – spectrum publications

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the role of tribals in the Indian national movement.

Key demand of the question:

Such questions can be best explained through plethora of examples reasoned with suitable justifications.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

First discuss the causative factors that led to tribal uprisings in the modern history of India.

Body:

  • Mention the role played by tribals in national movement. Like increasing political consciousness of the tribal people, depriving British from moral authority to rule, checking the onslaught of the 
  • Mention Santhal Parganas Act, role of Zeliangrong movement and Rani Gaidinliu etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting their significance to Indian freedom struggle.

Introduction:

The Tribal population, being conservative, was interested in retaining the existing salient features of their society. Tribal movements were inspired by revolutionary tendencies. They wanted to make use of the situation to fight and eliminate evils and ill-tendencies that existed in the contemporary tribal society. Before British influence, tribals had depended on the forest for food, fuel and fodder. They practiced shifting cultivation (jhum, podu, etc.), taking recourse to fresh forest lands when their existing lands showed signs of exhaustion. The colonial government changed all this.

Body:

The causes for the tribal uprisings included

  • Imposition of Land revenue Settlement.
  • Work of Christian Missionaries.
  • British policies and acts like The establishment of  the Forest  department  in  1864, Government  Forest  Act (1865) and Indian  Forest  Act  in 
  • Extension of settled agriculture
  • New excise regulations.
  • Exploitation by   low   country   traders   and money  
  • Restrictions on shifting cultivation in forest
  • Introduction of the notion of private property.

Nature of tribal uprisings:

With  the  onset  of colonialism  they  were  often  reduced  to  being  agricultural  labourers  on  their  own  land  and  increasingly  recruited  as  coolies  to  work  in  distant  mines,  plantation  and  factories.

Tribal  movement  in   colonial    India   were   distinguished    from    the    movements  of  other  communities  in  that  they  were  the  most  militant,  most  isolated   and  most  frequent.   The tribal uprisings were marked   by   immense   courage on the part of the tribals, and their butchery by the official machinery of suppression.

Tribals’ community consciousness is strong. Tribal movements were not only agrarian but also forest-based. Some re­volts were ethnic in nature as these were directed against zamindars, moneylenders and petty government officials who were not only their ex­ploiters but aliens too.

Frequency of tribal uprisings:

The revolts among the indigenous population became a routine occurrence during colonialism, especially in the nineteenth century. For instance, in 1855 the Santhals rebelled; in 1868 the Naikdas; in 1873 the Kolis; and in 1895 the Birsas. This is only a small smattering of the total number of conflicts. Guha has documented over 110 different colonial-era peasant revolts, 17 and Gough records at least 77 since the advent of British rule.

Colonial administrators, however, only directly governed three-quarters of the population of India; the remainder lived in semi-autonomous princely states. These areas did not experience nearly the same level of tribal discontent or conflict. Despite having a reputation as feudal autocrats, many princes pursued liberal policies towards the same tribal groups that rebelled in British India. In Rajputana, for example, both the Bhil and Mina tribes were incorporated into the structure of the princely government because Rajput leaders recognized them as the original inhabitants of the land.

Participation and Mobilization:

Some features of the peasant and tribal protest movements demonstrate a certain level of political and social consciousness. For example, it has been pointed out that the rebels against Debi Sinha in 1783 attacked Kacharis in a definite recognition of where the political source of the peasant’s  oppression lay. Similarly the Kols in 1832 did not attack the tribal population in a clear recognition of who their allies were.

Conclusion:

A critical examination of the pre-1857 tribal uprisings reveal that they did not emerge in a ‘full blown form’. It is because the consciousness of the insurgence and rebellion was limited in perspective and mostly it was shaped by their vision of the past and what they have forgone by the annexation of the British.

The regional spread of rebellions of tribal communities was influenced, if not determined, by that community’s perception of the region they belonged to, the geographical boundaries within which that community lived and worked as also the ties of ethnicity.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4)  What is graded response action plan (GRAP)? Discuss the effectiveness of such plans in solving the issue of air pollution in cities like Delhi. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article discusses – stricter measures under Graded Response Action Plan in Delhi-NCR from October 15. It throws light on how have the plan worked in Delhi so far, what is being extended to NCR towns, and where other do states figure in it.

Key demand of the question:

One should explain in detail the concept underlying the graded response action plan (GRAP) and its effectiveness of such plans in solving the issue of air pollution in cities like Delhi.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief explain the genesis of graded action plan.

