Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 JUNE 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) The art of storytelling through paintings reached its zenith during Mughal Period in India. Elucidate with suitable examples. (250 words)

Class XI NCERT Medieval India

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the prevalent art forms especially the paintings during the Mughal period.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to analyse how the art of storytelling was made relevant with the coming of painting styles during the Mughal periods in India.

Directive word:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introduction on paintings during the Mughal period.

Body:

  • Discuss the coming of storytelling through paintings in India – how it started, when and where – Story telling through paintings has been an established art form in India. We find many examples of Ramayana and Mahabharata depicted in the form of continuous paintings, for example in Patachitra of Odisha.
  • Similarly, Jataka stories of Buddha are also found in paintings of Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra.
  • Though this art form already existed in India, but Mughals with their rich colors and more realistic paintings took this art to its pinnacle.
  • Then move onto explain Mughal era paintings and their significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

The  origin  of  Indian  painting  goes  back  to  8000  years  and  an  account  of  its  development  is  inextricably meshed with the development  of Indian civilization. The Mughal School of miniature painting reached its zenith under Akbar and Jahangir.  The  Ain-i-Akbari shows  the  importance  the  art  had  attained  during  this  period.

Body:

Story telling through paintings is an established art form in India. We find many examples of Ramayana and Mahabharata depicted in the form of continuous paintings, for example in Pattachitra of Odisha. Similarly, Jataka stories of Buddha are also found in paintings of Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra. Though this art form already existed in India, but Mughals with their rich colours and more realistic paintings took this art to its pinnacle.

Features of Mughal Paintings:

  • Mughal painting marks a unique blend of Persian and Indian ideas. Mughal painting was essentially a court art, developed under the patronage of the ruling Mughal emperors and began to decline when the rulers lost interest.
  • The subjects treated were generally secular, revolving around themes like battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, and the likes.
  • Imperial Mughal painting represents one of the most celebrated art forms of India. It arose with remarkable rapidity in the mid-sixteenth century as a blending of three distinct traditions:
    • Court painting of Safavid Iran.
    • Indigenous Indian devotional manuscript illumination.
    • Indo-Persian or Sultanate painting, which is it is a hybrid of provincial Persian and local Indian styles.
  • The result of this merging resulted in paintings of unprecedented vitality, brilliant coloration, and impossibly precise detail, is something dramatically more than the sum of its parts.

Story-telling through paintings:

  • The credit for the development of Mughal painting goes to Akbar and Jahangir. The former possessed a library of 24000 Manuscripts, many of which were illustrated through paintings.
  • In the year 1567, Akbar ordered the preparation of a lavishly illustrated manuscript of the Persian translation of the “Hamzanama”, the celebrated Arab epic about a legendary Hamza.
  • Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad were appointed to lead a group of roughly and hundred painters. The projects took 15 years to complete, and most of the Indian pointers who founded the Mughal School were trained during that period.
  • One of the leading painters at Akbar’s court was a potter’s son Daswanth.
  • Similarly, “Tutinama” was also an illustrated version of Persian tales in the form of 250 miniature paintings commissioned by Akbar.
  • It is dramatic rather than static, aristocratic more than surreal and academic rather than vocational.

Conclusion:        

  • Mughal Court paintings provide an insight into the life and times of rulers of the period. These paintings also reflect the contemporary social and political condition of the people. Social customs and courtly traditions are vividly depicted in these paintings.
  • Mughal painting forms a dramatic episode in the history of India. Its aims and standpoint are secular and realistic: it is interested in passing events and most typically in the exact delineation of individual character in the portraiture of men and animals.
  • After Mughal, there came “company paintings” in India. But they were not as realistic and detailed as Mughal miniature paintings.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 

2) Is the reservation policy earmarking a 10% quota for the economically weaker sections of the “general category” empirically founded and justifiable? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Epw

Why this question:

An analysis of 445 premier higher education institutions finds that this section of students already had about 28% of representation—that is, close to three times the proposed 10% quota—in these institutions in 2016–17. This finding raises questions as to the relevance and possible impact of the proposed policy.

Key demands of the question:

Answer is to analyse the reservation policy earmarking 10% quota for the economically weaker sections (EWS) , as to whether it is justified or not.

Directive word

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines define the policy that came into effect recently.

