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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 JUNE 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) What do you understand by Elder abuse? Discuss the factors contributing to increased elder abuse in India. Also suggest the significance of Adult Protective Services in preventing the same(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question:

A recent study has revealed that More than 71 per cent of senior citizens in India face harassment or humiliation by their own family members, relatives or children. Thus, it is important for us to analyse the conditions of elders in India with World Elder Abuse Awareness Day approaching on June 15.

Demand of the question:

The answer must address as to what constitutes elder abuse, factors contributing to elder abuse in India, what do you understand by Adult Protective Services and their role in preventing and addressing elder abuse.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of what is elder abuse.

Body

One can have the following points in the answer:

  • Quote facts from survey to depict the current situation – As per the survey, every second senior citizen is being “harassed or mistreated or humiliated by their own family members, children, relatives or others”.
  • Then discuss Factors responsible for intentional humiliation include — poor financial status of family, lack of space, interpersonal issues, chronic diseases of older persons, declining moral value system, among others.
  • The abuse of elders by caregivers is a worldwide issue. In 2002, WHO brought international attention to the issue of elder abuse. Over the years, government agencies and community professional groups, worldwide, have specified elder abuse as a social problem. In 2006 the International Network for Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) designated June 15 as World Elder Abuse Awareness Day (WEAAD).

Economic  Growth: A  good  transportation system  is an important selling  point to communities that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in costs  thus losing  competitiveness  in international  markets. Efficient  transportation access  is therefore  a very important  consideration as it  has a direct impact on  sound and sustainable economic growth and productivity. The cost of congestion in the Western Province of Sri  Lanka is over Rs 20,000 million per year (around 2 percent of Regional GDP). This includes the cost of productive time and wastage of fuel.   

Quality-of-Life: To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-life-in a community.  The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal value and satisfaction.

Conclusion

Conclude with solutions to the problem and suggest way forward.

Introduction:

The World Health Organization defines Elder abuse as a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person. This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect; and serious loss of dignity and respect. World Elder Abuse Awareness Day (WEAAD) is observed every year on 15 June to raise voice for the elders who are abused and suffered.

Body:

Key facts:

  • Around 1 in 6 people 60 years and older experienced some form of abuse in community settings during the past year.
  • Rates of elder abuse are high in institutions such as nursing homes and long-term care facilities, with 2 in 3 staff reporting that they have committed abuse in the past year.
  • Elder abuse can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences.
  • Elder abuse is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
  • The global population of people aged 60 years and older will more than double, from 900 million in 2015 to about 2 billion in 2050.
  • More than 71 per cent of senior citizens in India face harassment or humiliation by their own family members, relatives or children, a study has revealed.

Factors contributing to increased Elder abuse:

  • Poor financial status of family: Lower income or poverty has been found to be associated with elder abuse. Low economic resources have been conceptualized as a contextual or situational stressor contributing to elder abuse.
  • Health care costs increase: As older people stop working and their health care needs increase, governments could be overwhelmed by unprecedented costs
  • Lack of space: Living with a large number of household members other than a spouse is associated with an increased risk of abuse, especially financial abuse.
  • interpersonal issues
  • Chronic diseases of older persons: At the individual level, elders who have poor physical and mental health are at higher risk.
  • Elderly women issues: They face life time of gender-based discrimination. The gendered nature of ageing is such that universally, women tend to live longer than men. Social mores inhibit women from re-marrying, resulting in an increased likelihood of women ending up alone.
  • Declining moral value system: At the socio-cultural level, a representation of an older person as weak and dependent, lack of funds to pay for care, elderly people who need assistance but live alone, and destruction of bonds between the generations of a family are possible factors in elder abuse.

Significance of Adult Protective Services:

  • Adult Protective Services (APS) are social services provided to abused, neglected, or exploited older adults and adults with significant disabilities.
  • APS is typically administered by local or state health, aging, or regulatory departments and includes a multidisciplinary approach to helping older adults, and younger adults with disabilities, who are victims.
  • Services range from the initial investigation of mistreatment, to health and supportive services and legal interventions, up to and including the appointment of surrogate decision-makers such as legal guardians.
  • Socio-economic and cultural changes like
    • Disintegration of Joint Family system which was earlier responsible for taking care of elderly.
    • Increased participation of women in work has led to lack of caregivers at home for elderly.
    • Enhanced mobility and migration of youth for work opportunities along-with more individualistic attitude of the youth means that the elderly are living alone and are in need of social assistance.
  • Increased longevity of the elderly due to advancement in medical field means that they are in need of social assistance long after they stop earning.
  • Due to presence of vast informal/unorganised sector in India, most of the elderly does not have subscription to any formal pension/income generating system that can provide them resources to meet their daily needs, the APS is thus imperative.

Preventive Measures needed:

  • Public: Watch for signs of elder abuse
  • Older people: staying connected with family and friends, making sure their financial and legal affairs are in order.
  • Family and informal caregivers: lower their risk of committing abuse by getting help from family or friends, by getting support from local health and social services.
  • Health sector: Raise awareness within the health sector and other sectors about the health and social burden of elder abuse; recognize elder abuse as a public health problem
  • Establish a focal point to address elder abuse, develop and test evidence based interventions to prevent elder abuse.
  • Provide services to victims of elder abuse; collaborate with other sectors to address elder abuse, such as criminal justice, health, and social services.
  • Implementation of laws like Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 to ensure that the rights of senior citizens are protected.
  • Government programs like IGNOAPS, IGNWPS, Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana, Rasthriya Vayoshri Yojana, Atal Pension Scheme, Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana must be implemented and ensured that the true beneficiaries are receiving it.

Conclusion:

The elderly should be seen as a blessing, not a burden. The elderly are becoming the fastest growing, but underutilized resource available to humanity. Rather than putting them aside, physically (and mentally), to be cared for separately, they should be integrated into the lives of communities where they can make a substantial contribution to improving social conditions. The benefits of turning the ‘problem’ of the elderly into a ‘solution’ for other social problems are being demonstrated in several countries like Vietnam, Japan etc.


Topic: Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

2) What are voluntary organizations (VOs)? Explain how they contribute to the social, cultural and economic advancement of the people of India.(250 words)

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

The article discusses national policy for voluntary sector, the question is to appreciate the role played by this sector and how it has been serving as

an effective non-political link between the people and the Government.

Key demands of the question:

Answer is to discuss the significant role played by Vos in the development of the country.

Directive word

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain what are voluntary organizations (VOs) – they mean to include organizations engaged in public service, based on ethical, cultural, social, economic, political, religious, spiritual, philanthropic or scientific & technological considerations.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in your answer:

Explain what are voluntary organizations (VOs)?

Their contributions in the spheres of – social, economic and political scenario.

Discuss their objectives ranging from – partnership in developmental policies and programmes, identifying shared goals and defining complementary roles with the government etc.

Conclusion

Reassert the significant role played by them and conclude with way forward and need for recognizing their contributions to the society.

Introduction:

A voluntary organization is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. Unlike the private sector where the generation and return of profit to its owners is emphasized, money raised or earned by an organization in the voluntary sector is usually invested back into the community or the organization itself. VOs  include  formal  as  well  as  informal  groups,  such  as community-based   organizations   (CBOs);   non-governmental   development organizations   (NGDOs);   charitable   organizations;   support   organizations;   networks  or  federations  of  such  organisations;  as  well  as  professional  membership associations.

Common examples include trade associations, trade unions, learned societies, professional associations, and environmental groups. Examples of organizations in the voluntary sector include American Red Cross, World Wildlife Fund, Human Rights Watch, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation etc.

Body:

The   voluntary   sector   has   contributed   significantly   to   finding   innovative   solutions   to   poverty,   deprivation,   discrimination   and   exclusion,   through   means  such  as  awareness  raising,  social  mobilization,  service  delivery, training,  research,  and  advocacy.  The voluntary sector has been serving as an effective non-political link between the people and the Government.

Socio- cultural advancement:

  • With the changing scenario of the society the role of voluntary organization had also changed. In ancient times  these  organizations  were  helpful  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  people  but  now  these organizations are being used as development agencies by policy makers.
  • They not only provide their services to  the  poor  or  disadvantaged  section  but  they  have  brought  in  to  focus  on  issues like  health,  education,  rural  and  urban  development,  environment    protection,  women  and  child welfare and they have become an active part of the contemporary development scene in India.
  • Voluntary organizations have become an important global force today. These  organisations provide  accountable,  effective  and  equitable  services  in  many  areas  then  public  or  private agencies  in  India .
  • The voluntary organization provides social services to the poor, needy,  neglected,  the  old  aged  and  the  sick  in  India  and  making  India   
  • They made different efforts not only to reduce poverty or inequality in society but also put control on  social evils  which  includes  drug  addiction,  suicide,  dowry  child  marriage,   
  • Voluntary organization also provide their services in emergency situations like droughts, floods etc. on a massive scale.
  • It is  believed  that  voluntary  organization  not  only  teaches  essential  civics  skills  such  as  trust, compromise  and  reciprocity  but  it  also  binds  society  together  by  creating  bridges  between diverse groups .
  • They work for development, welfare of people so, their ample service is to bind people towards progress and towards well being of the society, nation and country.

Economic advancement:

  • To supplement the government efforts in offering the rural poor choices and alternative.
  • To activate the delivery system  and make it effective at the village level  and respond to the needs of the poorest of the poor
  • To show  how  villages  and  original  resources  and  how  human resources,  rural  skill  and which  local  knowledge  is  grossly  underutilized  at  present,  could  be  used  for  their  own development.
  • To demystify technology and bring it in the simpler form to the poor
  • To train a cadre of gross root who believes in professionalizing volunteerism.
  • To mobilize  financial  resources  from  within  the  community  with  a  view  making communities stand on their feet.

Conclusion:

In sum, voluntary organisations main functions comprise giving concrete expression to the fundamental right of freedom of association, identifying the needs of individuals, groups and communities and initiating projects and programmes to meet them on their own or with the grant-in-aid of the government, sharing the responsibility of the state in providing minimum needs of the citizens.


Topic:  Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

3)  Write a note on role played by NGOs in tribal development with suitable examples.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing on role played by NGOs in tribal development

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss role played by NGOs in tribal development with suitable case study/relevant examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on NGOs.

Body:

Discussion should cover how NGOs play an important role in development activities for the betterment and upliftment of tribals. how they act as catalytic agents for socialization of people. Their works and contributions in various areas like rural development, environmental conservation, population control etc. all directly or indirectly help and contribute to tribal development.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting their role.

Introduction:

Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of NGOs is to provide social justice, development and human rights. NGOs are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.

Body:

It  has  been   recognized  that  the  task  of  the  development  of Scheduled  Tribes  cannot  be  achieved  by  Government  efforts  only.  The role  of  voluntary  or  non-governmental organizations,  with  their  local roots  and  sense  of  service  has  become  increasingly important.

British Era:

  • The Christian  missionaries  are  perhaps  the  oldest  among  the various  agencies  responsible  for  the  development  of    Though  they are  primarily  keen  in  evangelisation, welfare  schemes  such  as  opening schools,  dispensaries,  hospitals  to  the  people  were  undertaken. 
  • The intensity of their voluntary services can be traced out in the tribal belts of Assam, Orissa, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Inspired by Gandhian values, a seva kendra was established for the first time in Ranchi in 1940.
  • It formulated two categories of programs the first to implement plans on tribal education and the second to encourage the scheme  of  Khadi  production,  Cottage  industries,  crusade  against alcoholism,  and  distribution  of  ayurvedic  medicines  and  to  form Gram panchayat  and  cooperative   
  • Of the  organizations  started  in  the same  lines,  Bharatiya  Adimjati  Sevak  Sangh  under  the Presidentship  of Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Nagaland Gandhi Ashram are noteworthy.
  • While the former  focused  in  publishing  tribal  problems,  the  later  established  a health centre.

Post Independence:

In  the  era  of  good  governance,  NGOs  are  playing  a  more proactive role. 

The  failure  of  the  Government  gives  a fertile  ground  to  the  NGOs  to  work  upon  and  extend  a  helping  hand  to their  tribal brethren.

  • Protection of Rights:
    • They are  playing  a  protective  role  by  seeing  that  the  tribal rights  are    Greenpeace is one such organization. 
    • Implementation of PESA act to empower gram sabha to safeguard tribal rights and culture.
    • Implementation of forest right act 2006 to ensure individual and community rights for tribals over forest and forest produce
    • Fighting on land issues, restoration of land rights and Fighting against injustice. E.g.: Dongria Konds’ fight for land in the Niyamgiri hills.
  • Education:
    • They have helped facilitate  free  boarding  and  lodging  to the Tribal children for education
    • Computer centres were  also  being  established  by  various  NGO’s  such  as  Kothari institute.
    • These institutions are  directing  their  energies  for  socio-economic  development  of  tribes  to  bring  them  into  fruitful  channels  of development
  • Health and Medicine:
    • NGOs have contributed in a positive note to the development of tribal health and in the protection of their indigenous knowledge base which is either ignored or exploited.
    • Tribals have a  profound  knowledge  of  the flora  and  fauna,  the  appropriate  plant  species  with  medical  importance, their  location,  the  parts  to  be  used,  time  of  collection,  preparation  and administration  of  the   
    • Their knowledge of the ethno-medicine is very important   for   their  
    • Provision of food : Nutrition programmes and Immunization drives against deadly diseases
  • Environmental Conservation:
    • Protection of sacred groves, water bodies etc which hold cultural significance for tribal population.
    • Fights against construction of dams, roads, industries in the Eco-Sensitive Zones which can affect the ecosystem.
  • Livelihood enhancement:
    • Self employment by Guidance on self occupation, Handicraft development etc.
    • To overcome the debt trap, several NGO have formed Self-help Groups (SHG’s), which pool money collected from tribals and provide low interest loans to them.
    • Providing market access to the Minor Forest Produce collected by tribals and the products created by them.
    • This helps reduce the distress migration to cities in search of work.
  • Awareness Generation:
    • The NGOs create awareness among the tribals by demonstrating the conservation and preservation of the forest and its resources.
    • They use  the audio-visual  aids  for  creating  a  lasting  impression  and  campaign  for ensuring the promotion of important herbal plants in kitchen-garden and nurseries.
  • Inclusive Development:
    • Activities related with Women’s development: Formation of Women’s groups, Saving group of women, training of self-employment, Women’s Co-operative Society, Income generation for women, Women’s employment, etc.
    • Youth development activities: Formation of Youth groups

Conclusion:

It is an undeniable fact that the NGOs have emerged universally as a “Universal Third Force” in   tribal development in India.  However, there is lack of coordination among them. Developmental role of NGOs is preparing  the  people  for  a  change  which  is basically  an  advocacy  role,  viz.  development of  education,  incorporating  self-sustainable development  philosophy,  and  form  public opinion  about  govt.  policies  or  social  issues, consciences  for  environmental  problem, literacy, health, use of appropriate technology for  family  planning  and  empower  the  poor  to overcome  psychological  inhabitations  and opposition of appraisers.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) Global arrangements may not avert local failures and are as likely to be captured by special interests as domestic politics, critically analyse the statement in the light of recent national security argument for tariffs made by the US.(250 words)

livemint

Why this question:

The article discusses how Global arrangements may not avert local failures and are as likely to be captured by special interests as domestic politics in the backdrop of the US President Donald Trump who has used national security as a justification for his tariffs on steel imports, his threatened tariff hikes on autos and the tariffs he recently vowed to impose on Mexican imports.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail the contradictions around global agreement vis-à-vis domestic policies and interests.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines bring out the context of the question.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects –

  • The critical challenge of global governance is determining the dividing line between policy domains in which nation-states are free to do as they please and those that are regulated by international agreement. In a world economy that has become increasingly interdependent, pretty much everything that one country does spills over to others.
  • What are the reasons to worry?
  • Explain the debate around international agreements vs domestic policies in the name of national security, to what extent are they justified?
  • Take hints from the article and conclude what measures must be taken.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Increasing protectionism and trade wars has been on a rise in the recent past by many countries. US President recently used national security as a justification for his tariffs on steel imports, his threatened tariff hikes on autos and the tariffs he recently vowed to impose on Mexican imports. Such unilateral decisions raise difficult questions for the word trade regime and global economic governance more broadly.

Body:

Global Governance and its potential:

  • The canonical case for global governance is based on two classes of problems.
  • The first concerns global public goods (or bads): policies that benefit the world at large but produce little or no benefit at home. Controls on greenhouse-gas emissions is a key example.
  • The second class of problems is so-called beggar-thy-neighbour policies: actions that produce economic benefits at home only to the extent they harm others—and generate global inefficiency in the process. A classic example is the cartelization of some scarce commodity to extract monopoly prices from trading partners.
  • These cases present impeccable arguments for global economic governance.

However, some of the issues cannot be globally governed. Consider public education, gasoline taxes or highway speed limits. Each of these policies has consequences for trade partners. Improved skills alter a country’s comparative advantage and hence others’ trading opportunities. Gasoline taxes and speed limits affect demand for oil and hence prices on world markets. Such policies are not regulated internationally, and doing so would be widely—and rightly—considered absurd.

Global Governance bodies and its challenges:

  • The critical challenge of global governance is determining the dividing line between policy domains in which nation-states are free to do as they please and those that are regulated by international agreement.
  • In a world economy that has become increasingly interdependent, pretty much everything that one country does spills over to others.
  • Such spillovers are not by themselves a sufficient reason to constrain national autonomy.
  • Subsidies, industrial policies, employment-protecting tariffs, non-tariff measures that target health or social concerns, poor financial regulations and inappropriate (excessively austere) fiscal policies are neither global public goods/bads, nor beggar-thy-neighbour policies. Some of these policies are in fact beggar-thyself policies.
  • Trump’s tariffs are a beggar-thyself policy. If, on the other hand, Trump is given the benefit of doubt and are willing to accept that there is a genuine national security case, then it is proper for the decision to be made domestically.
  • Empowering international bureaucracies to prevent countries from harming themselves when there is considerable ambiguity beforehand would seem inappropriate.
  • In a recent ruling in a case not involving the United States, the WTO has adopted the position that it can review national decisions in this area and judge their appropriateness.

Way forward:

  • Most policy mishaps in the world economy today—as in the case of Trump’s tariffs—occur as a result of failures at the national level, not because of a lack of international cooperation.
  • Global arrangements cannot be relied on to prevent such domestic failures, and they are as likely to be captured by special interests as domestic political processes—with far less democratic legitimacy.
  • External constraints may in fact aggravate domestic governance failures, insofar as they empower particular distributional coalitions at the expense of the broad public.
  • The best we can hope for is what one might call “democracy-enhancing global governance”.
  • Global oversight would be restricted to procedural requirements—such as transparency, accountability, participation by relevant stakeholders, use of scientific/economic evidence—intended to strengthen domestic democratic deliberation, without prejudging the ultimate outcome.

Topic:  Environmental pollution and degradation

5) Maharashtra is facing a water emergency of unprecedented proportions, in such conditions analyse how grave the water crisis is and what needs to be done to deal with the problem.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The conversation in the show discusses in detail the water emergency that the State of Maharashtra is facing and highlights the urgency to look into the water crisis the country is witnessing.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the water crisis in detail and suggest what needs to be done to resolve the situation and address the issue in a sustainable manner.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the situation of water crisis currently being witnessed across the country.

Body:

In brief discuss the following aspects –

Following years of drought, the rivers’ currents have ebbed, water in dams and reservoirs has depleted and over-exploitation of groundwater has raised concerns over the long-term availability of water.

Meanwhile media reports claim IT companies in Chennai are asking employees to work from home. The reason being they don’t have water to sustain operations. It has not rained for almost 200 days in the city and Chennai may not get sufficient rain to tide over the water crisis for the next three months. In North India, residents in the arid Thar Desert of Rajasthan are dishing out Rs 2,500 to buy 2,500 litres of water which they share with their cattle.

With the threat of desertification staring Punjab in the face and the state struggling to break away from the ‘wheat-paddy’ cycle, farmers in the state are quickly adopting a five-decade-old scheme to use ‘Underground Pipeline System’ for irrigation.

The union government on its part has created a Jal Shakti Ministry under a full-fledged cabinet minister to try and address the water emergency, but a lot more needs to be done.

Thus conclude by analysing how grave the water crisis is and what needs to be done to deal with the problem.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what more needs to be done.

Introduction:

Maharashtra is facing a water emergency of unprecedented proportions. Following years of drought, the rivers’ currents have ebbed, water in dams and reservoirs has depleted and over-exploitation of groundwater has raised concerns over the long-term availability of water. Our water crisis is turning more structural and stems from mostly man-made factors.

Body:

India receives 4000 bcm rainfall every year. Out of this, 1869 bcm is left after evaporation and the actual availability is 1137 bcm. There is a lot of temporal and spatial variation in the availability of this water. There are water surplus states and water scarce states like Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Beed), Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.

Issues with long term projects:

  • Interlinking of rivers is a long-term project. It is almost 20 years now and the groundwork has not started for Ken-Betwa project. There is a lot of political opposition and there are ecological concerns as well. Half of the Panna tiger Reserve will be submerged.
  • There are floods in Brahmaputra river at the time of monsoon but water is required in Assam during dry months.
  • There is the problem of storage and transfer of water as well.

Major issues:

  • Delay in monsoon and change in pattern.
  • Management of both supply side and demand side of water.
  • India’s availability of water at present is 1700 cubic ft per person, which was 5000 cubic ft per person once upon a time.
  • Unprecedented heat waves, which can become more persistent with climate change.
  • Less pre monsoon rain.
  • Reservoir levels are going down.
  • 91 reservoirs in India are at 19% of their life storage.

Measures needed:

  • India’s priority must be:
    • To make our irrigation and water systems amenable to modern concepts.
    • To complete irrigation and water sector reforms.
    • To implement improved water management, governance and regulation practices.
    • Pricing system for water: For making people use water efficiently
  • Centre, states, people and all stakeholders need to take action in this regard.
  • Vigorous programmes on water efficiency are required like energy efficiency.
  • There is an urgent need for coordination among users for aquifers. There should be laws and contracts for sharing of aquifers.
  • Groundwater mapping has started recently in India.
  • There should be a River Basin Authority for sharing information among states as most of the rivers in India pass through different states focusing on conservation.
  • At the village level, there can be decentralized management of water at community level.
  • Charging money for efficient use of water (as in case of electricity). For example- Water ATMS at Marathwada provide water @25 paisa per litre a day.
  • Changing the cropping pattern, crop diversification and encouraging water use efficiency in agriculture by moving towards food crops from cash crops.
  • Coordinated efforts among states for management of ground water at a localized level.
  • Encouraging rain water harvesting, check dams
  • Comprehensive restructuring of India’s Central Ground Water Board and the Central Water Commission in order to create a new 21st Century management authority.
  • Right to water should mean a high priority to drinking water
  • India has so far seen the water sector in terms of irrigation projects or water schemes. We need to balance between our water-needs and that of the river itself.

Conclusion:

Fixing India’s structural water crisis will need a balanced combination of saner policies, meticulous strategy, and a massive amount of public participation.


Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions.

6) Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right, but for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. Analyse the moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes in the backdrop of the recent healthcare logjam in West Bengal.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

Doctors’ protest erupted on Tuesday after an intern at the Nil Ratan Sarkar Medical College and Hospital was allegedly attacked by the relative of a patient who died on 10 June in West Bengal. The state’s health machinery is in chaos since then.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the moral conflicts involved in such situations; duty vs working condition and security of self.

Directive:

AnalyseWhen asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few lines describe the situation in the question.

Body:

The answer must discuss the following:

Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors’ strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long-term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources. In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

Introduction:

Medical doctors’ strikes are a common global phenomenon. In the recent past, a number of strikes have been reported in various developing countries including India. Strike action is a right  recognised  by  the UN,  for  without  it  employees  have  no  choice  but  to  accept  the  terms  imposed  by  employers. However, strikes by doctors represent  a  conflict  between  their  rights  as  employees,  and  their  ethical  and professional frameworks.

Body:

Health is a very important human value and hence health care is a paramount social good.  In this context doctors have more responsibility on health of every people.

In many countries healthcare  workers  including  doctors  are unsatisfied  with  factors  like payments and with non-monetary aspects such as healthcare policy issues,  security  and  safety  issues,  better  working  conditions  and hospital’s  physical  and  administrative  infrastructure.

In the context of doctors’ strike, the significance and meaning of the Hippocratic Oath deserves more attention. The Hippocratic Oath, the first reflective code of professional ethics, is historically taken by doctors swearing to practice medicine ethically. It enables doctors to adopt a more humane and professional approach to the service.

In a historic judgment in 2003 involving the striking government employees in Tamil Nadu, the Supreme Court ruled that Government employees cannot take society at ransom by going on strike. This ruling refers to the moral duties of public employees,  such  as  doctors,  concerning  the  fact  that  they  have  no legitimate claim to go on a strike and take the helpless patients at ransom to meet their demands with the government.

Doctors’ strike may cause anger, resentment, fear, or mistrust in patients. The principle of non-malfeasance is more important in this context. It imposes an obligation not to cause harm on others and in biomedical ethics it has been closely associated with the maxim primum non noncere meaning ‘above all do not harm’. Considering this principle, it is apparent that doctors’ strike definitely harms patients in one way or another.

However, doctors are autonomous to do work or not, and have right to conduct strike [49] for their needs and resolving problems in their professional situations, especially in a democratic country.

Perhaps an answer can be derived from a utilitarian perspective stated by J S Mill, “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness”. Therefore,  the  short-term  disruption  in   health   care   caused   by   doctors’   strikes  could  arguably  benefit  greater  numbers  of  patients  in  the  long  term  by  enhancing  health-care  services

Conclusion:

In sum, Indian doctors’ strikes are morally not acceptable and ethically not allowable based on deontological reasoning, Hippocratic tradition, different biomedical principles and ancient Indian philosophy. However, considering utilitarian reasoning, doctors’ strikes for fair wage, better hospital infrastructure and working conditions are justifiable if it causes less harm to present patients and gives more good to the future patients.


Topic :  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) What do you understand by spirit of service? Explain why is it important in public services.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question intends to discuss the concept of spirit of service.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the concept of spirit of service and its significance in public service.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines define spirit of service as the quality of being committed to public service without any self-motives.

Body:

Explain that Spirit of Service; This quality in public service makes the foundation of such job requirement. Spirit of service towards the nation and its people is the cornerstone of pub. service and requires readiness to serve in all and every condition. Service to human is service to God – said by Swami Vivekananda gives more strength to this spirit as it calls on the pub. servant to observe public service as having its own sanctity and must find his/her satisfaction in service of the people.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of it in public services.

Introduction:

Spirit of service is the quality of being committed to public service without any self motives. It includes inculcation of love and compassion while delivering the duty. It means expecting nothing in return for the services rendered and brings true happiness and security for the service provider. The spirit of service protects, builds and nurtures the constitutional pillars that give us legitimacy and purpose.

Body:

Importance of Spirit of Service in Public Services:

  • A civil servant works not for monetary benefits, promotion or easy postings but for the chance to work for the public welfare is a prize in itself.
  • It will help him keep motivated and focused towards his ultimate goal.
  • Without this value, a civil servant will be a machine working in the system.
  • He/she should have feeling towards the downtrodden and poor citizens.
  • Spirit of service will awake a power in him to transform the lives of million people living in poverty
  • Helps civil servants to operate in a politically neutral way so that it can loyally and effectively serve successive Governments
  • Is open and transparent so that citizens can see the working, engage, and hold to account the civil servants

Example:  A high official from the Water and Sanitation Ministry took upon himself the responsibility to educate people about the safety of twin-pit system. This helped alleviate the notion of ‘pollution’ in the minds of people.

Conclusion:

In the increasingly challenging environment of public administration it is necessary that civil servants maintain high moral without temptation or fear. Spirit of service is critical in realizing the objective of ethical governance and ethical society.