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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, social issues.

1) Evaluate the role played by Conditional Cash Transfer schemes in successfully curbing child marriages and addressing gender inequality.(250 words)

The hindu


Why this question:

The article provides for a detailed analysis of interlinkages between conditional cash transfers and their role played in addressing gender inequality with special focus on how they curb child marriages.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must briefly discuss what are conditional cash transfers, their key role in alleviating poverty.


EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:


In a few introductory lines explain what are conditional cash transfer schemes.


The answer must explain the following aspects:

  • In what way conditional cash transfers address poverty and other social issues?
  • Problems and causes of child marriage – The reasons for child marriage, a social problem, range from usual factors of poverty, illiteracy and age-old cultural norms to apprehensions about early sexual activity (of adolescent girl in particular), elopement and marriage ‘outside the caste’. For some, early marriage is the resolution of the ‘problem of modernity and mobility’ of young women.
  • Explain in what way conditional cash transfers can empower women?
  • Discuss case studies of – Kalyan Lakshmi and Shaadi Mubarak schemes etc.
  • Explain what are the consequences of it on the society.


Conclude with what more is needed to be done to overcome such a social issue.


Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers’ actions. The government (or a charity) only transfers the money to persons who meet certain criteria. These criteria may include enrolling children into public schools, getting regular check-ups at the doctor’s office, receiving vaccinations, or the like. TISS, Hyderabad studied the impact of the schemes Kalyana Lakshmi and Shadi Mubarak in Telangana and Chandranna Pelli Kanuka in Andhra Pradesh recently.


Key Findings of the study:

  • The CCT schemes became popular as cash is transferred to the accounts of beneficiaries only when the girl is married after attaining the legally valid age of 18 years.
  • The features of the schemes in the two States encompass added benefits of legal protection of the marriage as well as ensuring education of girls.
  • However, the widely prevalent perception is that the scheme is for extending financial assistance to poor families to meet marriage expenditure rather than driving the message that child marriage should be viewed as a social problem.

A sample of working of Conditional Cash Transfer:

 Significance of CCT:

  • CCT schemes addresses  issues more towards  the  individual  rather than  the  household, which  is  the  focus  of  the government.
  • Certain national schemes, is, related to maternity benefits and the survival and education of the girl child which addresses the problem of child marriage directly or indirectly. E.g.: Dhanalakshmi, Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent girls (SABLA) etc.
  • CCTs have benefits of legal protection of the marriage as well as ensuring education of girls.
  • The CCT schemes became popular as cash is transferred to the accounts of beneficiaries only when the girl is married after attaining the legally valid age of 18 years.
  • CCT Schemes confer more than just monetary support; it should be a means of financial inclusion and a tool of empowerment for adolescent girls. The schemes benefits are therefore paid directly to bank accounts in the girls names, leaving the decision of utilization of the money in their hands.
  • CCT scheme also works to enhance the social power and self-esteem of girls through a targeted behaviour change communication strategy.

Challenges faced by CCT:

  • However, the financial incentive alone cannot help in curbing the child marriage and bringing in gender equality.
  • This is because the reasons for child marriage, a social problem, range from usual factors of poverty, illiteracy and age-old cultural norms to apprehensions about early sexual activity ( of adolescent girl in particular), elopement and marriage ‘outside the caste’. For some, early marriage is the resolution of the ‘problem of modernity and mobility’ of young women.
  • The widely prevalent perception is that the CCT scheme is for extending financial assistance to poor families to meet marriage expenditure rather than driving the message that child marriage should be viewed as a social problem
  • The CCT also has negative fallout to it such as reinforcing dowry and marriage expenses being borne by the bride’s family.
  • If early marriage of girls is considered a gender disempowering phenomenon, then provision of financial assistance by the State seems to be primarily addressing poverty alleviation

Other measures to curb child marriage:

