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UNODC

Topics Covered:

  1. Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

UNODC

 

What to study?

For Prelims: Highlights of the report, about UNODC.

For Mains: Significance of the report and concerns raised, need for comprehensive measures.

 

Context: The Global Study on Homicide 2019 has been published by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

 

Key findings:

  • Asia, which accounts for 60% of the global population, recorded the lowest rate of homicide in 2017 with only 2.3 killings per 1,00,000 people.
  • Americas had the highest homicide rate.
  • About 4,64,000 people across the world were victims of homicidal violence in 2017, an increase from 395,542 in 1992. The number of homicides in 2017 far surpassed the 89,000 killed in armed conflicts in the same period.
  • The global homicide rate, measured as the victims of homicide per 1,00,000 people, declined from 7.2 in 1992, to 6.1 in 2017.
  • Asia accounted for 23% of total homicide victims worldwide.
  • Asia’s low continental average, however, can be partly explained by the huge populations of countries such as China, Japan and Korea, which all boast less than one homicide per 100,000 people in a year.
    In addition, their secret lies in the push for modernization policies – with a special emphasis on educational achievements – along with a culture that rewards long-term plans.
  • Young men at highest risk in all regions.
  • While women and girls account for a far smaller share of victims than men, they continue to bear “by far the greatest burden” of intimate partner and family-related homicide, the report finds, adding that more than nine in 10 suspects in homicide cases are men.

 

Need of the hour:

  • In a bid to help Governments tackle homicide, the UNODC report identifies several drivers of the problem, in addition to organized crime. They include firearms, drugs and alcohol, inequality, unemployment, political instability and gender stereotyping.
  • It “is possible” to tackle the threat from criminal networks with “targeted” policies. These include community engagement and police patrols, as well as policing reform, whose aim is to strengthen trust in officers among the local population.
  • For those young men already caught up in criminal gangs, they need help “so that they can extricate themselves” through social work, rehabilitation programmes and awareness-raising about non-violent alternatives.

 

About UNODC:

Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime.

UNODC relies on voluntary contributions, mainly from Governments, for 90% of its budget.

UNODC is mandated to assist Member States in their struggle against illicit drugs, crime and terrorism.

 

The three pillars of the UNODC work programme are:

  1. Field-based technical cooperation projects to enhance the capacity of Member States to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism.
  2. Research and analytical work to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime issues and expand the evidence base for policy and operational decisions.
  3. Normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of the relevant international treaties, the development of domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism, and the provision of secretariat and substantive services to the treaty-based and governing bodies.

 

Sources: the Hindu.

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