Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
What to study?
For prelims: BASIC Nations.
For mains: Need for, significance and challenges before the grouping.
Context: The BASIC countries recently held their 28th Ministerial meeting on Climate Change in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Who are the BASIC?
The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries on November 28, 2009.
They are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
Significance of the grouping:
- The signatory nations have a broadly common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change.
- The BASIC countries constituted one of the parties in the Copenhagen Accord reached with the US-led grouping; the Accord, was, however, not legally binding.
- The BASIC group wields considerable heft purely because of the size of the economies and populations of the member countries.
- Brazil, South Africa, India and China put together has one-third of the world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population, and when they unitedly speak in one voice this shows their determination.
- BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
Need for this grouping:
In light of the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C released in October last year, the group took note of its findings that highlight the “high vulnerability of developing countries to climate change effects and high resultant costs of adaptation”.
- The findings of the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming make it incredibly clear that the impacts of an already warming world are significant, and that impacts at 2°C are catastrophic compared to those of 1.5°C. Yet, the BASIC ministers recalled the Paris goal of limiting the temperature rise to well under 2°C, and aspiring to limit it to 1.5°C, suggesting their continued pursuit of 2°C as the target temperature limit.
- The BASIC countries also contend that their nationally determined contributions (NDCs)— voluntary pledges of national efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—have demonstrated “a high level of ambition in the context of poverty and sustainable development”.
While developed countries must take the lead to reduce GHG emissions and enable developing countries to scale climate action. It is critical that all countries actively step-up to rapidly reduce global GHG emissions within their own jurisdictions and collectively work with each other to limit warming to 1.5°C.