  • Increasing access to accessible, high quality and safe schooling is a critical strategy in ending child marriage and ensuring married girls have the opportunity to complete their education.
  • Education builds knowledge, opens new opportunities and can help to shift norms around the value of girls in the community. The very act of girls attending school can reinforce to the community that girls of school-going age are still children.
  • Supporting young people to be agents of change can be an effective and empowering process in and of itself. Many organisations work with young people so they can advocate for change as well as helping to inform the design of programmes that directly benefit their peers.
  • Many families and communities see child marriage as a deeply rooted practice which has been part of their culture for generations. For change to happen, the values and norms which support the practice of child marriage need to shift.
  • Working with families and the wider community to raise awareness of the harmful consequences of child marriage can change attitudes and reduce the acceptance among those who make the decision to marry girls as children.
  • Community level change underpins all of efforts in preventing child marriage and mitigating the harmful effects for married girls. Without change at this level, the day-to-day reality for girls all over the world will remain the same.
  • A strong legal and policy system can provide an important backdrop for improvements in services, changes in social norms and girls’ empowerment.


The CCTs to curb child marriage need to emphasise legal registration of marriage and not simply rely on certificates by religious community leaders. Tighter administrative control to curb corruption and elimination of political approval at any stage is needed to discourage culture of political patronage. The schemes should be seen as part of initiatives to combat child marriage and thus linked to programmes meant for empowerment of girls through education and livelihood opportunities. This would motivate families to think of education and employment of their daughters, and not marriage, as priority.

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

2) Discuss the possible Foreign policy challenges awaiting India, as great power rivalry aggravates in international politics bringing disruptions for India at bilateral and regional level. (250 words)


Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the effect of current trends of rivalry between different countries across the world that India will face.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the context, current rivalry that is aggravating the tensions between countries say like that of China and America. One has to discuss in detail impact of such turfs on India.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:


In a few introductory lines explain the statement in the question.


Body of the answer must discuss in detail the current trends of Indian foreign policy, what are the repercussions of international politics that may bring disruptions and challenges to Indian bilateral relations with other countries. Discuss specific key areas of concerns like – Sino- American trade wars, India’s another challenge would be to balance between its Indo-Pacific and Eurasian strategies. Issues of south Asia etc.


Conclude with what should be the way forward.


A successful Indian foreign policy, by definition, is one that creates the external circumstances conducive to realizing India’s fundamental aims, namely, protecting its physical security and its decisional autonomy, enlarging its economic prosperity and its technological capabilities, and realizing its status claims on the global stage. Beyond the domestic issues, India faces the same challenges as before in its relations with the rest of the world, which need attention.


The foreign policy challenges awaiting India are:

India and South Asia:

  • The SAARC spirit soon evaporated after 2014, and after the Uri attack in 2016, India’s stance affected the convening of the SAARC summit in Islamabad.
  • India is driven by the vision of itself as the self-declared “regional superpower”.
  • But this is being undermined by the smaller countries in South Asia.
  • They are deciding to leverage China’s ambitions in the region, particularly the Indian Ocean, to their own advantage.
  • It is difficult to ignore Pakistan. A terrorist attacks cannot be ruled out and it would attract kinetic retaliation. Despite good planning there is always the risk of unintended escalation as Balakot (this year) and the downing of an Indian Air Force (IAF) MiG-21 showed
  • India has tried to fight China’s expansion by backing those political parties and leaders in these countries whom it sees as being more “pro-New Delhi”. E.g. as in Sri Lanka and the Maldives
  • However, as New Delhi has realised, even pro-India leaders in these countries do not like to take India’s domination.
  • In Nepal, India’s promises to speed up long-pending projects have not yet succeeded in reversing the damage done by the 2015-16 economic blockade in support of the Madhesis.

India and China:

  • The Asian superpower – China’s – economic and geostrategic ambitions will continue to shape India’s responses.
  • It may influence everything from India’s relations with the neighbourhood to the US and Russia in the West and ASEAN and Japan in the East.
  • Despite the Wuhan meeting and the cooling of Doklam standoff’s tensions, many differences remain, but new opportunities too.
  • China is now keen to build bridges in the region and elsewhere, given its pressure of economic slowdown along with the US trade war against it.
  • There is now a need for a new arrangement to replace the strategic framework formulated in 1988 during Rajiv Gandhi’s visit.
  • It served both countries well for three decades but is now under strain.