Body:

  • Explain that Approved by the Supreme Court in 2016, the plan was formulated after several meetings that the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) held with state government representatives and experts. The result was a plan that institutionalized measures to be taken when air quality deteriorates.
  • Explain the key features of the plan.
  • Discuss the challenges involved in implementing it.
  • Elucidate on the positives it brought in, in the cities like that of Delhi in treating the issue of air pollution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) was prepared by the Supreme Court-mandated Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA). A graded response lays down stratified actions that are required to be taken as and when the concentration of pollutants i.e. particulate matter, reaches a certain level. It has already been in effect for two years in Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR).

GRAP works only as an emergency measure. As such, the plan does not include action by various state governments to be taken throughout the year to tackle industrial, vehicular and combustion emissions. When the air quality shifts from poor to very poor, the measures listed under both sections have to be followed since the plan is incremental in nature.

Body:

The recent GRAP measures are aimed at stopping the use of diesel generator sets will, from next week, extend beyond Delhi to the NCR, where many areas see regular power cuts. The measures that are coming into force will be incremental. As pollution rises, and it is expected to as winter approaches, more measures will come into play depending on the air quality.

Effectiveness of GRAP:

  • GRAP has been successful in doing two things that had not been done before — creating a step-by-step plan for the entire Delhi-NCR region and getting on board several agencies: all pollution control boards, industrial area authorities, municipal corporations, regional officials of the India Meteorological Department, and others.
  • The plan requires action and coordination among 13 different agencies in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan (NCR areas).
  • At the head of the table is the EPCA, mandated by the Supreme Court.
  • The biggest success of GRAP has been in fixing accountability and deadlines. For each action to be taken under a particular air quality category, executing agencies are clearly marked.
  • In a territory like Delhi, where a multiplicity of authorities has been a long-standing impediment to effective governance, this step made a crucial difference.
  • The coordination among as many as 13 agencies from four states is simplified to a degree because of the clear demarcation of responsibilities.
  • Three major policy decisions that can be credited to EPCA and GRAP are the closure of the thermal power plant at Badarpur, bringing BS-VI fuel to Delhi before the deadline set initially, and the ban on Pet coke as a fuel in Delhi NCR.

Shortcomings:

  • One criticism of the EPCA as well as GRAP has been the focus on Delhi.
  • While other states have managed to delay several measures, citing lack of resources, Delhi has always been the first one to have stringent measures enforced.

Way forward:

  • It’s important to, in the first place, have accurate air quality measurements all across our cities to give us a real-time indication of the extent of the problem.
  • Only that, in combination with trying out a variety of measures suggested by experts, can tell us what works and what doesn’t.
  • Given the stakes involved and the fact that environmental fallouts cannot be confined within state borders, all stakeholders must work together to improve air quality in India.
  • They should also search for long-term solutions which minimise economic costs.
  • Enhanced investment in public transport, for instance, can mitigate the environmental fallout and also yield economic benefits.

Conclusion:

India has 12 out of 14 cities which are high levels of air pollution.  Involvement of Supreme Court in this issue is a significant moment in India’s battle for clean air, emphasising the need for a comprehensive plan presenting systemic solutions and reminding governments that a plan can be executed successfully only if all stakeholders work in tandem. This template should also be adapted for other Indian cities that suffer appalling air quality. Air pollution extracts an enormous price in terms of health, particularly of children. Combating it must become a governance priority


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5) What are Green Skills? Discuss the Importance of Green Skill Development Programme that was launched recently. (250 words)

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

India would need around 10.4 crores of new workforces by the year 2022, in various sectors and hence skill development is essential to meet the demand. Thus with this aspect the question aims to examine the significance of Green Skill Development Programme.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what are green skills and their importance in today’s times. Also throw light on the Importance of Green Skill Development Programme that was launched recently.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief define what green skills are.

Body:

Recently Decision has been taken by the Government of India, to expand the Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) to an all-India level.

Discuss –

What are Green Skills? – Green skills are those skills needed to adapt processes, services and products to climate change and the environmental regulations and requirements related to it. They include the knowledge, abilities, values and attitudes needed to live in, develop and support a sustainable and resource-efficient society. These skills are required in areas such as such as Renewable energy, Wastewater treatment, Climate resilient cities, Green construction, Solid waste management etc.