Body

  • The recent reservation policy brought about by introducing an amendment to the Constitution intends to reserve 10% of the total seats in higher education institutions, both private and public, and in government jobs exclusively for the EWS belonging to the general category.
  • Discuss what are the pros and cons of the policy.
  • Discuss the rationale behind it.
  • Suggest your opinion and conclude with fair and balanced conclusion.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of such policies,  yet suggest what more can be done.

Introduction:

The Constitution (103 Amendment) Act, 2019 was enacted which provides 10% reservation in jobs and educational institutions to the economically weaker sections in the general category.

Body:

Reservation leads to casteless and classless society:

  • The 10% quota law is a step towards a classless and casteless society, the Union government has indicated in the Supreme Court.
  • The Centre referred to the court’s past decisions that called for the “attainment of economic equality as the final and only solution to the besetting problems” of the country. The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019, was meant to benefit the economically weaker sections of society who were not covered by the existing schemes of reservation.
  • It said the law was meant to benefit a large section of the population of 135 crore people, who are mostly lower middle class and below the poverty line.
  • The government quoted the 2010 report of the Commission for Economically Backward Classes, chaired by Major General S.R. Sinho (retired), which said 18.2% of the general category came under the below poverty line (BPL).
  • The Government took support of the 13-page affidavit quoted from a 1985 Constitution Bench judgment in K.C. Vasanth Kumar vs Karnataka, which quotes Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi to drive home the point that the economy of a family, and not its caste, should be the determining factor of social and educational backwardness.
  • Article 15(6) and Article 16(6) are enabling provisions for advancement of the economically weaker sections and are, in fact, in conformity with the principle of reservation and affirmative action, It argued that a “mere amendment” to an Article would not violate the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • Furthermore, the 50% ceiling applied to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. The new provision dealt with the economically weaker sections. “The limit of 50% is only applicable to reservation under Articles 15(4), 15(5) and 16(4) and does not apply to Article 15(6).”

The pros of the reservation Act are:

  • Alleviation of Poverty: It is expected to help the needy among the higher castes.
  • Reduces ghost beneficiaries: In some cases, it is expected to eliminate the desperation of those who, in the past, would resort to obtaining fake Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) certificates that were used to seek entry into professional courses.
  • Removes Prejudice: The reservation will prevent these higher castes from holding reservations responsible for national disintegration and perpetuation of casteism, as they widely believe.
  • Reduces Unwanted Adoptions: The legislation is also expected to keep savarna-caste aspirants from seeking adoption into SC/ST families in order to procure SC/ST certificates.
  • No deceptive self-characterisation: Ironically, the 10% quota can help these savarnas retain their authentic caste identity. In this way, they can now avoid facing humiliation in courts of law on account of being exposed as fake caste certificate holders.

The cons of the reservation are:

  • Discredits the moral foundation of the principle of social justice:
  • The principle of social justice calls for ‘equal treatment of equals’ and ‘affirmative action for less advantage sections’.
  • Constitution outlines special provisions for only four classes – SCs, STs, Backward Classes and Anglo Indians in the Articles 330-342 under Part 16.
  • The provision is clearly mentioned as reservation is explicitly for ‘social exclusion and discrimination’. Notably, the “socially and educationally backward classes” was the target group in quotas for OBCs.
  • Unfairness or an element of injustice is rooted in the practice of untouchability, whereas pure economic backwardness is rooted in the systemic inability to provide jobs to the higher castes.
  • The lack of opportunities is not due to untouchability, but due to the inability of the state and the market to provide enough jobs for the qualified and the needy.
  • The new reservation policy has transformed from a policy meant to provide a level playing field for those suffering from historical discrimination and those who are weaker sections of the society to a policy meant as a dole for those sections of society who are poor and lack jobs.
  • The Indira Sawhney case had further held that social backwardness cannot be determined only with reference to an economic criterion.
  • Violation of DPSP:
  • The Article 46, which is a non-justiciable Directive Principle, says that the state shall promote educational and economic interests of “weaker sections”, in particular SCs and STs, and protect them from “social injustices” and “all forms of exploitation”.
  • While the 103rd Amendment mentions Article 46 in its statement and objects, it seems the government overlooked the fact that upper castes neither face social injustice nor are subjected to any form of exploitation.
  • Moreover, the Constitution makes provisions for commissions to look into matters relating to implementation of constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Castes (Article 338), Scheduled Tribes (338A) and Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (339), but has not created any commission for the economically backward classes.
  • Violation of Basic Structure Doctrine:
  • The 10% reservation will be in addition to the existing cap of 50% reservation for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes, taking the total reservation to 60%.
  • This would leave other candidates with just 40% government jobs or seats, amounting to violation of Article 14 (Right to Equality), which is a part of Basic Structure.
  • The 60% reservation will also lead to “sacrifice of merit”.
  • Sincerity of the Government: Centre did not give enough time for discussion on it before it was tabled in Parliament for its final approval.
  • Lack of objectivity: an objection is raised about the procedure that the government adopted in order to fix the criteria for educational and economic backwardness. The government arrived at the figure of 10%, without any proper and thorough documentation by a duly constituted commission.