India, Afghanistan and the Taliban:

  • The reconciliation talks between the U.S. and the Taliban as the U.S. negotiates its exit from Afghanistan raise New Delhi’s apprehensions about the Taliban’s return, constituting another potential irritant.
  • It furthered the impression that the Trump administration was desperate to make concessions to the Taliban.
  • Iran and Russia too, which consider themselves stakeholders, are likely to be concerned about this.
  • Russia has tried to keep India in the frame through New Delhi’s “non-official” participation in the Moscow process, but the future of that process is uncertain. Click here to know more.
  • The challenge would be for India to stay relevant in Afghanistan, with the recent developments in Taliban issue.

India and USA:

  • US protectionism on the trade front – The Generalised System of Preferences scheme has been withdrawn, adversely impacting about 12% of India’s exports to the U.S., as a sign of growing impatience with India’s inability to address the U.S.’s concerns regarding market access, tariff lines and recent changes in the e-commerce policy.
  • US visa rules hurting Indian professionals
  • US’s collision course with Iran impacting India’s oil purchases
  • Iran’s issue could also adversely affect the operability of Chabahar port which India has built as an alternative route to trade with Afghanistan.
  • The threat of sanctions under the Countering American Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), were India to proceed with the purchase of the S-400 air and missile defence system from Russia.
  • Other potential tricky issues could relate to whether Huawei, which is currently the prime target in the U.S.-China technology war, is allowed to participate in the 5G trials (telecom) in India.

Measures needed:

  • This necessitates using multi-pronged diplomatic efforts and being generous as the larger economy.
  • It also needs a more confident and coordinated approach in handling neighbourhood organisations — SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh, the Bhutan, India, Nepal Initiative, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation, the Indian Ocean Rim Association.
  • This should be preferably in tandem with bilateralism because our bilateral relations provide us with significant advantages.
  • With all our neighbours, ties of kinship, culture and language among the people straddle boundaries, making the role of governments in States bordering neighbours vital in fostering closer linkages.
  • This means investing attention in State governments, both at the political and bureaucratic levels.
  • Domestic decisions in terms of expanding the foreign policy establishment though having a seasoned professional at the top does help.
  • We need to ensure far more coordination among the different ministries and agencies than has been the case so far.
  • Our record in implementation projects is patchy at best and needs urgent attention.
  • The focus on the neighbourhood is certainly desirable, for only if we can shape events here can we look beyond.


The limitations of India’s foreign policy are linked intimately to its weaknesses at home. If India is to realize its great power ambitions in the decades to come, the Government will have to accelerate economic reforms domestically, strengthen India’s institutions, preserve its constitutional ethos, and protect the nation’s internal cohesion, all of which have floundered dangerously in recent years.

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

3) who is an independent candidate in the elections of India? Discuss the issues associated with independent candidates and their contestations in the elections. Are they unimportant for political representation? Critically analyse.(250 words)



Why this question:

The question is around the fact that Independent candidates are often deemed ‘frivolous’ or ‘spoilers’ by mainstream political figures and authorities, although there is little to no evidence on their effect on elections. It is often found that independent candidates decrease the chances that a Lok Sabha constituency elects a member of the party or coalition that forms the national government. It suggests that participation by independents has a high price – a lesser role for the constituency in policymaking.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss who is an independent candidate? Role in deciding election results, pros and cons what are the general recommendation by various committees about it like the law commission report etc.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer


write a few introductory lines explain who is an independent candidate in an election.


Answer should have the following dimensions covered:

  • Role of independent candidates in elections of India.
  • How do they effect the results?
  • Should independents be discouraged from participating as candidates in elections? –  results for voter turnout and the distribution of vote shares are also consistent with the idea that independents give voters better opportunities to express their preferences.
  • This can improve political representation, as independents are free from the dictates of a party line, and have the flexibility to represent local preferences in a way that party-affiliated candidates often do not. To answer the question of whether independents should be discouraged, we would need to know if these advantages are outweighed by the disadvantages of not electing candidates from the governing party, or coalition of parties, that forms the national government.
  • What needs to be done?

