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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 MAY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 MAY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:   Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

1) Discuss in detail the doctrine of hot pursuit which emerged as an exception to the fundamental principle of freedom of the high seas. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

Recently Heroin worth ₹600 crore were seized after an Indian Coast Guard ship intercepted the Pakistan fishing vessel Al-Madina off Gujarat. The article discusses in detail the significance of the concept of Hot pursuit amidst such a scenario.

Key demand of the question:

Answer must discuss the concept in detail , its significance to the fundamental principle of freedom of the high seas — the rights of vessels of all nations to navigate freely on the high seas.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines highlight the context of the question.

Body:

  • In brief discuss what Doctrine of hot pursuit? The doctrine of hot pursuit emerged as an exception to the fundamental principle of freedom of the high seas — the rights of vessels of all nations to navigate freely on the high seas.
  • Zone of hot pursuit: Contagious to this zone is the zone of hot pursuit, and it extends up to 24 nautical miles. Any infringement of customs, sanitary, immigration and fiscal regulations in the contagious zone can also attract punishment from coastal states.
  • At a time when smuggling and piracy were rampant, this customary doctrine emerged to empower a coastal state to pursue on to the high seas a vessel that had violated its laws within its waters.
  • Decades later, this customary doctrine was codified in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of High Seas.
  • Apart from imposing procedural restrictions, the Convention clearly spelt out that the right of hot pursuit ceases as soon as the ship pursued enters the territorial sea of its own country or a third state.
  • Over the years, some countries have sought to introduce an expanded doctrine of hot pursuit on land, to justify the breaches of territorial sovereignty of foreign states as part of the ongoing pursuit of offenders.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) recently apprehended a Pakistani fishing vessel off Gujarat and seized huge cache of narcotic drugs worth ₹600 crore in the international market. During the hot pursuit, the crew threw bags containing suspicious material into the sea. According to the officials, the preliminary testing of one of the seized packets using a drug-testing kit revealed that the substance was heroin.

Body:

Doctrine of hot pursuit:

  • The doctrine of hot pursuit in international law recognizes the right of a State to pursue a vessel belonging to a foreign State which has violated any law within its territorial boundaries and jurisdiction.
  • The doctrine vests a right to pursue the delinquent vessel outside the territorial limits into the open sea and then can be taken into custody.
  • The fundamental rule of the maritime law states that all vessels have the right to navigate freely on the high seas.
  • Yet, the traditional notion has recognized the doctrine of hot pursuit as an exception to the principles of freedom on the high seas.
  • At a time when smuggling and piracy were rampant, this customary doctrine emerged to empower a coastal state to pursue on to the high seas a vessel that had violated its laws within its waters.
  • This denied the intruding vessel the opportunity to escape punishment by claiming protection under the right of free navigation on the high seas, which had been designed to protect innocent vessels.
  • Importantly, this customary doctrine did not extend to the territorial waters of a foreign state.
  • Decades later, this customary doctrine was codified in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of High Seas.

Hot Pursuit as per UNCLOS

  • The doctrine of maritime hot pursuit is codified in Article 111 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982.
  • Apart from imposing procedural restrictions, the Convention clearly spelt out that the right of hot pursuit ceases as soon as the ship pursued enters the territorial sea of its own country or a third state.
  • It recognizes that a vessel, if has committed a violation of the laws of a foreign state while in that state’s sovereign or territorial waters, may be pursued onto the high seas and seized.

Conclusion:

India is also surrounded by the Golden Triangle in the North-East and Golden Crescent in the north-west, which are fertile regions for drug trade over the land boundaries. Over the years, some countries have sought to introduce an expanded doctrine of hot pursuit on land, to justify the breaches of territorial sovereignty of foreign states as part of the ongoing pursuit of offenders. This would help India curb the drug menace through land route trade.


TopicIndia and its neighborhood- relations.

2) Discuss in detail the issue of displacement of Rohingya community. What are controversies associated and highlight role of India in addressing the issue. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The article discusses the case of Rohingya repatriation in detail. It narrates briefly the issue on a broader picture, causes and its consequences with special emphasis on India’s role in the scenario.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must briefly discuss issues associated with displacement of Rohingya community, the challenges it is posing in the region and the key role India has to the issue.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain the background/context of the question.