Conclusion:

                Thus, the quota for the economically poor among the upper castes has been seen essentially as a poverty alleviation move dressed up as reservation. Reservation to the weaker sections is an positive affirmative action needed for their welfare. The 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act though is a beneficial move for the “forward poor”. Similar moves by previous governments have be judicially reviewed and struck down. It is prudent to look at other alternatives to alleviate the conditions of EWS.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) What are the major reforms needed in Food Corporation of India to ensure food security in India? Do you think the recommendations of the Shanta Kumar Committee take us in that direction? (250 words)

pib

Why this question:

Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution laid down the future roadmap for Food Corporation of India (FCI) recently, thus it is essential for us to analyse the major reforms needed in Food Corporation of India to ensure food security in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyse the major reforms needed in Food Corporation of India to ensure food security in India along with significance of Shanta Kumar committee.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few lines state some the role played by FCI.

Body:

The answer must discuss the following:

Discuss the Key highlights of the roadmap:

  • Primacy will be given to ensuring that the functioning of FCI is streamlined and fast paced as per recommendations of the Shanta Kumar Committee.
  • 100 lakh ton silo storage capacity will be created in the country. For this, RITES has been assigned the task of changing the silo model and they will give their recommendations in 90 days to FCI.
  • At present, there are 3 types of labourers in FCI namely Departmental, Daily Payment System (DPS) and No work no pay workers along with contractual labour. Government of India is deliberating to finish the 3 different arrangements and bring all workers of FCI under a single, uniform system which will bring stability of tenure and secured wages for all.
  • To improve the usage of Information Technology in FCI, a Human Resource Management System (HRMS) will be implemented, the work for which will begin in August, 2019 and will be completed by August 2020. This move will benefit 22,000 employees in 196 offices of FCI.

Then move on to explaining the significance of recommendations made by Shanta Kumar committee.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Food Corporation of India (FCI) was formed in 1960’s and was part of larger plan directed toward food security and self-sufficiency. Other major institution was CACP. These two institutions along with MSP regime and Public distribution system were expected to work in tandem. FCI’s responsibility was to procure, Store and discharge grains as per policy of the government. Over the time, as in other cases these institutions too failed to adapt to changing circumstances such as changing demands of economy. As a result FCI now reels under chronic inefficiency through huge wastages, and storage cost of grains keeps on cumulating.

Body:

Reforms needed in FCI due to:

  • Issues with procurement:
    • Open-ended Procurement: All incoming grains accepted even if buffer stock is filled creating a shortage in the open market.
    • The recent implementation of Nation food security act would only increase the quantum of procurement resulting in higher prices for grains.
    • The gap between required and existing storage capacity.
  • Issues with storage:
    • Inadequate storage capacity with FCI.
    • Food grains rotting or damaging on the CAP or Cover & Plinth storage.
  • Issues with allocation of food grains:
    • Inaccurate identification of beneficiaries.
    • Illicit Fair Price shops: The shop owners have created a large number of bogus cards or ghost cards(cards for nonexistent people) to sell food grains in the open market.
  • Issues with transportation:
  • Leakages in food grains distribution to be reduced as most leakages in PDS takes place in initial stages.

The government had set up a six-member committee under Shanta Kumar to suggest restructuring or unbundling of FCI to improve its financial management and operational efficiency in procurement, storage and distribution of food grains.