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance and what should be the way forward.


An independent candidate is one who contests polls without being affiliated to any political party. Independents often support policies that are different from major political parties. In its 255th report, the Law Commission of India sparked a debate when it recommended that independent candidates be barred from contesting elections as “they are either not serious or contest elections just to confuse the voters.”


Issues associated with independent candidates and their contestations in the elections:

  • While there is a limit on expenditure that an individual candidate can incur on her/his election, there is none on the amount that a political party can. This obviously puts independent candidates, who had no party to bankroll their election, at a huge disadvantage.
  • It is difficult for independent candidates to campaign and influence large numbers of voters in India with little money and influence.
  • The second strand pertains to the collection of money and is two-pronged. First is tax exemption. The Income Tax Act 1961, and amended in 1978 with the addition of Section 13A, grants 100% exemption from income tax to political parties.
  • It also clarifies that for the purposes of this section, ‘political party’ means a political party registered under the Representation of People Act. So, the tax exemption that a party’s candidate enjoys becomes indirectly unavailable to independent candidates.
  • The independent candidates are not eligible to get money from electoral trusts. Even the electoral bonds bypasses the Independent candidates as only political parties are eligible.
  • Many independent candidates are either not serious or contest elections just to confuse the voters.
  • The number of independents winners has been decreasing. In 2014, 3,182 independent candidates contested the Lok Sabha elections and only 3 won seats
  • Supreme Court, in Dhartipakar Madan Lal Agarwal v. Rajiv Gandhi, recommended that Parliament devise ways “to meet the onslaught” of such non-serious independent candidates.
  • Proliferation of candidates puts “unnecessary and avoidable stress” in election management and increases security and election administration expenditure.
  • Low vote shares and little direct policy influence drive the widely-held belief that independents are unimportant for political representation.

State of Independent candidates:

  • With a constant decline in the number of successful independent candidates in all general elections, their average success rate is just 0.49 per cent.
  • Till now, the highest number of winning independent candidates was seen in 1957 elections when they won 42 seats, followed by 37 in 1952.
  • Since 1991 polls, number of winning independents is not just stood at single digit but also sharply declining too. The lowest count also observed in 1991 when only one independent had won out of total 5,514 independents contested.

Importance of Independent candidates:

  • The presence of more independent candidates induced voters to step out and vote, and get existing voters to switch their votes.
  • Independent candidates provide voters with better opportunities to express their preferences.
  • Independents increase the chances of votes for regional parties at the expense of votes for coalition of parties, that forms the national government
  • Independents can improve political representation, as independents are free from the dictates of a party line, and have the flexibility to represent local preferences in a way that party-affiliated candidates often do not.
  • Independents thus generate a trade-off between giving voters better opportunities for preference expression and better representation in the government.


In Indian democracy any independent fulfilling current eligibility criteria can contest elections as many times. Independents play an important role in elections: they increase citizen knowledge about alternative policies and can facilitate the selection of representatives who are more responsive to their constituents.

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/ or affecting India’s interests.

4) With the help of Forums like SAARC/ other alternative measures, how can India help build a cohesive south Asia? comment. (250 words)


Why this question:

The question straightforward and is about discussing efforts that can be made to build a cohesive South Asia.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the possible methods and efforts that can be made to build a stronger and cohesive South Asia.


Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.


Start by highlighting the importance of the region.

Structure of the answer:


The answer should focus on the aspects of regional integration of south Asia,

In terms of economy, societies, culture etc. discuss the role of measures like SAARC and other regional groupings in addressing the same.

Move on to explain the possible challenges, hurdles and how one can address them.


Conclude with what should be the way ahead.