Body

The body of the answer has to capture the following aspects:

  • Discuss who are Rohingyas and what is the issue? – They are an Ethnic group, mostly Muslims. They were not granted full citizenship by Myanmar. They were classified as “resident foreigners or associate citizens”.
  • What are the Concerns with regard to these Illegal Migrants? – The Myanmar Government says that Rohingya people are not Burmese citizens – but the Rohingya have been living in Myanmar for generations. Today, they are a people with no home or citizenship.
  • Rohingya people are being widely abused and exploited. They are one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.
  • Discuss the Rohingya crisis and Implications for the Region.
  • India’s role and stand on the issue.

Conclusion

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Rohingya are Myanmar’s Muslim minority who reside in the northern parts of the Rakhine region, a geographically isolated area in western Myanmar, bordering Bangladesh. Nearly two years after they fled Myanmar following a brutal crackdown, more than 270,000 Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh have been provided with identity cards, the United Nations said recently, to safeguard their right to voluntarily return home to Myanmar. This is a welcome development for the Rohingyas.

Body:

Issue of Rohingyas:

  • Rohingyas are considered “stateless entities” by the Myanmar government and have been refusing to recognise them as one of the ethnic groups of the country.
  • This has led to large scale exodus of the Rohingya population to neighbouring countries like India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.
  • The 1982 Citizenship Law denies the Rohingya Muslims citizenship despite the people living there for generations.
  • The Rohingya are fleeing Myanmar because of the restrictions and policies placed by the government.
  • The Rohingya are ethnically, linguistically, and religiously different from Myanmar’s dominant Buddhist community.
  • Tensions between the Rohingya and the other religious groups have exploded into conflict.
  • The violence and turmoil began in 2012 when a group of Rohingya men were accused of raping and killing a Buddhist woman. The Buddhist nationalists retaliated by killing and burning the Rohingya homes.
  • About 1.1 million Rohingyas are said to live in Myanmar’s Rakhine region, which is Myanmar’s least developed region, with more than 78 per cent of households living below the poverty line.

Role of India:

  • It is estimated that there are around 40,000 Rohingyas in India, of which around 5,700 are in Jammu and are more vulnerable for getting recruited by terrorist organisations.
  • Indian Government has described illegal Rohingya immigrants as posing a national security threat, and ordered state governments in 2017 to identify and deport them.
  • India is not a signatory to the 1951 United Nations Convention and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, and it does not currently have a national law on refugees. Thus, the principle of non-Refoulement doesn’t bind India.
  • However, the prohibition of non-refoulement of refugees constitutes a norm of customary international law, which binds even non-parties to the Convention.
  • Any deportation would violate their fundamental rights to equality and to life, under Article 14 and 21 of the Constitution
  • It is difficult to envisage, given the present circumstances, use of force to send the unfortunate and suffering people back as neither Myanmar nor Bangladesh.
  • At the same time, we obviously cannot send a message that India is willing to receive a huge number of displaced people from Myanmar.
  • India’s actions make it clear that it would not compromise with the security concerns of the country while dealing with Rohingya issue.

Concerns/Challenges for India:

  • The violence in Rakhine state is affecting India’s Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport project
  • Rohingya Muslims, considered by the UN to be the most persecuted minority in the world.
  • Rohingya crisis pose a security challenge to the South and Southeast Asia.
  • Rohingyas have acquired documents like Aadhaar, PAN and Voter-ID. This raises the concern of naturalisation of illegal migrants by fraudulent means.
  • In the absence of a law to deal with refugees in India, their identification and surveillance will become difficult.

Way forward for India:

  • It is high time to formulate a strong refugee policy. It will help to mitigate the present Rohingya refugee problem and provide a structure to be used whenever similar problem arises.
  • Provide funding to socio economic developmental projects in partnership with Myanmar government in the Rakhine region.
  • India should improve border security and regulate inflow of illegal migration
  • India should show leadership by protecting the Rohingyas and calling on the Myanmar government to end the repression and atrocities causing these people to leave.
  • ASEAN, India and Bangladesh need to discuss the Rohingya crisis together to work for an optimum solution to the problem.
  • The first step would be to convince the present government in Myanmar about the benefits of well-coordinated cooperation between ASEAN members, India and Bangladesh to tackle the issue.
  • Our Act East policy demands India to play a role in finding a permanent solution to Rohingya crisis.
  • We should take an apolitical, pragmatic position that is free from ideological inclinations.

