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Multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition

Topics Covered:

  1. Conservation and pollution related issues.


Multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition


What to study?

For Prelims: MOSAiC- objectives and composition.

For Mains: Significance of the mission, How climate change is affecting Arctic region? Concerns and measures needed.


Context: India’s Vishnu Nandan will be the only Indian aboard the multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition.

He will be aboard the German research vessel Polarstern, anchored on a large sheet of sea ice in the Central Arctic, drifting along with it during the pitch-black Polar winter.


About MOSAiC:

Spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany.

It is the largest ever Arctic expedition in history.

It will be the first to conduct a study of this scale at the North Pole for an entire year.

The aim of the expedition will be to parameterise the atmospheric, geophysical, oceanographic and all other possible variables in the Arctic, and use it to more accurately forecast the changes in our weather systems.

The international expedition will involve more than 60 institutions from 19 countries.



  • MOSAiC will contribute to a quantum leap in our understanding of the coupled Arctic climate system and its representation in global climate models.
  • The focus of MOSAiC lies on direct in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem.


Why study and understand about changes in the Arctic?

  • The Arctic is the key area of global climate change, with warming rates exceeding twice the global average and warming during winter even larger.
  • It is well possible that the Arctic ocean will become ice free in summer during the 21st century.
  • This dramatic change strongly affects weather and climate on the whole northern hemisphere and fuels rapid economic development in the Arctic.


Sources: the Hindu.