South Asia is one of the least integrated regions in the world, despite geographical contiguity and historical and cultural links. To fulfil ambitions in Indo-Pacific and beyond, India must work for a cohesive South Asia.


India’s foreign policy with respect to South Asian region is guided by the following principles:

  • Panchsheel: These fundamental principles include for instance the five principles of peaceful co-existence: Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, Mutual non-aggression, Mutual non-interference, Equality and mutual benefit, and Peaceful co-existence.
  • Neighbourhood First: Cordial relations and productive cooperation with India’s neighbours, particularly with the founder Members of SAARC in South Asia, has always with a priority.
  • Strategic Autonomy: Independence of decision making and strategic autonomy are significant features of India’s foreign policy. India thus believes in Partnerships and shuns Alliances, particularly military alliances.
  • Constructive Engagement over Aggression: India advocates the policy of constructive engagement over aggression. It believes that violent retaliation and confrontation can only complicate the matters.
  • No endorsement of Unilateral Sanctions: India also does not endorse the idea of imposing sanctions against any individual country by another country or group of countries unless these sanctions have been imposed by the United Nations as a result of international consensus.

India’s efforts towards a cohesive South Asia can be as follows:

Economic growth is primary:

  • Our ability to manage our region and stature in the world depend to a considerable degree upon economic success.
  • The continent-sized Indian economy, growing at around 6 per cent, holds a tremendous attraction for our neighbours.

Positive asymmetry towards neighbours:

  • Realising its special responsibility in driving the locomotive of South Asian growth, India would “continue to institutionalise positive asymmetry in favour of our neighbours and allow all to benefit from our economy and market”, should be the leitmotif of our South Asia policies.

Jingoism not sustainable in diplomacy:

  • All our neighbours have certain vested interests opposed to India and it becomes necessary once in a while to send a coercive message to them.
  • This should, however, not alienate the constituencies that are well-disposed towards us.
  • A jingoistic response, as opposed to discreet punitive action, to the provocations of the Pakistan security establishment and its proxies ends up consolidating opinion there in favour of the provocateurs.
  • The wisdom of restricting transit for Nepal to punish the short-sighted actions of its governments is also questionable. The resulting hardship can turn the entire population against us.

Separate domestic politics from relations with neighbour:

  • Relations with our South Asian neighbours are intertwined with the interests of our states and certain political constituencies.
  • For example, the politics in Tamil Nadu over the Sri Lankan Tamils issue and our relationship with Pakistan has become a subject of electoral politics in recent years.
  • In a democracy, such politics is unavoidable to an extent but carried out cynically, it could have unintended

Efficient project implementation in neighbouring countries:

  • The cost and time overruns that mar most of our projects at home due to cumbersome administrative and financial procedures also afflicts our projects in neighbouring countries. Instead of complaining against interlopers from outside the region, we need to focus on improving our project delivery. 

Capitalise our cultural heritage:

  • Lastly, the pull of our soft power is the strongest in South Asia because India remains the repository of nearly all linguistic, religious and cultural traditions of this region.
  • India is the epitome of the South Asian diversity, which we have managed well in our vibrant democracy.
  • Any faltering on this count would impair not only our South Asia project, but also our global ambitions

Way forward for India to better realise its interests in South Asia are:

  • BIMSTEC is seen as complimentary for various initiatives of India like forming a bridge between ASEAN and India, new found concept of Indo-pacific, neighbourhood first policy.
  • As the largest bay in the world, Bay of Bengal is a pivot for BIMSTEC countries. Their combined GDP — at 2.85 trillion US Dollars — and one of the largest combined population in the world, gives BIMSTEC an inherent advantage.
  • India’s Trilateral highway project all the way to Cambodia will further strengthen the connectivity with South East Asian nations.
  • The BBIN Motor Vehicle Agreement will help in connectivity, economic development and regional integration. This will also help in the development of North-East India, which has hitherto been neglected.
  • Focus on SASEC which is SAARC minus Pakistan;
  • The RCEP initiative will form a bigger regional and economic entity, thus strengthening our Act East policy.
  • The informal QUAD grouping with USA, Japan and Australia and increased focus on Indo-Pacific region must be leveraged to counter to Chinese hegemony in South Asian region.