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas.

3)  Evaluate the major shortcomings in India’s national security architecture. Suggest measures to overcome these shortcomings with respect to the key recommendations made by D.S. Hooda’s document. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article highlights the urgent need for a blueprint for national security strategy for India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the major shortcoming of National security in India. What measures can be taken to address these issues highlighting the need for a road map designing the national security agenda.

Directive word:

EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines on the importance of national security.

Body:

  • Answer should have the following dimensions covered:
  • Discuss the need for formulating a national security strategy for India.
  • What are the major shortcomings in India’s national security architecture that must be addressed?
  • key national security institutions and revamp their functioning.
  • Role of National Security Adviser with respect to accountability and legal formality.
  • Significant features of Hooda document.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance and what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

A National Security Strategy or Policy (NSS or NSP) is a key framework for a country to meet the basic needs and security concerns of citizens, and address external and internal threats to the country. It is pertinent to ask, even today, whether India thinks about strategic affairs in a systematic, consistent and coherent manner or whether its national security runs on ad hoc arrangements and ‘raw wisdom’. Human security involves basing the understanding of security on the needs of citizens, not just those of the government/State.

Body:

The major shortcomings in India’s national security architecture are:

  • The National Security Council (NSC) set up in 1998 almost never meets, primarily because it is an advisory body, with the Cabinet Committee on Security being the executive body.
  • If the NSC is to be made more useful, the government’s allocation of business rules should be amended to give more powers to the NSC and its subordinate organisations, such as the Strategic Policy Group.
  • Even though the National Security Adviser (NSA) plays a vital role in national security, he has no legal powers as per the government’s allocation of business rules.
  • The C. Pant Task Force in the late 1990s had recommended the creation of an NSA with the rank of a Cabinet Minister.
  • Over the years, the NSA’s powers have increased, even though he is not accountable to Parliament. The institution of the NSA today requires more accountability and legal formality.
  • India spends close to $50 billion annually on defence and yet there are serious concerns about the level of our defence preparedness. India might be ill-equipped to fight the wars of the modern age
  • There is a little conversation between the armed forces and the political class, and even lesser conversation among the various arms of the forces
  • One of the most serious lacunas in our defence management is the absence of jointness in the Indian armed forces.
  • Our doctrines, command structures, force deployments and defence acquisition continue as though each arm is going to fight a future war on its own.

Key recommendations made by D.S. Hooda to overcome these shortcomings:

  • Hooda’s National security strategy document defines security in an out-of-the box and inclusive manner. The document summarises the reforms under 5 heads:
    • Assuming our rightful place in global affairs.
    • achieving a secure neighbourhood
    • peaceful resolution of internal conflicts
    • protecting our people
    • strengthening our capabilities
  • On the issue of military jointmanship, it recommends that “the three services should undertake a comprehensive review of their current and future force structures to transform the army, navy and air force into an integrated warfighting force.”
  • It argues that it would take “a cultural change in the way the DRDO is currently operating” to improve domestic defence production.
  • On the Kashmir question too, the document seems to differ with the incumbent government’s muscular policy, and General Hooda’s words should be a wakeup call for everyone: Killing terrorists is an integral part of military operations to ensure that the state does not descend into chaos.
  • While discussing emerging national security threats, the document differs with the present government’s decision to set up a Defence Cyber Agency instead of a Cyber Command as was originally recommended.

Conclusion:

Serious efforts are required for countering radicalisation. There is a need to initiate structured programmes that bring together civil society members, family groups, educationists, religious teachers and even surrendered terrorists in an effort to roll back radicalisation. There is an urgent need for thinking about national security and strategy more systematically, consistently and comprehensively.


Topic:    Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

4) What do you understand by Biotherapeutic medicines? Elaborate on the need for guidelines to regulate the accessibility and affordability of this new class of medicines. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail upon the need for revision of guidelines for Biotherapeutic medicines.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail what are Biotherapeutic medicines, why is there a need to revise the guidelines for the same and what needs to be done.

Directive word:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain what are Biotherapeutic medicines.

