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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 JUNE 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

1) Discuss the merits and demerits of the concept of “One nation, One election” for Indian polity. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Since the past few years it is observed that election take place frequently in some states of India. So, the state machinery and Election Commission of India engages its resources, man power to conduct assembly elections in those states.  Now the NDA government is thinking to go for practice of “one nation one election”.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse in detail what are the issues and concerns associated with one Nation, one election system and what are the advantages it would provide us.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with what is the concept of “One Nation, One election”

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

History of simultaneous elections, if any held in the past.

What are the issues with the concept of single elections for the country?

Then move on to discuss the merits and demerits of the simultaneous elections.

Merits – Money Saving, Speedy Development Work, Check on Black Money, Smooth functioning of the Government Machinery, better governance etc.

Demerits include – Local issues will fade out, Regional Parties: to have tough time and suffer, delay in election results, Constitutional Problems etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

Simultaneous elections refer to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five year. The idea of holding elections simultaneously is in news after it got a push from Prime Minister and ex-President of India. However, political parties are divided on the issue of holding simultaneous elections

The political parties of Kashmir recently impressed upon the Election Commission of India (ECI) to hold the assembly polls in Jammu and Kashmir simultaneously with the upcoming Lok Sabha elections

Body:

The Law Commission of India has also proposed holding simultaneous state and general elections and has sought public opinion on its recommendations regarding the same. Simultaneous elections were held in India during the first two decades of independence.

Merits of Simultaneous elections:

  • Governance and consistency:
    • The ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.
    • Parties and workers spending too much time and money in electioneering can make use of the time for social work and to take people-oriented programmes to the grassroots.
    • To overcome the “policy paralysis and governance deficit” associated with imposition of the Model Code of Conduct at election time which leads to putting on hold all developmental activities on that area and also affects the bureaucracy’s functioning.
  • Reduced Expenditure of Money and Administration:
    • The entire State and District level administrative and security machinery will be busy with the conduct of elections twice in a period of five years as per the current practice.
    • Expenditure can be reduced by conducting simultaneous elections.
    • It is felt that crucial manpower is often deployed on election duties for a prolonged period of time. If simultaneous elections are held, then this manpower would be made available for other important tasks.
    • For instance for the 2014 Lok Sabha polls, which was held along with 4 state assemblies saw the deployment of 1077 in situ companies and 1349 mobile companies of Central Armed Police Force (CAPF).
  • Continuity in policies and programmes:
    • Will limit the disruption to normal public life associated with elections, such as increased traffic and noise pollution.
    • Large numbers of teachers are involved in the electoral process which causes maximum harm to the education sector.
  • Efficiency of Governance:
    • Simultaneous elections can bring the much-needed operational efficiency in this exercise.
    • Populist measures by governments will reduce.
  • Curbs Vices:
    • During frequent elections there is increase in “vices” such as communalism, casteism, corruption and crony capitalism.
    • Simultaneous elections can also be a means to curb corruption and build a more conducive socio-economic ecosystem.
    • The impact of black money on the voters will be reduced as all elections are held at a time.

Challenges to simultaneous elections:

  • Illiteracy:
    • Not all voters are highly educated to know who to vote for. They may get confused and may not know whether they are voting for candidates contesting assembly or parliament elections.
    • IDFC study says that there is 77% chance that the Indian voter will vote for the same party for both the state and centre, when elections are held simultaneously.
    • Evidence from Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Germany, the US and Europe supports the idea that elections that are held simultaneously produce greater alignment between national and regional election outcomes.
  • Functional issues:
    • Frequent elections bring the politicians back to the voters, create jobs and prevent the mixing of local and national issues in the minds of the voters.
    • There is a dearth of enough security and administrative officials to conduct simultaneous free and fair elections throughout the country in one go.
  • Changes in Constitution and Legislations:
    • The following constitutional changes need to be made:-
    • Amendments needed in the following articles:-
      • Article 83 which deals with the duration of Houses of Parliament need an amendment
      • Article 85 (on dissolution of Lok Sabha by the president)
      • Article 172 (relating to the duration of state legislatures)
      • Article 174 (relating to dissolution of state assemblies)
      • Article 356 (on President’s Rule).
    • The Representation of People Act, 1951 Act would have to be amended to build in provisions for stability of tenure for both parliament and assemblies. This should include the following crucial elements:
    • Restructuring the powers and functions of the ECI to facilitate procedures required for simultaneous elections
    • A definition of simultaneous election can be added to section 2 of the 1951 act
    • Articles 83 and 172 along with articles with articles 14 and 15 of the 1951 act be appropriately amended to incorporate the provision regarding remainder of the term i.e.., post mid elections, the new loksabha/assembly so constituted shall be only for the remainder of the term of the previous loksabha or assembly and not for a fresh term of five years.
  • Constructive vote of no confidence:
    • The 170th law commission report suggested a new rule i.e., rule 198-A has to be added to rules of procedure and conduct of business in Lok Sabha and similar amendment to such rules in the state legislatures.
    • The report suggested introduction of motion of no confidence in the incumbent government along with a motion of confidence in the alternative government.
    • To avoid premature dissolution of the house/state assemble in case of Hung parliament /assembly and to advance simultaneous elections the rigour of anti defection law laid under in tenth schedule be removed as an exception.
  • Local and national issues will get mixed up distorting priorities.
  • The terms of different state governments are ending on separate dates and years.
  • Spirit of Constitution:
    • One nation, one election” would make sense if India were a unitary state. So “one nation, one election” is anti-democratic.
    • Simultaneous elections threaten the federal character of our democracy.
    • Frequent elections act as checks and balances on the functioning of elected representatives.

Way forward:

  • Any changes must require both a constitutional amendment and judicial approval that they do not violate the “basic structure” of the Constitution.
  • A focused group of constitutional experts, think tanks, government officials and representatives of political parties should be formed to work out appropriate implementation related details.
  • Other alternatives should be explored to reduce election related expenses like
    • State funding of elections
    • Decriminalisation of politics
    • Bringing in transparency in political funding
    • Setting up National Electoral Fund to which all donors can contribute.
  • One year one election as suggested by Election Commission can be executed by amending Section 15 of the RP Act 1951. If the six-month stipulation is extended to nine or 10 months, elections to all states, whose term is expiring in one year, can be held together.
  • The Law Commission of India in its report of 1999 has dealt with the problem of premature and frequent elections. It had recommended an amendment of this rule on the lines of the German Constitution, which provides that the leader of the party who wants to replace the chancellor has to move the no-confidence motion along with the confidence motion. If the motions succeed, the president appoints him as the chancellor.
    • If such an amendment to Rule 198 is made, the Lok Sabha would avoid premature dissolution without diluting the cardinal principle of democracy that is a government with the consent of the peoples’ representatives with periodical elections.
    • It will also be consistent with the notion of collective responsibility of the government to the House as mentioned in Article 75 (3) of the Constitution.

Conclusion:

Election Commission’s idea of “one year one election” will better suited as it will require fewer amendments to the constitution, it will respect the essence of the exercise of popular will, unlike one nation one election which prioritizes economic costs of elections over the exercise itself, it will avoid clubbing of national and state issues, it will not disturb federalism much, not much issues generated by emergencies like need to hold by-election etc will be addressed by this option.


Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

2) What is Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)? Why is it important, discuss its key features? (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the significance of ICANN.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the key features of ICANN, one has to discuss in detail

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief description of ICANN.

Body

One can have the following points in the answer:

The Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit organization that was set up in 1998 to oversee the administration of domain names. ICANN coordinates and ensures the smooth and secure functioning of the cybernetic framework.

Then explain What it does?

The global nature of the Web today means that there are constantly increasing numbers of Domain Names, Host Names, IP addresses and web sites that are emerging on a daily basis. ICANN oversees this interconnected network and ensures that computers across the internet can find one another through defined unique pathways and identifiers.

Explain what are the major functions and roles played by it.