                Geographies are not static; they evolve, sometimes slowly and quickly at others. How we imagine and construct regions changes according to circumstances. India must look at her national interests and strategic autonomy. In the process, she can take along the likeminded neighbours together.

Topic:  Energy, mobilization of resources, growth, development

5) What have been the major reasons for the development of solar energy in India despite its high potential? Discuss the achievements so far and challenges in harnessing it. What should be the way forward.(250 words)


Why this question:

The question is about analyzing why is scope of producing solar energy so high in India with potential being one factor there are other factors too that push the development of Solar energy.

Key demand of the question:

Answer must discuss the causative factors of developing solar energy in India in detail.


DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:


In a few introductory lines state some facts/statistics related to solar energy production in India.


In brief discuss the following factors:

  • Why is scope of producing solar energy so high in India? – India has tremendous scope of generating solar energy. The geographical location of the country stands to its benefit for generating solar energy. The reason being India is a tropical country and it receives solar radiation almost throughout the year, which amounts to 3,000 hours of sunshine.
  • Quote reasons apart from these above major factors – power requirements, dependency, export etc.
  • Discuss the achievements so far.
  • Issues and concerns associated
  • What needs to be done?


Conclude with significance of solar power to India.


National Solar Mission envisages establishing India as a global leader in solar energy. The Mission has set the ambitious target of deploying 100GW of grid connected solar power by 2022. (40 GW Rooftop and 60 GW through Large and Medium Scale Grid Connected Solar Power Projects). The country’s solar installed capacity reached 25.21 GW as of 31 December 2018


The major reasons for the development of solar energy in India:

  • Energy Security:
    • As Indian population continues to grow and the limited amount of fossil fuels begins to diminish, it may not be possible to provide the amount of energy demanded by the world by only using fossil fuels to convert energy.
    • India’s current energy use is unsustainable.
    • India has been dependent to a large extent on energy imports to meet its national energy requirements.
    • It is estimated that at current rates of production, oil will run out in 53 years, natural gas in 54, and coal in 110.
  • Economic Constraints:
    • India imports almost 80% of her oil needs, generates 60% of her electricity from coal-based thermal power plants. However, these being fossil fuels, they are dwindling at quick rates.
    • The geo-political scenario is volatile leading to energy insecurity of India
    • It not only results in huge government subsidies, but also substantial health and environmental hazards.
  • Social Needs:
    • Nearly 300 million people in rural India lack access to grid-connected power, promoting use of archaic sources of energy such as kerosene, diesel, wood-fired chulhas, etc.
    • Mostly energy demands are fulfilled by subsidised kerosene, leading to loss for exchequer.
  • Environmental Concerns:
    • India lying in tropical belt has an advantage of receiving peak solar radiation for 300 days, amounting 2300-3,000 hours of sunshine equivalent to above 5,000 trillion kWh.
    • Debate of global warming and climate change is compelling the world to move from fossil based energy towards clean and green energy.
    • With its pollution free nature, virtually inexhaustible supply and global distribution, solar energy is very attractive energy resource.
    • India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC’s) commitments include 100 GW of solar power out of 175 GW renewable energy by 2022.


  • National Solar Mission envisages establishing India as a global leader in solar energy.
  • The Mission has set the ambitious target of deploying 100GW of grid connected solar power by 2022. (40 GW Rooftop and 60 GW through Large and Medium Scale Grid Connected Solar Power Projects).
  • The country’s solar installed capacity reached 21 GW as of 31 December 2018.
  • India along with Paris, on the sidelines of UNFCCC’s CoP 21 at Paris (2015) decided to set up International Solar Alliance.
  • The ISA’s major objectives include global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity and mobilisation of investment of over US$ 1000 billion into solar energy by 2030.