Body:

  • Biotherapeutic medicines, also known as biologics, are produced through biological processes and differ from the older generation small-molecule medicines that are derived through chemical synthesis.
  • What are the issues surrounding it? – pricing, manufacturing, access, affordability, regulations etc.
  • Discuss what needs to be done?
  • Explain the Indian industry scenario.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

Biotherapeutic Medicines (also known as biologics) are medicines whose active ingredients are or are derived from proteins (such as growth hormone, insulin, antibodies) and other substances produced by living organisms (such as cells, viruses and bacteria). They are larger and more complex than chemically-synthesized medicines and their characteristics and properties are typically dependent on the manufacturing process itself. Biotherapeutic medicines are an integral and valuable part of modern medicine for the treatment and prevention of serious illnesses and diseases.

Body:

Importance of Biotherapeutic medicines:

  • Lives touched:
    • Biotherapeutic medicines benefit more than 350 million patients worldwide, treating widespread diseases such as cancer and diabetes, as well as rare illnesses.
    • Being similar in structure to molecules naturally-produced in the human body, biotherapeutic medicines have great therapeutic impact in many disease areas and can additionally serve to diagnose other diseases
  • Tangible benefits:
    • Many patients are leading healthier lives as a result of biotherapeutic medicines, often without realizing the source of these products.
  • Biotherapeutic medicines & cancer:
    • Major strides in fighting cancer successfully go hand in hand with improved diagnostics, treatments and prevention methods. Biotherapeutic medicines play a role in the discovery and development of  
    • Today, biomarkers help in predicting the risk of cancer, diagnosing it, and indicating a potential effective course of treatment.
  • Biotherapeutic medicines & autoimmune diseases:
    • If left untreated autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis can lead to early mortality.
    • Biotherapeutic medicines have proved successful and have had a highly positive impact in the treatment of these diseases.

The need for guidelines to regulate the accessibility and affordability of this new class of medicines:

  • Both accessibility and affordability of this new class of medicines in developing countries is abysmally poor, owing largely to their high prices.
  • Although a lot of research and development efforts are focused on innovative biotherapeutic products, the high cost and restricted market availability has limited their use.
  • Similar biotherapeutic products (SBPs) are “similar” but not identical versions of their innovative biotherapeutic medicine of reference. SBPs are the analogous version of generic medicines in biotherapeutics.
  • Whereas producing generic versions of off-patent chemically-synthesized medicines is relatively easy, producing an SBP is far more complicated due to the complex molecular structure and the unique manufacturing process required for biotherapeutic medicines.
  • SBPs require distinct regulatory standards than those applied to generic medicines.
  • SBP standards require thorough analytical characterization and quality studies as well as abbreviated pre-clinical and clinical development programs to show high similarity to the reference innovative biotherapeutic medicine in terms of quality, safety and efficacy.
  • Civil Society groups claim that even though a Resolution of the World Health Assembly in 2014 mandates the Director General to convene the WHO expert committee on biological standardization to update the 2009 guidelines, till date, the secretariat has neither updated the SBP guidelines nor has the WHO given any scientific reasons for the decision.
  • The secrecy of the scientific reasons for insisting on comparative clinical trials for the approval of SBP.
  • Lack of public consultations to review the scientific evidence with respect to the need for comparative clinical trials, among other things.

Conclusion:

As the patents of some biotherapeutics have expired, more biosimilars or SBPs are being produced. Like generic medicines, biosimilars could help to increase access to treatment in lower-resourced countries and provide a solution to escalating health costs in high-income countries. Thus, there is a need to update the guidelines.


Topic :Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5) What is gene editing, should it be allowed? Give your opinion while you weigh the associated pros and cons.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is to evaluate the pros and cons of the concept of gene editing.

Demand of the question:

The answer must explain the concept of gene editing and evaluate the ethical angle involved, one must assess the merits and demerits of the same.

Structure of the answer:

The answer to the question must have the following parts:

  • Gene editing or genome editing, involves the insertion, deletion, or replacement of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in a gene.
  • Discuss the pros and cons; pros – use in cure of cancer, genetic diseases, drug research, Agriculture- pest resilient crops etc.
  • What are the disadvantages associated? – ethical aspect, scope to be used in bio weapons, unknown diseases etc.
  • Then move on to discuss whether it should be allowed? Opine that should be encouraged to enhance the advancements in field of science and improve the standard of living of people etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way ahead.