Important recommendations made:

  • Reduce the number of beneficiaries under the Food Security Act—from the current 67 per cent to 40 per cent.
  • Allow private players to procure and store food grains.
  • Stop bonuses on minimum support price (MSP) paid by states to farmers, and adopt cash transfer system so that MSP and food subsidy amounts can be directly transferred to the accounts of farmers and food security beneficiaries.
  • FCI should involve itself in full-fledged grains procurement only in those states which are poor in procurement. In the case of those states which are performing well, like Haryana, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, the states should do the procurement.
  • Abolishing levy rice: Under levy rice policy, government buys certain percentage of rice (varies from 25 to 75 per cent in states) from the mills compulsorily, which is called levy rice. Mills are allowed to sell only the remainder in the open market.
  • Deregulate fertiliser sector and provide cash fertiliser subsidy of Rs 7,000 per hectare to farmers.
  • Outsource of stocking of grains: The committee calls for setting up of negotiable warehouse receipt (NWR) system. In the new system, farmers can deposit their produce in these registered warehouses and get 80 per cent of the advance from bank against their produce on the basis of MSP.
  • Clear and transparent liquidation policy for buffer stock: FCI should be given greater flexibility in doing business; it should offload surplus stock in open market or export, as per need.

Government has taken up few of the reforms as follows:

  • Aadhaar Linked and digitized ration cards: This allows online entry and verification of beneficiary data. It also enables online tracking of monthly entitlements and off-take of foodgrains by beneficiaries.
  • Computerized Fair Price Shops: FPS automated by installing ‘Point of Sale’ device to swap the ration card. It authenticates the beneficiaries and records the quantity of subsidized grains given to a family.
  • Direct Benefit Transfer: Under the Direct Benefit Transfer scheme, cash is transferred to the beneficiaries’ account in lieu of foodgrains subsidy component. They will be free to buy food grains from anywhere in the market. For taking up this model, pre-requisites for the States/UTs would be to complete digitization of beneficiary data and seed Aadhaar and bank account details of beneficiaries. It is estimated that cash transfers alone could save the exchequer Rs.30,000 crore every year.
  • Use of GPS technology: Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track the movement of trucks carrying food grains from state depots to FPS which can help to prevent diversion.
  • SMS-based monitoring: Allows monitoring by citizens so they can register their mobile numbers and send/receive SMS alerts during dispatch and arrival of TPDS commodities
  • Use of web-based citizens’ portal: Public Grievance Redressal Machineries, such as a toll-free number for call centers to register complaints or suggestions.

Government has come up with a roadmap with the following highlights:

  • Primacy will be given to ensuring that the functioning of FCI is streamlined and fast paced as per recommendations of the Shanta Kumar Committee.
  • 100 lakh ton silo storage capacity will be created in the country. For this, RITES has been assigned the task of changing the silo model and they will give their recommendations in 90 days to FCI.
  • At present, there are 3 types of labourers in FCI namely Departmental, Daily Payment System (DPS) and No work no pay workers along with contractual labour. Government of India is deliberating to finish the 3 different arrangements and bring all workers of FCI under a single, uniform system which will bring stability of tenure and secured wages for all.
  • To improve the usage of Information Technology in FCI, a Human Resource Management System (HRMS) will be implemented, the work for which will begin in August, 2019 and will be completed by August 2020. This move will benefit 22,000 employees in 196 offices of FCI.

Conclusion:        

The Committee recommendations however was criticized due to suggestions like limiting NFSA, cash subsidy, privatization of FCI despite suggesting useful reforms to reform FCI, PDS. A closer scrutiny in the recommendation is needed today in times of agricultural distress & drought prone years.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) Do you think Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act violates international human rights standards on freedom of association? Critically examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently Union Home Ministry has warned of taking penal action against NGOs who have changed office bearers without taking its approval.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail FCRA, and the recent actions taken in this direction by the govt.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines state what is FCRA – The Foreign Contribution Regulations Act (FCRA) is used to regulate foreign contribution (especially monetary donation) provided by certain individuals or associations to NGOs and others within India.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects –

  • What are the concerns associated with the FCRA?
  • Explain the recent steps taken by the govt. – In a notification, Union Home Ministry said, some incidents have come to light that some NGOs, having registered under Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA), have changed their office bearers without its approval.
  • The Home Ministry said, replacement of key functionaries of FCRA registered organizations without prior permission is a violation of the law.
  • The Ministry has asked the NGOs to submit applications for addition or deletion or any change of details about office bearers within one month from the date of issue of notice.
  • Conclude with what needs to be done to overcome such concerns and challenges.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) is a consolidating act passed by the Government of India in the year 2010. It seeks to regulate the foreign contributions or donations and hospitality (air travel, hotel accommodation etc) to Indian organizations and individuals and to stop such contributions which might damage the national interest.