  • India’s solar story is largely built over imported products.
  • India’s domestic content requirement clause is facing legal challenge at WTO.
  • India is facing challenge to balance Prioritising domestic goals and WTO commitments.
  • The dumping of products is leading to profit erosion of local manufacturers.
  • Indian domestic manufacturers aren’t technically and economically strong to compete with Chinese companies.
  • China’s strong manufacturing base is giving stiff challenge to domestic manufacturer.
  • Land availability in India for solar plant is less due to high population density.
  • India’s solar waste is estimated to be around 1.8 million by 2050 also needs to be tackled.

Way Forward:

  • Strong financial measures are required to finance the solar projects, innovative steps like green bonds, institutional loans and clean energy fund can play a crucial role.
  • Promotion of research and development in renewable energy sector, especially in storage technology.
  • Proper mechanism should be provided to tackle China’s dumping of solar equipments.
  • Framework to avoid unnecessary delays in policy decision making and implementation.
  • India needs a Solar Waste Management and Manufacturing Standards Policy.

Topic:   Ethics

7) ‘Wherever law ends, tyranny begins.’ Elucidate the statement with its relevance to our country.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon Publications


Why this question:

The question is based on the statement famously given by philosopher John Locke.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail how tyranny and law are interrelated.


ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:


In a few introductory lines suggest the importance of law.


Discuss in detail role played by law in a society/country.

Why is law critical to a region?

In what way it controls tyranny? Quote some recent examples here to justify.

Explain what needs to be done to end tyranny and strengthen law.


Conclude with significance of law.


The above statement was made by John Locke. The equality of all citizens under the law is a lynch-pin of the modern notion of the rule of law in a democratic state. Maintenance of public order and the rule of law is a key sovereign function of the State, as important in its own way as defending the nation from external aggression or maintaining the unity and integrity of the nation State.


A revolutionary implication of this idea, well appreciated by Locke in the tumultuous 1680s, is that even rulers and their magistrates were also under the “sovereignty of the law”. According to Locke, when any member of the state exceeds his legal authority or in any way violates the law, he ceases “to be a magistrate; and, acting without authority, may be opposed, as any other man, who by force invades the right of another.”

The statement’s relevance to India:

Rule of law inherently incorporates three concepts – supremacy of law, equality before law and predominance of legal spirit.

Dicey elucidated: “When we speak of ‘rule of law’ as a characteristic of our country, not only that with us, no man is above the law, but that here every man, whatever be his rank or condition, is subject to the ordinary law of the realm and amenable to the jurisdiction of the ordinary courts.”

But the question which now arises is whether rule of law actually practiced? Prima facie, one gets a straight and simple answer. Ordinary citizens face the rigour of law just as any public servant charged/convicted of an offence loses his job on the precinct of losing general trust. But does law take similar toll on politicians? Would an action be taken on them through the process of law or just by an adverse public opinion?

In theory, the Indian criminal justice system does not discriminate in favour of influential persons, yet, in practice, politicians are seldom punished for their criminal offences. Although the police personnel and politicians taken identical oaths i.e. to uphold the rule of law and preserve the sanctity of the constitution, policemen conspicuously witness politicians supporting only their caste and community.

e.g.: In the Priyadarshini Mattoo case, the status of the accused Santosh Kumar Singh, who was the son of a former Inspector General of Police, resulted in sub-standard investigation. This was responsible for granting benefit of doubt to the accused by the trial court. It was only due to media activism that the prosecution succeeded in getting an early hearing by the High Court and subsequently the judgment of the trial court was over-ruled. Subsequently, death penalty was awarded to Santosh Kumar Singh. The court condemned the brutal rape and murder by implicating it in ‘rarest of the rare’ cases.

E.g.: Corruption has seeped in at all levels of governance. Be it the Commonwealth Games scam, the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the 2G spectrum allocation scam; the list is increasing day by day.


The whole criminal justice system needs overhauling so that the constitutional mandate of equality before law is made meaningful and it should not be the case that higher courts are kept occupied by the persons with money or power, as in the case today. Our salvation lies in following and enforcing the principles of natural justice and rule of law.