Introduction:

Gene Editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism. Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly insert genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.

CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are sections of DNA, while CAS-9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) is an enzyme. Often described as “a pair of molecular scissors,” CRISPR is widely considered the most precise, most cost-effective and quickest way to edit genes.

Body:

Pros:

  • Most uses of genome editing have been in scientific research –for example to investigate models of human disease.
  • Genome editing has the potential to alter any DNA sequence, whether in a bacterium, plant, animal or human being.
  • It is a powerful tool that can reshape the way society deals many issues of healthcare, food scarcity and the environment.
  • Crops and livestock (e.g. increasing yield, introducing resistance to disease and pests, tolerance of different environmental conditions).
  • Industrial biotechnology (e.g. developing ‘third generation’ biofuels and producing chemicals, materials and pharmaceuticals).
  • Biomedicine (e.g. pharmaceutical development, xenotransplantation, gene and cell-based therapies, control of insect-borne diseases).
  • Reproduction (e.g. preventing the inheritance of a disease trait).
  • Engineering mosquitoes to control malaria and dengue.
  • It can help fight against blood-related disorders such as haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia, and Beta-Thalassemia.
  • All such applications together can drive India’s economic growth over the next decade to new heights.

Cons:

  • Study by Stanford University, U.S., found that the CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces unexpected off-target (outside of the intended editing sites) effects in mice. The fear that the CRISPR system is being prematurely rushed for clinical use lingers. Three recent reports have exacerbated this fear even further.
  • Studies highlighted that CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells might trigger cancer.
  • P53 protein:
    • CRISPR-Cas9 system induced activation of a protein called P53. This P53 protein acts like a gatekeeper or guardian in the cells to keep them healthy and prevents them (the cells) from turning cancerous. In many cancers, cells lose their ability to repair deleterious genetic changes due to an impaired P53 function.
    • In cells where editing is adequate, the cell’s P53 protein may be dysfunctional. Therefore, a functional pP53 protein is good for the cells to be healthy but makes the Cas9-mediated editing process less effective.
  • The impending danger of mosaicism, in which some cells inherit the target mutation, while others don’t.
  • Scientists are far from understanding how exactly individual genes influence phenotypes, or the visible traits of people.
  • Every gene likely influences multiple traits, depending on the environment it interacts This makes it hard to predict the ultimate outcome of an embryo-editing exercise without decades of follow-up.
  • Every gene influences trade-offs, which scientists barely understand today. Example: while protecting against HIV, a deactivated CCR5 gene can also make people more susceptible to West-Nile Fever.
  • Editing human embryos to repair disease-causing genes is far more controversial.
  • Issue of Designer babies: The eyes of the mother, the hair of the father, the complexion from the maternal side and a cute little dimple from the paternal is what makes the kid loved by one and all. Designing the babies to look like celebrities might get the kids to thank you later in life but might loosen the bond that is supposed to be the significant part of the relationship.
  • There are prospects of irreversible harms to the health of future children and generations, to concerns about opening the door to new forms of social inequality, discrimination, and conflict.
  • Such living experiments are done in secret, outside of any formal institution, and apparently without any independent scrutiny or review by the scientific fraternity.
  • Bioethicists fear abuse of gene editing, not just by misguided governments hoping to create a ‘superior’ race.

The debate about gene editing has been going on for a long time now. Gene editing should be encouraged to enhance the advancements in field of science and improve the standard of living of people E.g.: CRISPR technology is targeting to treat the rare disease caused by mutation of one gene. At the same time a common guidelines need to be developed by international community’s which set the guidelines of what risks are acceptable and what are not.

Way Forward:

  • India’s current regulatory architecture for approving novel treatments is ambiguous and assigns overlapping functions to different governmental bodies. This framework needs to be restructured to optimize trial approval time while addressing safety requirements.
  • A two-step model wherein the government works with industry and research groups to accelerate clinical research is recommended. This model consists of a national apex committee working in collaboration with existing institutional ethics committees and independent accreditation agencies.
  • It is envisaged that, India will emerge as a significant contributor to the world bioinformatics market and position itself as a global hub for bioinformatics.
  • Indian bioinformatics sector has numerous strengths and competitive advantages to make bioinformatics sector a sunrise industry of India.
  • With the improvements in the IPR regime, increasing support from the government and continuing efforts of the private sector companies, it is very much likely that India could repeat its IT success story in bioinformatics too.
  • Much research on animal models and isolated human cells should be conducted before any full-scale routine application in humans.