Since the Act is internal security legislation, despite being a law related to financial legislation, it falls into the purview of Home Ministry and not the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The Home Ministry has warned NGOs, who have changed their office-bearers and key functionaries without informing the Ministry, with penal action, if they fail to do so within a month.

Body:

Need for FCRA:

  • It is an act passed for regulating and prohibiting the acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by companies, associations or individuals for such activities that could prove to be detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The act aims at keeping a check on foreigners influencing the Indian electoral politics, journalists, public servants etc. for wrong purposes or activities detrimental to the public interest.
  • Those violating the provisions of FCRA can be jailed up to a term of 5 years

Concerns with FCRA:

The Act imposes various conditions on the use of foreign funds and some of them are as follows:

  • The Act permits only NGOs having a definite cultural, economic, educational, religious or social programme to accept foreign contribution, that too after such NGOs either obtain a certificate of registration or prior permission under the Act.
  • All funds received by a NGO must be used only for the purpose for which they were received.
  • Such funds must not be used in speculative activities identified under the Act.
  • Except with the prior approval of the Authority, such funds must not be given or transferred to any entity not registered under the Act or having prior approval under the Act.
  • Every asset purchased with such fund must be in the name of the NGO and not its office bearers or members.
  • In order to be registered under the FCRA, an NGO must be in existence for at least three years and must have undertaken reasonable activity in its field for which the foreign contribution is proposed to be utilised. Further, it must have spent at least INR 1,000,000 over three years preceding the date of its application on its activities.
  • The registration certificate is valid for a period of five years and must be thereafter renewed in the prescribed manner.
  • NGOs not eligible for registration can seek prior approval from FCRA for receiving foreign funding. This permission is granted only for a specific amount of foreign funding from a specified foreign source for a specific purpose. It remains valid till receipt and full utilisation of such amount.

FRCA and NGO’s:

  • NGOs play an important role in the upliftment of the weaker sections of the society and their overall development.
  • This is especially true in the case of India, where a vast majority of its population continues to remain under the poverty line and have little or no access to even basic facilities provided by the government.
  • Every NGO registered or having prior approval under the Act must file an annual report with the Authority in the prescribed form.
  • This report must be accompanied by an income and expenditure statement, receipt and payment account, and balance sheet for the relevant financial year.
  • For financial years where no foreign contribution is received, a ‘NIL’ report must be furnished with the Authority.
  • In case of non-compliance with provisions of the FCRA, the government can penalize an NGO. For example, if these NGOs don’t file annual returns, the government can issue a show-cause notice and subsequently, suspend or cancel their foreign funding licenses.
  • In the last two years, licenses of around 20000 NGOs have been cancelled by the central government after they were found violating various provisions of FCRA act. Hence those NGOs were barred from receiving any foreign funds.

FCRA and spirit of international laws:

  • According to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and of Association – the FCRA provisions and rules “are not in conformity with international law, principles and standards” because:
  • Access to resources, particularly foreign funding, is a part of the right to freedom of association – is a part of Universal Declaration of Human rights (Article 20), meaning a violation of this right constitutes a human rights violation.
  • Restrictions in the name of “public interest” and “economic interest” as listed under the FCRA rules fail the test of “legitimate restrictions”. The terms are too vague and give the state excessive discretionary powers to apply the provision in an arbitrary manner

Way forward:

  • A National Accreditation Council consisting of academicians, activist, retired bureaucrats should be made to ensure compliance by NGOs.
  • There should be better coordination between Ministries of Home Affairs and Finance in terms of monitoring and regulating illicit and unaccounted funds.
  • A regulatory mechanism to keep a watch on the financial activities of NGOs and voluntary organizations is the need of the hour.
  • Citizens today are keen to play an active role in processes that shape their lives and it is important that their participation in democracy go beyond the ritual of voting and should include promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion etc.

      


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) Discuss the key highlights of ‘prudential framework for resolution of stressed assets’ that were recently released by RBI, also discuss significance of such steps.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is in the context of recently released RBI’s new prudential framework for resolution of stressed assets by banks.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the key features of the new prudential framework for resolution of stressed assets by banks, also one should provide for previous efforts made in this direction.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the issues plaguing the Banks of India in terms of the stressed assets.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • The new framework for resolution of bad loans, offers a 30-day gap for stress recognition instead of the one-day default earlier.
  • Lenders will have complete discretion with regard to the design and implementation of resolution plans, subject to the specified timeline and independent credit evaluation.
  • enders may recognize incipient stress in loan accounts, immediately on default, by classifying such assets as special mention accounts (SMA).
  • For the purpose of restructuring, the definition of ‘financial difficulty’ to be aligned with the guidelines issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision; and,
  • If multiple lenders are involved, all the lenders must enter into an inter-creditor agreement (ICA) during the review period, to provide for ground rules for the resolution plan.
  • Suggest what should be the way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what more needs to be done.

