Rajya Sabha TV- Science Monitor (01.06.2019)

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Rajya Sabha TV- Science Monitor (01.06.2019)


[GS Paper III- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

indigenization of technology and developing new technology.]

 

I.Graphene Production:

  1. It is a single layer of graphite. It is an allotrope of carbon.
  2. It is remarkable because its crystalline structure is two dimensional.
  3. Graphene is strong and stiff, amazingly thin, almost completely transparent, extremely light and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.
  4. However, synthesis of graphene is a tedious process but now scientists at National Physical Laboratory CSIR have successfully synthesized graphene.
  5. The graphene was grown on a substrate made of copper, which acts as a catalyst.
  6. This can be used in next generation quantum devices such as high-speed computers, touch screens, LEDs and memory devices.
  7. Chemical vapour deposition method has been found to be the most promising method for production of graphene.
  8. This Low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) device allows to produce high quality, single-layer graphene measuring 4 inches in length and 2 inches in width to be grown.
  9. The LPCVD device developed indigenously costs about Rs.5,00,000, which is one-tenth of the imported ones. More importantly, the quality of the single-layer graphene grown using this device is also superior.
  10. By growing single-layer graphene of high quality repeatedly for up to 30 times, the team from the Advanced Materials and Devices Metrology Division at NPL has demonstrated reproducibility.
  11. Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad:
  12. The Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) was founded on 11th November 1947 Dr. Vikram Sarabhai with its first research on cosmic rays.
  13. It is an autonomous unit of the Department of Space, Government of India.
  14. It is engaged in research in the areas of astronomy and astrophysics, solar physics, theoretical physics, earth sciences, quantum optics and quantum information, planetary science and explorations.
  15. Studies of stellar and solar astronomy are conducted from the Infra-red Observatory at Mt. Abu, and a lake site Solar Observatory in Udaipur, respectively.
  16. Another campus at Thaltej, Ahmedabad, hosts the planetary exploration (PLANEX) programme.
  17. Atmospheric research has been one of the major scientific activities of PRL since its inception. The scientists working in the space and atmospheric sciences are engaged in studies to obtain in depth understanding of processes and feedback that have relevance in complex phenomena occurring in the atmosphere.
  18. The activities of this division aims to understand radiative, chemical ionization and dynamical processes in the earth’s atmosphere by employing in-situ rockets and balloon board experiment.

III. SpaceX Launched 60 satellites for global internet coverage:

  1. This is a key step for creating a space-based network to provide broadband service around the world.
  2. Each Starlink satellite launched weighs roughly 227 kilograms and has a single solar panel.
  3. Collectively they are expected to deliver 1 terabit per second of usable capacity, and 2.5 to 3 terabits per second of total capacity.
  4. The satellites collectively weighed 13.6 metric tons, making this launch the heaviest mission for SpaceX to date.
  5. These satellites are capable of automatically dodging sizeable pieces of space chunk.
  6. Researches discover leftovers of sea water dating to Ice Age:
  7. Recently, scientists have discovered the remnants of seawater dating back to the Ice Age, tucked inside rock formations in the middle of the Indian Ocean.
  8. Researchers from the University of Chicago in the US made this discovery on a month- long scientific mission exploring the limestone deposits that form the Maldives.
  9. Water, which came from the rocks, was much saltier than normal seawater when tested which showed that the water was not from today’s ocean, but the last remnants of a previous era that had migrated slowly through the rock.
  10. Researchers have discovered a new species of vine snake:
  11. A group of researchers has discovered a tenth species of the vine snake of genus Ahaetulla after a gap of more than a century.
  12. Before this discovery, there were nine species of vine snakes reported from the country.
  13. The Ahaetulla laudankia, the newly-discovered snake, was first spotted by researchers in Simlipal Biosphere Reserve near Lulung in Odisha.
  14. Odisha is home to three species: the common Indian vine snake, variable-coloured vine snake and the third being the recently-named Laudankia vine snake.
  15. This rare snake has been reported from Mayurbhanj, Balasore and Boudh districts of Odisha and other states such as Maharastra and Rajasthan.
  16. It has ochre brown dorsal body with an orange-red belly.

VI. Hannes Alfvén:

  1. He is regarded as a pioneer in the field of space plasma physics.
  2. He also the winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) which is the theory of plasmas.
  3. Plasma physics deals with the study of electrical charges in the ionized form.
  4. When a gas is heated by many thousands of degrees, individual atoms collide resulting in collection of positively charged ions and free negatively charged electrons. The gas is said to be ionized and when a sizeable number of these atoms become ionized, the gas is called plasma.
  5. He also made contributions in theories describing the behavior of aurorae, the Van Allen radiation belts, the effect of magnetic storms on the Earth’s magnetic field, the terrestrial magnetosphere, and the dynamics of plasmas in the Milky Way

VII. Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity celebrated its 100th year of confirmation in          May 2019

This theory has given scientists navigation through GPS, working models of black holes and understanding how Big Bang shaped the universe.