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6) “The fear of AI and autonomous machines as a threat to humanity is misguided.” Critically analyse the statement with respect to the Indian Scenario.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article captures effects of digitization on Jobs, it critically analyses whether Artificial intelligence and autonomous machines create or take away Jobs of humans.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must debate about the consequences of AI and machines on current Jobs and employment scenario.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines quote some relevant facts to highlight the mixed effect of AI and machines on jobs and employments as of now.

Body:

  • First discuss how artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are being seen to replace human beings in all kinds of jobs.
  • Discuss the past Industrial revolutions; how they only improved the Jobs and never failed employment scenario in terms of mass jobs, better technology etc.
  • The more likely scenario is humans and robots working in harmony. AI expands the potential of humans. Humans will learn value-added tasks, while self-learning robots pick up new skills on their own.
  • Digitalization will transform work with people having higher qualification and competence profiles but won’t replace it: people will always be indispensable. Digitalization will create more jobs than it takes away.
  • Have a section discussing Indian scenario – what needs to be done?
  • Conclude with way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of a balance between the two.

Introduction:

AI and autonomous machines threaten 69 per cent of the jobs in India, while 77 per cent in China, according to a World Bank research which has said that technology could fundamentally disrupt the pattern of traditional economic path in developing countries. The fear of AI and autonomous machines as a threat to humanity is misguided. The more likely scenario is humans and robots working in harmony. AI expands the potential of humans.

Body:

The increasing threatening to jobs by artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics:

  • Various automation technologies are in the process of overhauling the mass employment-generating but low skilled blue-collar labour markets. They could also threaten skilled white-collar workers.
  • For instance, JP Morgan Chase and Co. developed a programme called COIN, a learning machine that interprets legal agreements in just a few seconds, a task that consumed 3, 60,000 work hours for lawyers and loan officers annually.
  • Similarly, an American medical school tested IBM’s AI technology Watson to analyse 1,000 cancer diagnoses. In 99% of the cases, Watson was able to recommend treatment plans that matched the suggestions of well-renowned oncologists.
  • As the world gets more competitive, as manufacturing gets more competitive, it will use more automation, robotics, technology.
  • New technologies like AI and Robotics improve the functional efficiency drastically than manual methods. Thus large industries will increasingly shift towards the automation in the quest of higher productivity.
  • Information technology (IT), IT-enabled services (ITeS) and security services, followed by banking, will be the first sectors to feel the heat, wherein manual transactions and processing jobs will become obsolete.
  • Huge numbers of services jobs in these sectors will be made redundant as a few lines of code will be able to perform the same tasks efficiently and effectively, according to PeopleStrong (HR solution firm).
  • Increasing Automation also reduces the proportion of creation of new jobs. This could hurt India in longer run.

However, the fear is not true:

  • Impact of Automation will be felt where the jobs cost the highest in the next 10-15 years. If India grows at 8% a year, with a labour productivity increase of 1.5% a year, jobs should grow at a rate of 6.5% a year. With automation, jobs may grow within a band of 4-5% a year for the next 10 years.
  • Accenture said AI has the potential to increase India’s annual growth rate of gross value added (GVA) by 1.3 percentage points, lifting the country’s income by 15 percent by 2035.
  • The cost of initial automation and robotics is high. In a country where wages are much lower than such costs, impact will be felt at a slower pace and much less than elsewhere.
  • Further increasing Automation may not affect Indian agriculture due to factors like land fragmentation and dominance of small and marginal farmers.
  • Creating AI portal will help the nation to create more jobs as Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, Robotics and the integration of Machine learning with Biological sciences where the graduates can play an important role in the future.
  • The establishment of the National Centre of AI as a hub along with centres of excellence and identification of Nine priority areas is a step in the right direction.
  • The digital infrastructure in the digital economy of 2030 can be built upon successes achieved in recent years in digitisation of government processes and private transactions

Potential areas for AI applications in India:

  • It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.
  • Targeted delivery of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.
  • Smart border surveillance and monitoring to enhance security infrastructure.
  • Weather forecasting models may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming crisis, farmer’s suicide, crop losses etc.
  • By analyzing big data of road safety data and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) data for crimes, new policies can be formulated.
  • Disaster management can be faster and more accessible with the help of robots and intelligent machines.
  • In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we often hear the loss of CRPF jawans which can be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.
  • AI can be used to automate government processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.
  • It can be applied to study ancient literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of modern machines and ancient techniques.
  • In the remotest areas where the last leg of governance is almost broken, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

Way forward

  • Ensure interpretability of AI systems:
    • Decisions made by an AI agent should be possible to understand, especially if they have implications for public safety or result in discriminatory practices.
  • Empower users:
    • The public’s ability to understand AI-enabled services, and how they work, is key to ensuring trust in the technology.
  • Responsible deployment:
    • The capacity of an AI agent to act autonomously, and to adapt its behaviour over time without human direction, calls for significant safety checks before deployment and ongoing monitoring.
  • Ensure accountability:
    • Legal certainty and accountability has to be ensured when human agency is replaced by the decisions of AI agents.
  • Consider social and economic impacts:
    • Stakeholders should shape an environment where AI provides socioeconomic opportunities for all.
  • Open Governance:
    • The ability of various stakeholders, whether in civil society, government, private sector, academia or the technical community to inform and participate in the governance of AI is crucial for its safe deployment.

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration.

7) Examine the relevance of Probity and Integrity to civil services. Justify your answer using a suitable case study. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of the syllabus, it aims to evaluate the significance of virtues – probity and Integrity to civil services.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss what you understand by probity and integrity? What is its relevance and significance to civil services?

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines suggest importance of such virtues to civil services.

Body:

The answer must have the following points of discussions:

  • What is probity in ethics? – Probity is the evidence of ethical behaviour in a particular process. For Government employees and agencies, maintaining probity involves more than simply avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It involves applying public sector values such as impartiality, accountability and transparency.
  • What is Integrity? – Integrity is following strong moral principles while Probity of having strong moral principle.
  • Their importance to civil services?

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such virtues to civil servants.

Introduction:

Probity is “the quality or condition of having strong moral principles, integrity, good character, honesty, decency”. It is the act of adhering to the highest principles and ideals rather than avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It balances service to the community against the self-interest of individuals

Integrity is the practice of synchronisation of thought, words and actions. It can be correlated to honesty but unlike honesty it’s more a professional value. It’s related to institution. It advocates sacrifice of personal gains in favour of organisational objectives

Body:

The relevance of probity and integrity:

  • Individual level:
    • For individuals, probity is about understanding the limits of their authority and powers and acting within those limits.
    • Public servants need to be conscious at all times of the need to uphold the highest standards of conduct in their dealings on the government’s behalf, which includes acting with integrity and avoiding conflicts of interest.
    • Having a conflict of interest is not morally wrong or unethical in itself. The challenge is in recognising and managing them.
    • Public servants should also be aware of the need to avoid any perception of bias in their dealings. This requires an open mind in decision-making and acting fairly and impartially in good faith.
    • Financial integrity is important component. Civil servants are handling public assets they are the custodians of public money.
    • Integrity ensures the economy of expenditure, reduction in unproductive expenditure, minimisation of corruption.
  • Organisational level:
    • For organisations, probity is about setting values at an organisation level, and then implementing those values through policies and codes of practice.
    • It is then for managers to demonstrate those values through leadership, to positively reinforce the values and also to ensure compliance with, and enforcement of, the values.
    • Government agencies should establish an ethical culture. Then, they should set out to live that culture.
    • To ensure the equitable distribution of resources
    • To bring strong image of country around the globe
    • To cater to the needs of all sections of society. So that inclusive growth is achieved.
  • Watch-dogs:
    • At another level, there are the watch-dogs, being the public sector bodies charged with oversight and investigation of standards and behaviours.
    • To ensure compliance with processes.
    • To prevent unethical practices like misconduct, fraud and corruption in governance. It will bring the lost public trust back.

You can add your own case study based on the above theory.

Conclusion:

Present day civil servants needs to perform multiple functions of giving suggestions to political representatives, addressing public grievances, institutionalisation of the socio economic changes, delivering goods and services. Hence a value committed bureaucracy is need of hour.