Explain its significance.

List down the importance of Green Skill Development Programme along with recent developments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Green skills are those which contribute to preserving or restoring environmental quality for sustainable future and include jobs that protect ecosystems and biodiversity, reduce energy and minimize waste and pollution. Realizing the demand for green skilled youth, the Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) has been conceptualised.

Body:

The Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) is an initiative for skill development in the environment and forest sector to enable India’s youth to get gainful employment and/or self-employment.

Importance of Green skill Development programme:

  • India being the second most populous country in the world is bestowed with a large working population. India has advantage of reaping this demographic dividend.
  • Green skilling is crucial for making a transition from energy and emissions – intensive economy to cleaner and greener production and service patterns.
  • A Huge gap exists between the need (demand) and availability (supply) of skill sets, both cognitive and practical, at various levels in the Environment, and Forest sectors in India. However, most of the vocational training programmes focus on mechanical/technical skills rather than ‘soft’ skills or ‘green’ skills.
  • The Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) aims to fill this gap. It enhances the employability of people in jobs that contribute to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment, while improving human well-being and social equity.
  • GSDP will include process-based green skills such as, monitoring and managing activities such as waste, energy efficiency, impact minimization and assessment, etc.
  • The programme endeavours to develop green skilled workers having technical knowledge and commitment to sustainable development.
  • It will help in the attainment of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), National Biodiversity Targets (NBTs), as well as Waste Management Rules (2016).
  • The number of people to be covered under GSDP will be 80,000 during 2018-19, 2.25 lakh during 2019-20 and about 5 lakh people by the year 2021.
  • The skilling programmes cover diverse fields such as pollution monitoring (air/water/soil), Sewage Treatment Plant, Effluent Treatment Plants and Common Effluent Treating Plants (STP/ETP/CETP) operation, waste management, forest management, water budgeting, auditing, conservation of river dolphins, wildlife management, para taxonomy, including Peoples’ Biodiversity Register (PBRs), mangroves conservation, bamboo management and livelihood generation.

Conclusion:

With the success of the pilot programme, the next step is to take the skilling programme to an all India level and for all the courses to commence in February 2018. For this, the following steps are required to be undertaken: Identification of New courses based on the demand, Identification of New Institutes with the necessary expertise, and Identification of Employment opportunities.


Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

6) Examine the causative factors and circumstances that lead to conflict of interest for a public servant and suggest ways to resolve them.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the topic of conflict of interest.

Key demand of the question:

One must explain what conflict of interest, why does it arise is, what are the causative factors that lead to such situations and what should be done to overcome it.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief discuss the significance of understanding conflict of interest in public services in general. 

Body:

Explain the concept of ‘conflict of interest’ – Conflict of interest situation arises when there is an actual or apparent conflict between public duty and private interest of a public official. In such a situation, an official’s private interests could improperly influence the performance of official duties. Conflict of interest reduces public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of public functionaries.

Give reasons and situations that lead to conflict of interest.

Give measures to be adopted to avoid conflict of interest.

Discuss using examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the moral obligation on public officials requires that the authority entrusted to them be exercised in the public interest. The trust on civil servants should be maintained for efficient and effective governance.

Introduction:

A “conflict  of  interest”  involves  a  conflict  between  the  public  duty  and  private  interests  of  a  public  official,  in  which  the  public  official  has  private-capacity  interests which could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities.

Body:

In such a situation, judgement of an individual could be impaired. A conflict of interest can exist in many different situations. Conflict of interest is seen as a moral issue and not strictly a legal one accompanied by criminal culpability in India so it is hardly surprising that blatant violations are virtually seen every day.

Example: a public official whose personal interests conflict with his/her professional position. Instances of the largest shareholder appointing himself as CEO, deciding his salary and then appointing his son to a key post and higher royalties to the parent company are some of the serious conflict of interest issues in India which don’t receive necessary attention.

A judge giving judgement in a case involving his own family member is a case of conflict of interest.

Public servants face Conflict of Interest due to the nature of their work:

  • Personal vs Professional
    • This is the most common type of conflict of interest arising due to the conflict between personal and professional life.
    • Say, if a public servant is incharge of giving out contracts for a certain project and one of the applicant is relative or friend.
  • Conflicting Responsibility
    • Sometimes public servants are given additional charge, which might sometimes create a conflict of interest with the original line of duty.
  • Conflicting Organisations
    • Sometimes public servants are part of two separate organisations with apparently conflicting objectives and this might put them in certain conflict of interest.
    • Many public servants also volunteer for NGOs during their service. NGOs and govermental organisation sometimes come at odds with each other.