Introduction:

Reserve Bank of India has come out with an updated guideline about resolving stressed assets on 7th June 2019. The new guideline on resolution of stressed asset is called Prudential Framework for Resolution of Stressed Assets Directions 2019. The directions have been issued in terms of the provisions of Section 35AA of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, for initiation of insolvency proceedings against specific borrowers under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).

Body:

It is a set of guidelines to banks for tackling their stressed assets. Significance of the Prudential Framework is that it replaces the previous controversial/stringent and Supreme Court squashed stressed asset resolution guidelines published in February 2018.

Key highlights of the PFRSAD are:

  • The central bank has made it voluntary for lenders to take defaulters to the bankruptcy court i.e. to use the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code.
  • The norms give lenders 30 days to start working on a resolution plan from the day of default.
  • A lender will now have to set aside:
    • 20% more provisions if the plan is not implemented within 210 days from the date of default
    • 35% if the plan is not implemented within 365 days of default
  • Besides, the new norms said that wherever necessary, the RBI will direct banks to start insolvency proceedings for specific defaults.
  • The lenders may also choose to initiate legal proceedings for either insolvency or recovery.
  • Meanwhile, the norms put in place penal provisions, for lenders, for resolution plans that are not implemented.
  • The RBI circular also mandated signing of the inter-creditor agreement by all lenders.
  • The RBI said that lenders must put in place board-approved policies for resolution of stressed assets.
  • This must include the timelines for resolution.
  • RBI said that it ideally expects lenders to initiate the process of implementing a resolution plan (RP) even before a default.
  • During 30 days review period, lenders may decide on the resolution strategy.
  • These include the nature of the RP and the approach for implementation of the RP.
  • Here, the review period for defaulters of Rs.2,000 crore and above will start immediately.
  • And that for defaulters between Rs. 1,500 crore and less than Rs. 2,000 crore will start only from 1 January 2020.
  • The framework now applies to a larger universe of lenders including small banks and non-banking finance companies (NBFCs).
  • This essentially means that the lenders will also have to follow the early stress recognition guidelines of RBI.
  • These specify that borrowers must be categorized into special mention accounts based on their delay in repayment, which are:
    • Special mention account-0 (SMA-0) loans, where the repayment overdue is between 1-30 days
    • SMA-1 where the repayment overdue is between 31-60 days
    • SMA-2 where the repayment overdue is between 61-90 days

Conclusion:        

The slower-than-expected progress under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) remains the key hurdle to the timely resolution of stressed assets. The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) revised framework for the resolution of stressed assets is credit positive, because it brings back the focus on the need for the timely resolution of such assets, and the build-up of loan loss provisioning against those assets.


Topic:Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions.

6) School and family are two important agents through which the child is develops moral values and evolves as an ethical individual. Elucidate.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is to analyse the significant role played by school and family in the upbringing of moral values in a child.

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the role of school and family in sculpting a moral and ethical behaviour in individuals.

Directive word:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of the context of the question.

Body

Explain the role played by school in sculpting an individual, how family has key role to play, what are the changes both bring in one’s life etc. Give examples to justify and suggest ideal conditions that one must look for to bring up the best in an individual.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.” Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual. These human values have the effect of bonding, comforting, reassuring and procuring serenity.