Economic  Growth: A  good  transportation system  is an important selling  point to communities that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in costs  thus losing  competitiveness  in international  markets. Efficient  transportation access  is therefore  a very important  consideration as it  has a direct impact on  sound and sustainable economic growth and productivity. The cost of congestion in the Western Province of Sri  Lanka is over Rs 20,000 million per year (around 2 percent of Regional GDP). This includes the cost of productive time and wastage of fuel.   

Quality-of-Life: To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-life-in a community.  The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal value and satisfaction.

Conclusion

Conclude with its significance.

Introduction:

The Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a non profit organization that was set up in 1998 to oversee the administration of domain names. ICANN coordinates and ensures the smooth and secure functioning of the cybernetic framework. ICANN and NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies) have announced collaboration for working in developing standards and identifier technology that will feed into the global consultation for managing Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and infrastructure using internet.

Body:

ICANN performs four major functions namely:

  • Approval of companies that can become accredited registrars for domain names.
  • Decision making regarding the addition of new Top Level Domains (TLDs) to the Root system.
  • Coordinating technical parameters to maintain universal connectivity.
  • Creating a Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) for competing domain names.

 Importance of ICANN:

  • It ensures that computers across the internet can find one another through defined unique pathways and identifiers.
  • The global nature of the Web today means that there are constantly increasing numbers of Domain Names, Host Names, IP addresses and web sites that are emerging on a daily basis.
  • The numbering facilities ICANN manages include the Internet Protocol address spaces for IPv4 and IPv6, and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries. ICANN also maintains registries of Internet Protocol identifiers.
  • ICANN oversees this interconnected network and ensures that computers across the internet can find one another through defined unique pathways and identifiers.
  • ICANN doesn’t control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn’t deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet’s naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet.
  • It is responsible for coordinating the maintenance and methodologies of several databases, with unique identifiers, related to the namespaces of the Internet – and thereby, ensuring the network’s stable and secures operation.
  • ICANN is governed by an internationally diverse Board of Directors overseeing the policy development process.
  • ICANN’s President directs an international staff, working from three continents, who ensure that ICANN meets its operational commitment to the Internet community.
  • The ICANN along with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) also manages the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) dealing with Domain Name registration.
  • ICANN Whois is a utility which allows users to get details of the registering entity for generic domain names. The utility is under review in light of privacy concerns

Conclusion:

ICANN’s primary principles of operation have been described as helping preserve the operational stability of the Internet; to promote competition; to achieve broad representation of the global Internet community; and to develop policies appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.


Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3) Discuss the various dimensions of Governance in India. What are the issues associated with it? Elaborate. (250 words)

Governance by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is from the static portions GS II Paper.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the aspects/dimensions of Governance in India and the concerned issues.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on the timeline of various poverty alleviation programmes.

Body:

Explain that Department of Administrative reforms and Public grievances (DARPG) in its report “State of Governance – A framework of assessment” has broken down governance into five dimensions viz. political, legal& judicial, administrative, economic and social &environmental dimensions.

Explain each of these dimensions in detail.

Then move on to discuss the issues associated with them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions as to what can be done.

Introduction:

Governance relates to management of all such processes that, in any society, define the environment which permits and enables individuals to their raise their capability levels, on one hand, and provide opportunities to realise their potential and enlarge the set of available choices, on the other. Governance has been broken down into five dimensions viz. political, legal and judicial, administrative, economic and social & environmental dimensions.

Body:

Political dimension: The political dimension is the most essential aspect of governance. Without this dimension, other dimensions would be meaningless because it is the political process that brings in the key governance values of participation, accountability and transparency. This dimension has been broken down into four components.

  • Exercise of franchise: This is the doorway to democratic governance which establishes legitimacy and accountability of the government by enabling participation by the citizens.
  • Profile and Conduct of Political Representatives, Political Parties and the Political Executive.
  • Functioning of Legislature: The role of the legislature is critical to the way governance takes shape in any particular State.
  • Political Decentralisation: It reflects the willingness of the State to comply with constitutional imperatives, but also is an important indicator of empowerment at the grassroots level.

