- Issues related to health and Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre.
‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ campaign
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: TB related facts, concerns for India and what needs to be done to achieve the proposed target?
Context: ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign’ has been launched with an aim to eliminate tuberculosis from India.
About ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign:
- Campaign aims to improve and expand the reach of TB care services across the country, by 2022.
- Three pillars of the campaign- clinical approach, public health component and active community participation.
- Supporting aspects of the campaign – patient support, private sector engagement, political and administrative commitment at all levels.
- The government will ensure that all patients, at private or public hospitals, receive free-of-cost and high-quality TB care.
United Nations has marked 2030 as a global target to eliminate TB worldwide but the Government of India has made 2025 as its target to eliminate tuberculosis from the country.
Why is Tuberculosis a major cause of concern?
- TB is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS.
- TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other sites.
- The disease is spread when people who are sick with pulmonary TB expel bacteria into the air, for example by coughing.
- Broader influences on the TB epidemic include levels of poverty, HIV infection, under nutrition and smoking.
- Diagnostic tests for TB disease include – Rapid molecular test, Sputum smear microscopy, Culture-based methods
- Without treatment, the mortality rate from TB is high.
The consolidated goal on health is SDG 3. One of these targets, (Target 3.3), explicitly mentions TB.
SDG 3 also includes a target (Target 3.8) related to universal health coverage (UHC) in which TB is explicitly mentioned. This includes an indicator on the coverage of essential prevention, treatment and care interventions.
India TB report 2019- key findings:
- The number of HIV-infected people who go on to develop Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in India.
- TB is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). This group is 21 times more likely to develop TB than persons without the virus.
- India is the third-highest HIV burden country in the world, with an adult prevalence of 0.22 per cent.
- India ranks second in the world as far as TB-related mortality is concerned.
- The highest percentage of patients who tested positive for TB and were also infected with HIV came from Nagaland (15.6 per cent), followed by Karnataka (10 per cent).
- The co-morbidity of TB don’t come in form of HIV only. Diabetes and tobacco-related ailments too play a role.
- Overall, the TB burden in India is highest in Uttar Pradesh.
- Percentage of pediatric tuberculosis (TB among the population aged less than 15 years) cases have also slightly gone up.