SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 JUNE 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Indian Culture, salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) How did the Bhakti movement help reduce social evils of their times? Justify using suitable examples.(250 words)

class XI NCERT Medieval India

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the role played by Bhakti movement in addressing the social issues.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss significant role played by Bhakti saints and the movement in addressing the social ills, one has to quote examples to substantiate the answer.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on Bhakti movement.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

State core principles of Bhakti movement which defied the existing social system and values.

Explain how the beginning of Bhakti movement took place in South India between the 7th and the 12th centuries through the teachings of poet saints known as Alvars and Nayanar whose hymns were collected and compiled in the 10th century. Kabir, Guru Nanak, Mirabai, Surdas, Tulsi Das, Chaitanya are some of the prominent saints of Bhakti movement.

Bhakti saints rose voice against the popular social conventions and evils of that time such as – Rejection of ritualism, criticized casteism, Monotheism, Use of common vernacular languages and local dialect etc.

Quote examples of saints like – Kabir, Gyaneshwar etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting their role.

Introduction:

Bhakti was accepted as a means to attain moksha along with jnana and karma. The Bhakti Movement originated in the seventh-century in Tamil, South India (now parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and spread northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reached its peak between the 15th and 17th century CE. The Bhakti Saints moved against the austerities propagated by the Buddhist and Jain schools and professed that ultimate devotion to god was the means to salvation.

Body:

 Bhakti movement and fight against social evils:

  • The Bhakti movement in many ways broke barriers of gender, class and caste.
  • At the same time, it shattered stereotypes associated with the perception of spiritualism; denounced orthodoxy and the rigid ritualistic practices of worship, and established a more personal and informal connection between the devotee and the divine.
  • During the Bhakti movement, the lower classes rose to a position of great importance.
  • The Bhakti movement gave equal importance to men and women which gave way to the importance of women in society.
  • The Alvars and Nayanars initiated a movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of Brahmanas or at least attempted to reform the system. This is supported by the fact that bhaktas or disciples hailed from diverse social backgrounds ranging from Brahmanas to artisans and cultivators and even from castes considered “untouchable”
  • Basavanna’s Virashavism movement began in Karnataka in the 12th century which argued for the equality of all human beings and against Brahmanical ideas about caste and the treatment of women. They were also against all forms of ritual and idol worship.
  • Ramananda opposed the caste system and chose his disciples from all sections of society irrespective of caste. His disciples included Kabir, a weaver; Raidasa, he was a cobbler; Sena, he was a barber; thus, emphasizing the equality among people of all occupations and caste.
  • Namadeva and Ramananda, both of them taught the concept of bhakti to all the four varnas and disregarded the ban on people of different castes cooking together and sharing meals
  • Saint Kabir aided the common people to shed age-old superstitions and attain salvation through Bhakti or pure devotion. He criticized all forms of worship of idols. He stood for doing away with all the unnecessary customs and rituals in both religions and bringing union between these religions.
  • Guru Nanak condemned caste difference and rituals like bathing in holy rivers. His idea of religion was highly practical and strictly moral.
  • Saints from Maharashtra namely Jnaneshwar, Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram as well as women like Sakkubai and the family of Chokhamela, belonged to the “untouchable” Mahar caste. These saint-poets rejected all forms of ritualism, outward display of piety and social differences based on birth. It is regarded as a humanist idea, as they insisted that bhakti lay in sharing others’ pain.
  • Nathpanthis, Siddhars and Yogis condemned the ritual and other aspects of orthodox religion and the social order, using simple, logical arguments. These groups became particularly popular among “low” castes.
  • The Bhakti reformers adopted the common language of the people and preached in it instead of preaching either in Sanskrit or in Persian. In this way a great impetus was given to the development of the vernaculars.

 

Conclusion:

Bhakti cult was out-of-the-box thoughts on religion. It was mainly against the common religious views, and most importantly, it was strongly against the caste system. It succeeded to a very small extent in realizing its two-fold objective i.e. bringing about reforms in Hinduism and developing harmonious relations between the Hindus and the Muslims.