Legal and Judicial dimension:  The state is vested with coercive power to maintain law and order. It is one of its sovereign functions. Another important responsibility of the state is to ensure that everybody has access to speedy justice. This dimension has been broken down into four basic components.

  • Law & Order and Internal Security: This pertains to the basic function of the state – its raison d’ etre –to ensure that law and order prevails and citizens live in an environment where in their lives and property are generally safe and secure.
  • Safeguarding of basic rights: This aspect relates to the ability of the state to protect the basic rights of the citizen, particularly those of poor, women and weaker sections.
  • Police Administration and Citizen‐friendliness of the Police: Its role is to protect the innocent and punish the guilty.
  • Access to Justice and Judicial Accountability: Lastly, under this dimension, a significant indicator of the quality of governance relates to the access to and delivery of justice which is reflected in its capacity to provide timely justice, judicial efficiency, judicial accountability and citizen perception.

Administrative dimension: The administrative dimension is a critical aspect of governance because it determines the ability of government to deliver basic services to citizens by efficiently managing the human and financial resources. This dimension has been broken down into four basic components.

  • Citizen Interface and Engagement: It indicates the citizen centricity of government agencies in their day to day functioning viz. accessibility, responsiveness, quality of grievance redressal/ complaint handling, compliance with RTI Act provisions etc.
  • Managing human, financial and other resources.
  • Basic service delivery: The cutting edge of administrative governance is the timely delivery and the quality of basic services such as primary healthcare services, primary schooling, drinking water, sanitation facilities, public distribution system, electricity, roads and transportation.
  • Corruption Perception, Vigilance & Enforcement.

Economic dimension: The economic dimension pertains to the ability of the state to ensure macro‐economic stability and create conducive climate for economic activity to take place across different sectors of the economy. This dimension has been broken down into three components:

  • Fiscal Governance: This aspect of economic governance relates to how the State has managed its finances over the short to medium term.
  • Business Environment: This component pertains to those aspects of economic governance which affect the way businesses operate within the State and includes general investment climate, legal aspects, procedural issues, infrastructure and manpower, regulatory systems, etc.
  • Support to the Primary Sector

Social & environmental dimension: The social dimension pertains to the ability of the state to take care of the vulnerable sections of the society. This dimension has been broken down into three basic components:

  • Welfare of the Poor and Vulnerable
  • Role of Civil Society and Media
  • Environmental Management

Challenges facing governance in India:

Issue of Transparency, Accountability and Credibility:

 Many of the institutions of Govt. and their processes are happening behind a black Curtain which is not in line with the philosophy of Good Governance as it promotes Transparency.

Solution: Strengthening the RTI act, bringing more institutions and processes under RTI will surely help. A start can be by bringing Political parties under the ambit of RTI. Proper review mechanism should be derived and ratings should be provided.

Issue of Bypassing the Institutions and Processes:

Good Governance Promotes the Rule of Law, Govt.’s to fulfil some petty political agenda tends to by-pass the Process. E.g. Many Ordinances were promulgated again and again when consensus was not formed (this was an abuse of Power).

Solution: A common ground should be achieved by Deliberations and Discussions, Interest of the Nation and its people should be foremost, Strong Political will is needed.

Issue of Policy Paralysis and Effectiveness:

 Our institutions are suffering because of poor Decision making or no decision making at all. Policies are either not formed or if formed are not implemented properly.

Solution: Use of BIG DATA technology to gather and analyse as much data as possible, since information is the first and the most imp. Part of any decision making process.

 Issues of Bureaucracy:

What we have seen from time immemorial is that there is a gap between the bureaucrats and the common masses, which is detrimental for coordination and Good Governance.

Solution: Promotion of Barefoot Bureaucracy which promotes Bureaucrats to act as the first among equals, so that people feel like being a part of the system and Governance.

Issue of Static attitude:

The world has become very dynamic and in such a dynamic atmosphere, the processes, the methods and the rules needs constant monitoring and change. But what we see that most Govt. wants to maintain the old order and very reluctantly accept the new changes.