Body:

Role of school in developing values:

  • In school, children are members of a small society that exerts a tremendous influence on their moral development.
  • Teachers serve as role model to students in school; they play a major role in inculcating their ethical behavior.
  • Peers at school diffuse boldness about cheating, lying, stealing, and consideration for others. Though there are rules and regulations, the educational institutions infuse the value education to the children in an informal way. They play a major role in developing ethical behaviour in children.
  • Accountability: The children should be encouraged to be accountable for their own actions and should learn to respect and treat others kindly.
  • Role model: The teachers are the first role model to the children outside their family. When the children see the model showing concern for others, motivating them for their good deeds and cooperating and helpful with their academic issues, the children learn them by observing and imitate it with fellow peers.
  • Helping: The children are taught basic morals and values in school. They should be taught by emphasizing the idea through many activities, stories and tales, which will encourage them to engage in more helping behaviours.
  • Appreciation: The teacher should appreciate the children for developing pro-social behaviour, especially for any specific action they have done to help others
  • Some values that can be taught by educational institutions are:
    • Punctuality, Commitment, Sincerity, Sharing, Caring, Fairness, Helping, Independence, Responsibility, Humility, Pride need to be inculcated in a child.
    • Lessons of Honesty, Social Justice, Sensitising children with empathy towards vulnerable sections of the society.
    • Teaching Gender Equality, Respect for elders, Truthfulness, Tolerance, Peace, Love for nature & mankind, Positive Attitude, Spirituality, Nationalist feelings, Patriotism, Discipline etc.

Role of family in developing values:

  • Family is the first social organisation that provides the immediate proximity from which the kid can learn his behavior.
  • The family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.
  • Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.
  • The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically.
  • The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity. A child learns his behavior by modelling what he sees around him.
  • Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the progress of the child. Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children.
  • It will also help young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
  • Children identify themselves with their parents, other family elders and adopt them as their personal models for emulation and imitation. The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents.

Conclusion:        

Thus, both family and school play an imperative role in inculcating moral values in an individual.


Topic :  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) What do you understand by war ethics? Do you agree ‘Everything is fair in love and war’? Elucidate.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question intends to discuss the indispensability of ethics in human life. One must discuss how the purpose of war ethics is to help decide what is right or wrong, both for individuals and countries.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the nuances associated with war ethics in detail.

Structure of the answer:

Directive:

ElucidateGive a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate what you understand by War ethics.

Body:

Explain first the circumstances, ethical angles involved in wars. Then move to explain the meaning of Everything is fair in love and war. The ends justify the means when it comes to love and war. When you are fighting a war, it is important to do what you have to in order to win the war. You can’t expect someone to play fair in war when their survival is on the line. When going for love it is also important to do as much as you can for the people that you love. Such questions are best answered using examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting significance of ethics.

Introduction:

The Ethics of War starts by assuming that war is a bad thing, and should be avoided if possible, but it recognises that there can be situations when war may be the lesser evil of several bad choices. The purpose of war ethics is to help decide what is right or wrong, both for individuals and countries, and to contribute to debates on public policy, and ultimately to government and individual action.

Body:

War ethics also leads to the creation of formal codes of war (e.g. the Hague and Geneva conventions), the drafting and implementation of rules of engagement for soldiers, and in the punishment of soldiers and others for war crimes.

However, many would argue that there are times when war is morally permissible, and even obligatory. The most famous way of ethically assessing war is to use ‘Just War Theory’; a tradition going back to St. Augustine in the 5th Century and St. Thomas in the 13th Century. Just War theory considers the reasons for going to war (Jus ad bellum) and the conduct of war (Jus in bello). This distinction is important. A war might be ethical but the means unethical, for instance, using landmines, torture, chemicals and current debate is concerned with drones.

Just War theory sets out principles for a war to be ethical. The war must be:

  • Waged by a legitimate authority (usually interpreted as states)
  • In a just cause
  • Waged with right intention
  • Have a strong probability of success
  • Be a last resort
  • Be proportional

Everything is fair in love and war:

The ends justify the means when it comes to love and war. When you are fighting a war it is important to do what you have to in order to win the war. You can’t expect someone to play fair in war when their survival is on the line. When going for love it is also important to do as much as you can for the people that you love.

However, not everything is fair. We live in a world with rules, and many of those rules are there for a reason. If we allow ourselves to be ruled by passion only without logic and rationality, the world would be in chaos. Yes, it’s important to stick to what you believe in, be it to fight for your loved one or your country, but logic and reason are just as fundamental and necessary as passion and strong beliefs. Countries that drop bombs on innocent people and militia who kill innocent people on the basis of religion, spurned lovers who attacking or physically abuse girls is morally and legally never right.

Conclusion:        

The character of war is changing fast and the ethics needs to keep pace with that change. These particular principles might well need revision. But we should not imagine the fundamental ethical issues have changed. It is still the case that in a sense war is inherently unethical. To be justified, significant ethical reasons are required and although imperfect Just War theory continues to be one way to seek such reasons.