Topic: Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

2) Discuss the need for a new legal framework for charities in india.(250 words)

Indian polity by Lakshmikanth

Why this question:

The question is direct and is about discussing the urgent need for a robust legal framework for charities in India.

Key demands of the question:

Answer is to discuss the need for a regulatory legal framework for charities in India.

Directive word

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain what the role of charities.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in your answer:

The multiplicity of charity laws in India has prevented evolution and growth of a proper institutional framework in this sector.

While, voluntary organisations often feel harassed in complying with various legal obligations, institutions of the government too have not been effective in regulating the sector and securing legal compliance.

Instances of misuse of tax provisions, fraud and poor governance have become frequent. There is need to create an effective institutional mechanism which would provide a supportive environment for the growth and development of charities in this country. India being a federal Union, a decentralized institutional setup for charities similar to that existing in the USA, seems to be appropriate. The power of registration and oversight needs to lie with the State Governments.

Conclusion

Reassert the significant role played by them and conclude with way forward and need for recognizing their contributions to the society along with a regulatory legal framework for them.

Introduction:

A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good). It is an act of extending love and kindness to others unconditionally, which is a conscious act but the decision is made by the heart, without expecting a reward. When Charity is carried out selflessly, it is a one-way act where a person gives but asks for nothing in return.

Body:

They form a part of the NGO’s or VO’s. Charitable Companies are set up according to section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013. For charitable companies, the compliance requirements are high, as loans and advances are easily available to them compared to a trust or a society. They have to even pay Income tax under IT act 1961.

The task of socio-economic development in India is vast and complicated. Along with the governmental efforts, a holistic vision and collaborative efforts involving various departments, agencies, charities and NGOs is required.

Challenges faced by the charities:

  • Income generation remains a big challenge for organisations, followed by meeting demand for services and reductions in funding. Charitable organizations often depend partly on donations from businesses. Such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy.
  • One of the biggest challenges to giving today is the credibility of organizations. A lot of organizations have poor reputations in terms of how they’re using their funds
  • Few charities are optimistic about government support for the sector and most think that over the next five years, government will see them as a nuisance for criticising government policy.
  • Non-accountable, non-transparent undemocratic functioning: CBI records filed in the Supreme Court show that only 10% of the total registered NGOs under the Societies Registration Act file annual financial statements.
  • Over dependence on funds from the government dilutes the willingness of NGOs to speak out against the government.
  • Money Laundering: Corrupt or unscrupulous NGOs that receive foreign funds may serve as conduits for money laundering.
  • Accreditation remains a big challenge as it is very difficult to distinguish whether an organization wants to work for the cause or has been set up only for the purpose of receiving government grants.
  • The number of foreign-funded organisations operating in India has reportedly shrunk by nearly half in the past two years amid a crackdown by the government.
  • Emotional ties play a big part, if parents and grandparents have given to a particular religious trust or temple, somehow the present generation feels obliged to continue that, even when they would rather channel that money somewhere else.
  • Some family foundations that were set up many decades ago with very specific purposes. But they’ve become a bit redundant now because those issues don’t arise any more.

Thus, there is a need for a new legal framework for charities in India.

Way Forward:

  • A National Accreditation Council consisting of academicians, activist, retired bureaucrats should be made to ensure compliance by NGOs.
  • There should be better coordination between Ministries of Home Affairs and Finance in terms of monitoring and regulating illicit and unaccounted funds.
  • A regulatory mechanism to keep a watch on the financial activities of NGOs and voluntary organizations is the need of the hour.
  • Citizens today are keen to play an active role in processes that shape their lives and it is important that their participation in democracy go beyond the ritual of voting and should include promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion etc.
  • The government should frame guidelines for their accreditation, the manner in which these organizations should maintain their accounts and the procedure for recovery in case they fail to submit their balance sheets.
  • Avoid tussle between Home Ministry and Finance Ministry by bringing the regulation of Charity under one head.
  • General Financial Rules, 2005 have mandated a regulatory mechanism for the NGOs and a comprehensive law in line with these rules should be framed in no time.

Conclusion:

Many charitable organizations like AkshayaPatra foundation (MDM scheme), Infosys Foundation (Swachh Bharat – building toilets) etc. are playing a vital role in the socio-economic development of India. Thus, there is a need for a systematic regulation and smooth working of such organizations and help in the benefit of the general public.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Discuss in detail the concerns associated with Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019, what are the issues specifically with respect to

Privacy issues associated with it? (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

In a major move aimed at making Aadhaar people friendly, the Union Cabinet has approved “The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019” to replace the earlier ordinance.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the salient features of the amendments, Need and concerns associated with the use of Aadhaar, issues of privacy.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of the act.

Body

One can have the following points in the answer:

  • Discuss the background of the question.
  • Explain the salient features of the Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019.
  • Explain what are the possible issues associated with it
  • Discuss specifically issues related to privacy concerns.

Economic  Growth: A  good  transportation system  is an important selling  point to communities

that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport

costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in

costs  thus losing  competitiveness  in international  markets. Efficient  transportation access  is

therefore  a very important  consideration as it  has a direct impact on  sound and sustainable

economic growth and productivity. The cost of congestion in the Western Province of Sri  Lanka

is over Rs 20,000 million per year (around 2 percent of Regional GDP). This includes the cost of

productive time and wastage of fuel.   

Quality-of-Life: To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-

life-in a community.  The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in

reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal

value and satisfaction.

Conclusion

Conclude with solutions to the problem and suggest way forward.

Introduction:

The Union Cabinet has approved “The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019” for introduction in Parliament. The bill envisages strengthening of the Aadhaar Act as per the directions of the Supreme Court and recommendations of Justice B.N.Srikrishna. This will enable UIDAI to have a more robust mechanism to serve the public interest and restrain the misuse of Aadhar.

Body:

The salient features of the amendments:

  • No individual will be compelled to provide proof of possession of Aadhaar number or undergo authentication for the purpose of establishing his identity unless it is so provided by a law made by Parliament.
  • For the convenience of the general public in the opening of bank accounts, it will allow the use of Aadhaar number for authentication on a voluntary basis as an acceptable KYC document under the Telegraph Act, 1885 and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002.
  • It gives an option to children who are Aadhaar number holders to cancel their Aadhaar number on attaining the age of eighteen years.
  • It proposes deletion of section 57 of the Aadhaar Act relating to use of Aadhaar by private entities;
  • It prevents denial of services for refusing to, or being unable to, undergo authentication.
  • It provides for establishment of Unique Identification Authority of India Fund.
  • It provides for civil penalties, its adjudication, appeal thereof in regard to violations of Aadhaar Act and provisions by entities in the Aadhaar ecosystem.

Implications of the amendment:

  • The amendments would enable UIDAI to have a more robust mechanism to serve the public interest and restrain the misuse of Aadhaar.
  • Subsequent to this amendment, no individual shall be compelled to provide proof of possession of Aadhaar number for the purpose of establishing his identity unless it is so provided by a law made by Parliament.

Concerns associated with Amendment Bill:

  • The amendments proposed are the same as those contained in the Ordinance promulgated by President on March 2, 2019.
  • Making Aadhaar voluntary: Critics argue that the bill doesn’t commit itself to making sure Aadhaar is purely voluntary as it still enables the government to make Aadhaar mandatory for “provision of any service” if it is “required by a law made by parliament”.
  • Amendment to Telegraph and PMLA Act: The bill seeks to amend the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, to provide for the voluntary use of Aadhaar authentication. Critics argue that this is a violation of SC order to strike down Section 57 and completely prohibit private players to use Aadhaar numbers and poses risk of Aadhaar related frauds and thefts.
  • Disclosure of Information:
    • The SC had declared Section 33(2) of Aadhaar Act which allowed disclosure of information in the interest of national security, as unconstitutional.
    • However, the bill has put forward a refurbished form of the section thus violating SC order.
    • Further, the SC had ordered for a judicial officer to be associated with the process of disclosure.
    • However, the Bill only substitutes the words “Joint Secretary” with “Secretary” in Section 33(2), completely disregarding the Supreme Court’s order demanding inquiry by a judge.
  • Privacy and Security concerns inadequately addressed: Though the bill has taken steps to ensure privacy by regulating entities in Aadhaar ecosystem, the critics argue that it’s not adequate to tackle the problem of Aadhaar-related fraud.
  • Allowing children to delete their Aadhaar number: Though the bill has made provisions to allow children to opt out of Aadhaar once they are adults, it overlooks the fact that Aadhaar is de facto mandatory for all adults as it still required to be linked to one’s PAN card.

Conclusion:

The Aadhaar has been acknowledged as an inclusive tool that effectively delivers social welfare programmes to the poor. However, it is also riddled with highly problematic privacy issues and other challenges. The privacy concerns and data security around the Aadhaar identity number are a high priority to address and necessitates a robust data protection regime and privacy protection legislation in India. The Aadhaar project should also have a transparent mandate and no ensure no citizen is left behind while delivering social benefits.


Topic:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4) Discuss the organizational structure, aims and mandate of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

SCO Summit 2019 is being held in Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan. Thus its important to ponder on the same from exam point of view.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the organizational structure, aims and mandate of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss SCO and its coming into existence.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects –

What is it? The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, also known as the Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai.

Founding members: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The cooperation was renamed to Shanghai Cooperation Organisation after Uzbekistan joined the organisation in 2001.

The SCO’s main goals are: strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states; promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas; making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region; and moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.

Presently, the SCO comprises eight member states, namely the Republic of India, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan;.

The SCO counts four observer states, namely the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Belarus, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Mongolia.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of such global groupings.

Introduction:

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security alliance. The original five nations (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan), with the exclusion of Uzbekistan, were previously members of the Shanghai Five group, founded on 26 April 1996. Since then, the organisation has expanded its membership to eight countries when India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members on 9 June 2017 at a summit in Astana, Kazakhstan.

Body:

Organizational Structure:

  • Heads of State Council: The supreme SCO body which decides its internal functioning and its interaction with other States & international organisations, and considers international issues.
  • Heads of Government Council: Approves the budget, considers and decides upon issues related economic spheres of interaction within SCO.
  • Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs: Considers issues related to day-to-day activities.
  • Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS): Established to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism.
  • SCO Secretariat: Based in Beijing to provide informational, analytical & organisational support.

Aims:

The aim of SCO is to establish cooperation between member nations on:

  • Security-related concerns
  • Resolving border issues
  • Military cooperation
  • Intelligence sharing
  • Countering terrorism
  • Countering American influence in Central Asia

Mandate:

  • Strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states.
  • Promoting effective cooperation in -politics, trade & economy, research & technology and culture.
  • Enhancing ties in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, etc.
  • Maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region.
  • Establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political & economic order.

Conclusion:

India’s membership of SCO can help in achieving regional integration; promote connectivity and stability across borders. Recently the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit was held in Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan. The SCO’s significance for India lies in economics and geopolitics with the Eurasian states. SCO is a potential platform to advance India’s Connect Central Asia policy.


Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5) Discuss the political and economic significance of Strait of Hormuz – the world’s most important oil artery.(250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

Why this question:

Recently series of explosions damaged two tankers south of the Strait of Hormuz. Making it important for us to analyse the significance of Strait of Hormuz.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the political and economic significance of Strait of Hormuz.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the situation.

Body:

In brief discuss the following aspects –

  • The Strait of Hormuz lies between Oman and Iran. It links the Gulf north of it with the Gulf of Oman to the south and the Arabian Sea beyond. It is 33 km wide at its narrowest point, with the shipping lane just three km wide in either direction.
  • Why is the strait important?
  • What are the associated political tensions around it?
  • Narrate the major incidents.
  • Discuss the significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what more needs to be done.

Introduction:

Strait of Hormuz is the waterway separates Iran and Oman, linking the Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. The Strait is 21 miles (33 km) wide at its narrowest point, but the shipping lane is just two miles (three km) wide in either direction. A third of the world’s liquefied natural gas and almost 20% of total global oil production passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.

Body:

Political Significance:

  • Iran agreed to rein in its nuclear programme in return for an easing of sanctions under a 2015 deal with the United States and five other global powers.
  • Washington pulled out of the pact in 2018. Western powers fear Iran wants to make nuclear weapons. Tehran denies this.
  • The United States has imposed sanctions on Iran with the objective of cutting its oil exports, a position that favours Saudi Arabia, its regional ally and Iran’s enemy.
  • Iran has threatened to stop oil shipments through the Strait of Hormuz if the United States tries to strangle its economy.
  • The United States Fifth Fleet, based in Bahrain, is tasked with protecting commercial shipping in the area.
  • Iranian naval forces monitor and police the Strait of Hormuz along with the Sultanate of Oman via the Omani enclave of Musandam.
  • More importantly, to transit through the Strait of Hormuz all maritime traffic, including the U.S. Navy, must sail through Iranian territorial waters.
  • Iran allows foreign ships to use its territorial waters in good faith and on the basis of Part III of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea’s maritime transit passage provisions.
  • This maritime chokepoint became an arena of conflict during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s. Each side in the so-called “Tanker War” tried to sink the other’s energy exports.

Economic Significance:

  • 5 million barrels per day (bpd) of seaborne oil passed through the waterway in 2016. That was about 30 per cent of crude and other oil liquids traded by sea in 2016. About 17.2 million bpd of crude and condensates were estimated to have been shipped through the Strait in 2017 and about 17.4 million bpd in the first half of 2018.
  • With global oil consumption standing at about 100 million bpd, that means almost a fifth passes through the Strait.
  • Most crude exported from Saudi Arabia, Iran, the UAE, Kuwait and Iraq — all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries — is shipped through the waterway.
  • It is also the route used for nearly all the liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced by the world’s biggest LNG exporter, Qatar.

Recent Incidents:

  • In a recent incident, four commercial vessels were sabotaged near Fujairah (an emirate of the UAE), one of the world’s largest bunkering hubs lying just outside the Strait of Hormuz.
  • The incident has come at a time of heightened tensions in the Gulf.
  • The US has deployed an aircraft carrier, bomber planes and defence missiles to the region amid rising tensions with Iran, which has threatened to block oil shipments through the Strait of Hormuz if the US succeeds in halting its energy exports.

Conclusion:

The high seas are constituent element of the global commons which belongs to the entire world. Blocking the freedom of navigation goes against the rules based order of the UNCLOS and other inter-governmental agreements. The bilateral tensions should not affect the global trade and in turn the other countries. Issues must be sorted out by discussions between the concerned parties and peaceful solutions are the need of the hour.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour.

6) “Anger and intolerance are enemies of right understanding”, Elucidate.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The quote is my M K Gandhi, one has to analyse the quote from the perspective of the GS IV Paper.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the hidden meaning in the quote, one has to analyse in detail how anger and intolerance make the understanding opaque.

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever  appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few lines describe a general understanding of the question.

Body:

The answer must discuss the following:

Anger affects the person who is angry as well as all the people who are touched by that person’s anger. An angry person is likely to speak harshly . In addition, anger affects a person’s health. Doctors have discussed the relationship of anger to physiological complications such as  high blood pressure. An angry person may also cause both psychological and physical damage to himself or herself as well as his/her family. Sometimes angry people hurt themselves if they are unable or out of reach of the people at whom they want to direct their anger. At other times, angry people may physically hurt their children, or other people.

Later on, explain how one can control anger and intolerance, bring change in attitude.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

Introduction:

Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” rightly said by the great revolutionist of India Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was an ardent believer of non-violence and a practitioner of it.

Body:

Anger and intolerance restricts the rational thinking of an individual, by making him/her biased. This results    in lack of correct understanding. Correct understanding means, “a disposition to appreciate or share the feelings and thoughts of others.” Anger makes a person to lose his patience and thus slowly gets intolerant.

Anger affects the person who is angry as well as all the people who are touched by that person’s anger. An angry person is likely to speak harshly. Sometimes angry people hurt themselves if they are unable or out of reach of the people at whom they want to direct their anger.

Examples: Rising cases of intolerance in society like Mob lynching, communal clashes, internet shaming etc. are because of the intolerance and anger which is causing biased and radical views among masses.

Evils like honour killing, acid attack by spurned lovers is because of anger at the moment. Anger does not allow rational thinking and people take up extreme steps and kill their own children/love ones due to uncontrolled emotions.

Conclusion:

Anger and intolerance can be controlled by speedy Justice Delivery, persuasion by leaders, celebrities and well-known personalities, check on social media and provocative sites/platforms, efforts of government, public awareness, and value based education etc.


Topic : conscience as sources of ethical guidance

7) What is the relationship between intuition and conscience? How are they different from each other?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question intends to compare conscience and intuitions as traits with commonalities yet different from each other.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the concept of conscience and intuition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines define spirit of service as the quality of being committed to public service without any self-motives.

Body:

The key difference between conscience and intuition is that conscience is the moral sense of right and wrong, chiefly as it affects one’s own behaviour while intuition is obscure. The conscience is understood to be the discerning faculty that exists within each individual. This faculty of discernment that enables humans to distinguish between right and wrong is the basis of our reasoning. If humans could not discern right from wrong then they would not be able to reason whether a matter is right or wrong. The conscience is our internal unconscious faculty that enables us to recognize what is right to do and what is wrong to do. On the other hand intuition is the faculty of knowing or understanding something without reasoning or proof, the essence of intuition appears to derive from the ability to arrive at ideas without the use of reason or conscious perception.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of the two in one’s ethical decision making and everyday life.

Introduction:

Just as our body has many parts, so does our spirit and our soul. Our spirit is composed of three: conscience, fellowship, and intuition. Conscience is one of our inner voices that guides us toward “rightness” or “wrongness” of our thoughts and behaviours. We use our Conscience as a tool for judgment between right and wrong. Intuition is something we are born with. And the more we use it, the better we learn how to use it. It is the ability to understand something immediately without the need for conscious reasoning.

Body:

Relationship between intuition and conscience:

  • Both intuition and conscience seem to come from within.
  • They both act as our well wishers when we have to take decisions and act in our daily lives.
  • Both evolve with our experience about the world and society.
  • Intuition is often learnt as part of ways of culture and society we live in. Conscience too is what we get as moral and immoral ways of society and people we live in with.

Difference between intuition and conscience:

Intuition may be defined as understanding or knowing without conscious recourse to thought, observation or reason. Intuition is currently understood to be the subliminal processing of information that is too complex for rational thought, e.g. mate choice. Intuition like imagination is an innate ability of mind that manifests when consciousness transcends the wall of logic build by of our empirical experiences. Sometimes, we know things that are to come, or to be, in our world even though we see no reason for them to be, which means that mind also contains the entirety of our sensory experience. However, it is still a cognitive process

Conscience, on the other hand, is partly intuitive, but partly learned from interaction with others in our environment, primarily the teaching of our parents. A person who is unaware of the concept of crime or sin might not feel conscious reproaches, or sense of guilt, whereas a person that is sensitised towards moral and ethical significance of his actions through upbringing, education and experience will definitely feel the difference between right and wrong. And the innate or natural mechanism for this purpose is our conscience, the part of our mind that is to do with our being in relation to the world that we belong to. Our conscience cannot give a danger signal unless we have experienced something in the past that made us suffer and therefore left an impression of warning in the soul, which now the conscience is trying to recall to our waking consciousness.

Conclusion:

Both conscience and intuition act like our guide and help us in our decision making and solving dilemma.