Solution: Promoting Scientific Temper, adoption of reliable Technology and new methods, taking examples from developed nations.

Conclusion:

The Government of India has undertaken a host of governance reform initiatives cutting across different Ministries and Departments. Good Governance is the most important solution of every problem that the country is facing. Govt. by all means should try to work on the issues and think of solutions to address these in order to achieve goodness of both nation and its citizens.


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance, applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

4) What is e-governance, discuss the potential of e-governance with respect to India and its future.(250 words)

Governance by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the concept of e-governance and its potential.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must elaborate on the concept of e-governance and its potential in detail and with possible examples wherever possible.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on what you understand by e-governance.

Body:

The answer is direct and there isn’t much to deliberate. Discuss first the concept of e-governance, then the dimensions and various aspects associated with it. Then discuss the issues associated. What are the possible solutions to it? Quote relevant case studies and bring out the potential of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions.

Introduction:

e-Governance which also known as electronic governance is basically the application of Information and Communications Technology to the processes of Government functioning in order to bring about ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent’ governance.

e-Governance involve the use of ICTs by government organisations for exchange of information with citizens, businesses or other government departments, faster and more efficient delivery of public services, improving internal efficiency, reducing costs / increasing revenue, re-structuring of administrative processes and improving quality of services.

Body:

Potential of e-governance with respect to India:

  • Increased effectiveness and efficiency: Improved government services in terms of accomplishing the government purpose and functioning
  • Better services: E-government can provide quick and timely services to stakeholders
  • Transparency by dissemination and publication of information on the web: This provides easy access to information and subsequently makes the system publicly accountable. Also as the web enables the free flow of information, it can be easily accessed by all without any discrimination.
  • Accessible anytime and anywhere: As e-government services are provided through web-enabled technology they can be accessed anytime and anywhere
  • User-centred ICT enabled services: The services are primarily intended for the use of citizens, businesses, and the government itself
  • Reduced cost and time: As the services are provided through internet they are effective in terms of time and cost
  • Economic Development: The deployment of ICTs reduces the transaction costs, which makes services cheaper. For example, rural areas suffer on account of lack of information regarding markets, products, agriculture, health, education, weather, etc. and if all this could be accessed online would lead to better and more opportunities and thereby prosperity in these areas.
  • Social Development: The access to information empowers the citizens. The informed citizenry can participate and voice their concerns, which can be accommodated in the programme/ project formulation, implementation, monitoring and service delivery. Web-enabled participation will counter the discriminatory factors affecting our societal behaviour.
  • Reduced bureaucracy: E-government minimizes hierarchy of authority for availing any government services
  • Automation of Administrative Processes: A truly e-governed system would require minimal human intervention and would rather be system driven.
  • Enhanced communication and coordination between government organizations: An automated services can be accessed by different organizations coordination and further communication became relative
  • Paper Work Reduction: An immediate impact of automation would be on the paperwork. Paperwork is reduced to a greater extent with communication being enabled via electronic route and storage and retrieval of information in the electronic form. All this has led to the emergence of less paper office’.
  • Quality of Services: ICT helps governments to deliver services to citizens with greater accountability responsiveness and sensitivity. Quality of services improves, as now the people are able to, get services efficiently and instantaneously.
  • Elimination of Hierarchy: ICT has reduced procedural delays caused by hierarchical processes in the organisation. Through Intranet and LAN, it has become possible to send information and data across various levels in the organisation at the same time.
  • Change in Administrative Culture: Bureaucratic structures have been plagued by characteristics aptly described by Victor Thompson as ‘bureau-pathology’. From the day s of New Public Administration, efforts have been made to find ways to deal with the pathological or dysfunctional aspects of art.
  • Strategic Information System: Changing organisational environment and increasing competitiveness have put pressures on the performance of the functionaries. Information regarding all aspects needs to be made available to the management at every point to make routine as well as strategic decisions.