Getting into a situation of conflict of interest is sometimes unavoidable and not a crime in itself if properly handled. The measures needed to resolve conflict of interest are:

  • Transparency
    • Declaring one’s conflict of interest to the concerned authorities is the best way.
    • It helps civil servant to come clean and concerned authorities can decide further.
  • Assure integrity
    • The concerned authority should be assured of integrity and willingness to serve no matter what the decision is made on the declaration.
  • Maintain objectivity
    • If given the chance to continue working on that case, work with objectivity.
  • Reduce discretion and codify procedure
    • There is a need for legislation to make non-disclosure of a conflict of interest punishable.
    • A private member’s bill (The Prevention and Management of Conflict of Interest Bill, introduced in 2012), the legislation ought to cover all arms of governance, including the judiciary, the legislature and the executive.
    • The recommendation of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the Department of Personnel and Training, calling for early retirement if interested in post-retirement private service is established, needs to be implemented, besides increasing the mandatory cooling period to five years so that no undue influence can be exerted by the retired bureaucrat.
    • Also, the reasons for declining their requests for joining such firms need to be laid out clearly, to limit political concerns.
    • An open, public data platform enlisting all post-retirement appointments of civil servants will increase transparency

Conclusion:

The priority must be to frame a modern law relating to conflict of interest, along the lines of what exists in the statute of the other countries like the United States and also ensure them to their work ensures ethical governance.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) “In the age of rising intolerance and polarization, forgiveness and compassion are much needed values.” Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article is based on the importance of the values of forgiveness and compassion in the era that we are living in.

Key demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the relevance of these values in the age of rising intolerance and polarization the world is witnessing.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

In brief narrate what are values and their importance in general.

Body:

Explain that To forgive, we must be ready to let go of our anger and resentment toward someone or something. However, the meaning of forgiveness that I prefer is simply “letting go.” The act of compassion is the desire to alleviate the suffering of others. In other words, it is showing care for others while understanding that they are fully responsible for their actions.  It doesn’t mean that we are justifying their behavior; instead, by being compassionate, we are making space for others to have their experiences without attaching our reactions to them.

Use suitable case studies to justify how these values play crucial role in today’s rising intolerance and polarized world.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Compassion is not a relationship between the healer and the wounded. It’s a relationship between equals. Only when we know our own darkness well can we be present with the darkness of others. Compassion becomes real when we recognize our shared humanity.

Introduction:

A person who practices compassion and forgiveness has great inner strength, whereas aggression is usually a sign of weakness. – Dalai Lama

                Forgiveness is an action of excusing someone or stop feeling resentful towards someone who has done wrong. Forgiveness can be one of the most liberating acts of self-love one can commit. Compassion is the willingness to relieve the suffering of another. It is the sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others. It motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Great personalities like Gandhiji, Mother Teresa, and Nelson Mandela are great examples of personalities with forgiveness and compassion.

Body:

The nature of forgiveness is to muster up whatever compassion you have left for the person that has wronged you. If you cannot do this — if you cannot be compassionate toward that individual, anger may eat away at you and then give birth to bitterness.

If you’ve ever experienced bitterness and resentment, then you know that it is not something worth carrying around all the time. It becomes a heavy burden that weighs us down and isolates us. Forgiveness takes this away. Forgiveness kills bitterness and resentment.

The relevance of forgiveness and compassion in today’s times:

  • Increasing crimes related to vengeance like mob lynching, rapes, acid attacks etc.
  • Intolerance and hatred among communities, states and countries.
  • Rising communalism, racism, refugee crisis.
  • Incidents of terrorism in the name of religion.
  • Rising inequality between the rich and the poor.
  • Declining environmental values and compassion for the wild animals.
  • Unequal treatment of women, third gender etc.
  • Climate change and rising sea levels submerging many small island nations.

Conclusion:

We must learn to forgive and be compassionate beings. These take a few moments of our life and give us back immense peace and a relation free of grudge. This is applicable for self too, it is truly said “you will begin to heal, when you let go of past hurts, forgive those who have wronged you and learn to forgive yourself for your mistakes”.