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World Population Projections 2019

Topics covered:

  1. population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.


World Population Projections 2019


What to study?

For prelims: Key findings of the report.

For mains: concerns raised, challenges associated and measures necessary to tackle the population growth.


Context: World Population Prospects 2019 has been released by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.



Key findings:

India specific:

  • India will overtake China as the most populous country by around 2027.
  • India is also expected to add 273 million people by 2050 and will remain the most populated until the end of the century.
  • India leads the set of nine countries that will make up for more than half the projected growth of the global population by 2050.
  • Top five: India is expected to remain the world’s most populous country with nearly 1.5 billion inhabitants, followed by China at 1.1 billion, Nigeria with 733 million, the United States with 434 million, and Pakistan with an estimated population of 403 million.


Global scenario:

  • The global population is projected to increase by another 2 billion people by 2050, from 7.7 billion in 2019 to 9.7 billion thirty years down the line.
  • Between now and 2050, 55 countries are estimated to see their populations shrink by at least one per cent.
  • Incidentally, since 2010, 27 countries have recorded a minimum one per cent reduction in population. This trend of a growing number of countries experiencing a decline in population has been attributed to sustained low levels of fertility and, in some cases, high rates of emigration.
  • In China, the largest of these 55 countries, the population is projected to shrink by as much as 2.2 per cent or 31.4 million by 2050.
  • Overall, the world’s population is ageing, with the age group of 65 and above growing at such a fast rate that by 2050, one in six people in the world will be part of it as compared to one in 11 in 2019. By the end of the century, the world population is set to peak at a level of about 11 billion.
  • Life expectancy: Although overall life expectancy will increase (from 64.2 years in 1990 to 77.1 years in 2050), life expectancy in poorer countries is projected to continue to lag behind.
  • Sex ratio: Males are projected to continue to outnumber females until the end of the century, but the gap will close.


Sources: the Hindu.