Some of the e-Governance models implemented in India: Customs and Excise (Government of India); Indian Railways; Postal Department; Passport/Visa; Bhoomi – Automation of Land Records (State Government of Karnataka); Gyandoot: Intranet in Tribal District of Dhar (State Government of Madhya Pradesh); e-Mitra – Integrated Citizen Services Center/ e-Kiosks (State Government of Rajasthan) etc.

Conclusion:

India was ranked 96 in United Nation’s E-Government Index 2018. Governments at the center and state made large investment in establishing some aspects of e-governances infrastructure. They have not been able to harness fully the opportunities it has provided and the expansion of e-governances website alone will not help unless cultural change occurs, in order to support transparency, minimize bureaucracy, and enhance citizen empowerment. Further progress still needs to be made to overcome the complex socio-economic challenges to egovernment usage in India. It is only if this is achieved that India could implement world class e-government systems with the aim of creating an equitable information society.


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5) What do you understand by ‘Superconductivity’? Give it uses and applications. also, the claim of superconductivity to work at room temperature has been claimed to be significant, discuss why.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article discusses the recent research with respect to superconductivity. IISc researchers have reported superconductivity at room temperature. Their finding, now under review, will be a breakthrough if verified.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the concept of superconductivity and the significance of recent discovery in this direction.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on the concept of superconductivity.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

Superconductivity is a phenomenon which occurs in certain materials and is

characterized by the absence of electrical resistivity, Superconductors have the ability to conduct electricity without the less of energy. Inside a superconductor the behaviour of electrons is vastly different. The impurities and lattice are still there, but the movement of the superconducting electrons through the obstacle course is quite different.

Then move on to explain the merits and demerits, significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Superconductivity is a state in which a material shows absolutely zero electrical resistance. While resistance is a property that restricts the flow of electricity, superconductivity allows unhindered flow Materials are said to be exhibiting superconductivity when they exhibit the following two characteristics after being cooled below their critical temperature: zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields (Meissner effect). All the electrons align themselves in a particular direction, and move without any obstruction in a “coherent” manner. Because of zero resistance, superconducting materials can save huge amounts of energy, and be used to make highly efficient electrical appliances. IISc researchers have reported superconductivity at room temperature. Their finding, now under review, will be a breakthrough if verified.

Body:

Applications:

  • SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) can be used to take magnetic cardiograms based on magnetic fields generated by electrical currents in the heart.
  • These are used in the memory components of computers and fast digital circuits (including those based on Josephson junctions and rapid single flux quantum technology).
  • Transportation: powerful superconducting electromagnets used in maglev trains, magnetic confinement fusion reactors (e.g. tokamaks), and magnets used in particle accelerators
  • Transforming the Electricity Grid: Superconductor technology provides loss-less wires and cables and improves the reliability and efficiency of the power grid. It saves power and with it the financial savings and the environmental benefits also accrue
  • Medical diagnosis: One of the first large-scale applications of superconductivity is in medical diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, uses powerful superconducting magnets to produce large and uniform magnetic fields inside the patient’s body.
  • Superconductors are also being employed for undersea communication, submarine detection and geophysical prospecting
  • high sensitivity particle detectors, including the transition edge sensor, the superconducting bolometer, the superconducting tunnel junction detector, the kinetic inductance detector, and the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector
  • rail gun and coilgun magnets
  • electric motors and generators

Significance of Superconductivity at room temperature:

  • Superconductivity is a phenomenon that, so far, has been possible only at extremely low temperatures, in the range of 100°C below zero.
  • In recent years, scientists have been able to find superconductive materials at temperatures that are higher than absolute zero but, in most cases, these temperatures are still below -100°C and the pressures required are extreme.
  • Creating such extreme conditions of temperature and pressure is a difficult task.
  • The search for a material that exhibits superconductivity at room temperature, or at least manageable low temperatures, has been going on for decades, without success.
  • Indian scientists have invented a material using silver nanoparticles embedded in a gold matrix that exhibited superconductivity in room temperature.
  • If the claimed discovery were confirmed, it could be one of the biggest breakthroughs in physics in this century so far.

Conclusion:

Technical barriers have till now hindered the large scale usage of superconductivity phenomenon. With the new discovery, the true potential of super-conductivity can be reached out for socio-economic development of the country.


Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

6) One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real-life example.  (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this question:

The question is based on the aspect of the value of ‘Integrity’ and how it is essential to not to compromise on it.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the significance of the value – integrity in one’s life.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain in brief what you understand by integrity.

Body:

Explain that compromising means one is  somewhere deviating from their path , may be out of necessity or compulsion or to do a favour to some body . In that deviation it may lead to any unetheical practice or may derlict your duties. If one wants to maintain the integrity in their professional life one must stick to the ethics and values.

Elaborate on the above using suitable example to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of the Integrity.

Introduction:

Integrity is the practice of synchronisation of thought, words and actions. It can be correlated to honesty but unlike honesty it’s more a professional value. It’s related to institution. It advocates sacrifice of personal gains in favour of organisational objectives

Body:

Integrity in its bare-bones essence means adherence to principles. It is a three-step process:

  • Choosing the right course of conduct
  • Acting consistently with the choice even when it is inconvenient or unprofitable to do so
  • Openly declaring where one stands. Accordingly, integrity is equated with moral reflection, steadfastness to commitments, trustworthiness.

You can give your own example here.

Conclusion:

Integrity requires a self discipline and will power capable of resisting the temptation. Its priceless reward is peace of mind and true dignity.  A person with strong integrity is less likely to be influenced by those of a lesser moral value.


Topic: corporate governance.

7) Do you agree that corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable? Analyse.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of CSR and its analysis.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the significance of CSR, how it itself makes the companies more sustainable and profitable in the long run.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on what is the concept of CSR.

Body:

Corporate social responsibility is a program under companies act 2013, under which corporates have to spend 2% of their profit amount on social service. With this service reputation of those companies will increase, in order to gain good reputation companies are competing among themselves in spending money under CSR. With this their sale/ demand for the product increase because this scheme also works like an advertise promotion, people also believe that quality of product/ service might be good and even to invest in such company’s people will come forward because of the trust they developed towards the company. It also motivates the employees of organization effectively, even govts also offer some benefits to companies, some financial institutions also provide the loans to such companies. In this way reputation converted into economic benefits of the company. This makes the company to run and gain the profits sustainably and even good will gesture of company also continues to raise.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting its significance.

Introduction:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is referred as a corporate initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company’s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare and to promote positive social and environmental change.

Body:

CSR is based on the philosophy of Trusteeship believes in inherent goodness of human beings. Companies have to spend at least 2% of last 3 years average net profits on CSR activities. This may sound costing companies on their profit but in reality it can make companies more profitable and sustainable.

  • Corporate Social Responsibility links Corporate Sector to Social Sector
  • Promote Relationship: Relationship is the oxygen of life. It enhances the “social quotient” of the company hence help in getting appeal for its product from people. Ex Lifeboy soap success story
  • It imparts an ethical, responsible character to company’s profile, helps it to justify its product, growth and create a distinct aura of company in public sphere. E.g.: Nanhi Kali project of Godrej group.
  • Competitive advantage: Businesses that show how they are more socially responsible than their competitors tend to stand out. TATA group enjoys much social appeal when compared with fellow competitor The Classmate notebooks which contributed Rs. 1 towards social welfare gained appeal over other brands.
  • Boosts employee morale: CSR practices have a significant impact on employee morale, as it reinforces his confidence on Company’s empathy.
  • Presence and involvement of company in CSR activity will provide a soft corner to it in government’s approval, preferences. Its active involvement to implement government flagship program like Swaccha Bharat Mission enhances company’s credibility in government’s eyes.
  • Promotes Socio-Economic Development: If the company is engaged in CSR programs it attracts foreign investment and helps the country to get valuable foreign exchange. This in turn leads to socio-economic developmental activities.

Conclusion:

Socially beneficial activities involve an element of welfare, charity and providing maximum good to maximum number of people. While doing them the donator will definitely get benefitted in terms of positive wishes, economic gains or prestige enhancement. Hence Corporate Social Responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable