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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 MAY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 MAY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development.

1) Elaborate on the nature of corruption in healthcare systems in India. How do you think India can cure corruption in healthcare systems? Critically analyse. (250 words)

epw

 

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail how the prevailing corruption conditions in the healthcare industry of India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the issue of corruption in health industry, causes and consequences of it and measures to tackle the same.

Directive word:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain with facts prevailing conditions of corruption in the health industry.

Body:

  • Highlight that corruption in the healthcare sector is old news. Almost everybody in the country has been a victim of some form of graft or malpractice—be it inflated bills, wrong diagnosis, or substandard treatment.
  • Discuss the incidences of corruption that are regularly witnessed –

Lack of ethics amongst health professional, cost cutting, lack of value to patients, lack of accountability etc.

  • What needs to be done?
  • Suggest measures to overcome – digitization, public private partnership in the healthcare industry, regulatory mechanisms etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

Corruption is the very antithesis of patient centred care. Driven by greed, those in power divert crucial resources away from patients in need, which results in poor quality of care and worsening health outcomes. It is an international problem and no health system is free from it.

Body:

Nature of Corruption in healthcare systems in India:

  • Bribes and kickbacks:
    • The country’s doctors and medical institutions live in an ‘unvirtuous circle’ of referral and kickback that poisons their integrity and destroys any chance of a trusting relationship with their patients.
    • Given these practices, it is no surprise that investigations and procedures are abused as a means of milking patients.
  • Theft and embezzlement:
    • This may  occur  as  theft  of  public  assets  and  goods,  such  as instruments  and  medicines,  by  individuals  for  sale,  personal use  or  use  in  for-profit  private 
    • The theft  of  government revenues,  such  as  patient  registration  fees,  and  the  payment of  salary  to  deceased  or  “ghost”  workers  are  other  forms  of corruption.
  • Intentional damage to public goods for private gain:
    • Public assets and instruments in government hospitals may also be intentionally damaged so as to make them unavailable to patients, with the ultimate aim of ordering the services from private clinics in return for financial incentives or “commission.”
  • Absenteeism:
    • Perceived somewhat   less   often   as   a   form   of   corruption, absenteeism  (not  attending  work  but  claiming  salary)  in  the health  sector  has  been  a  major  concern  in  some  developing countries.
  • Informal payments:
    • In some countries, patients commonly make informal payments to healthcare professionals for better services. The  imposition of  such  a  “tax”  on  “free”  healthcare  services  has  a  negative impact on access to health services
  • Use of human subjects for financial gain:
    • Clinical researchers  get  paid  by  the  biomedical  industry  for the  recruitment  of  poor  and  illiterate,  e.  Vulnerable, human subjects for clinical trials. 
    • Another way  in  which  hospitals and  physicians  use  patients  is  by  charging  uninsured  patients and  patients  with  other  health  plans  far  more  than  the  actual costs involved and what the health insurers pay.
  • Institutionalised potential corruption:
    • In some    for-profit    hospitals,    physicians    have    contractual obligations to admit a fixed number of patients to allotted beds and prescribe a number of laboratory investigations (even if unnecessary) to generate revenues.

Impact of Corruption in Healthcare Sector in India:

No doubt, corruption has a severe impact on the society. It has not only affected the health industry and the economy as a whole, but also the people of the country, especially the poor and the common people. The results are evident:

  • Low-quality healthcare facilities that do not fulfil our needs.
  • Government hospitals and health centres in rural areas are in shabby conditions.
  • Lack of access to medicines and other basic healthcare facilities for poor patients.
  • Huge medical bills
  • Incomplete treatment of patients
  • Circulation of fake or inappropriate drugs, goods and equipment in the market
  • Spread of diseases and no control of infectious diseases like dengue
  • Death of patients for wrong treatment or inadequate services
  • Unnecessary medical tests
  • Unqualified and inefficient doctors
  • Healthcare professionals in the vicious cycle of unethical practices
  • Loss of faith in the system

Measures needed:

  • Zero tolerance for unethical and corrupt practices in health:
    • Physicians, professional medical associations of diverse disciplines and the bioethics community should discuss possible anti-corruption measures and implement a publicly declared policy of zero tolerance for unethical and corrupt practices in the care of patients, clinical research and medical education.
  • Whole-hearted support for anti-corruption measures:
    • Physicians and bioethicists should support, whole-heartedly and without reservation, the anti-corruption initiatives undertaken by the other sections of society and state, such as civil society, patient rights groups, voluntary health associations, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), the judiciary, and the media.
    • This would help build good governance and a just society.
  • Protection of whistle-blowers:
    • Physicians and bioethicists should provide moral support and legal help to members of their profession or discipline who have dared to expose serious wrong doing in any aspect of healthcare and medicine.
    • This is necessary because whistleblowers run the risk of facing harassment, if not harm, by vested interests.
  • Legislation:
    • Physicians and bioethicists should play a more proactive role in pressing for the enactment and implementation of legislation and regulations for good governance, transparency and accountability in healthcare and medicine.
    • Anti-corruption laws are frequently breached because of inadequate regulation and monitoring, or the absence of effective penalties.
    • One solution could be to set up an office of ombudsman to deal with corruption (eg Lokpal) in every district, province and state capital.
    • The ombudsman should be equipped with adequate resources, infrastructure and real powers.
  • Education:
    • The importance of (continuing) education can hardly be overemphasised. It is hard to believe that all young men and women join medicine only to make money out of people’s illness.
    • Education in ethics through the use of positive role models may reinforce moral values.
    • It would help present and future healthcare professionals not only to steer clear of fraud and abuse, but also to create a favourable ethical climate within the profession.

Conclusion:

It is time to acknowledge that corruption in healthcare entails crimes against humanity. There is no room for complacency- history will not forgive physicians and bioethicists if they fail in their moral duty to safeguard the cause of ethics in medicine when it is necessary.


Topic:  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive, Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

2) What is a coalition government what is its impact on Indian politics? Do you agree Coalitions allow a diversity of voices to be heard, keep fundamentalism at bay? Critically analyse.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article discusses how an absolute majority in favor of a political party has the tendency to threaten democratic values and in what way Coalitions allow a diversity of voices to be heard, keep fundamentalism at bay.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must briefly discuss the role of coalition politics in the present context. Discuss in detail the pros and cons of such a tool of democracy.

Directive:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain the background/context of the question.

Body

The body of the answer has to capture the following aspects:

  • What is coalition politics in India? – In a Parliamentary democracy, coalitions arise mainly as a result of political compulsion. conflicts. It may also be formed due to emergency. The policies that are adopted by the coalition government are made by the coalescing parties and merely finalized by the leader of the coalition.
  • What are the features of coalition government?
  • Examine is India Is Set to Return to Coalition Politics?
  • Then move on to evaluate the merits and demerits of the Coalition govt.
  • Take cues from the article to justify the significance of such a democratic tool.

Conclusion

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A coalition is an alliance of parties formed for the purpose of contesting elections jointly and/or forming a government and managing the governance by a process of sharing process. So coalition implies co-operation between political parties and this co-operation may take place may take place at Electoral, Parliamentary and Governmental levels.

Body:

Impact of Coalition Government on Indian Politics and diversity of India:

  • The process of fragmentation of the national party system and emergence of minority or coalition governments started in India from 1967.
  • This period also marked the emergence of coalitions and also new parties and mergers along with breakup of some parties and absorption of the others.
  • This began the era of Coalition Politics or Multi party rule in India. The adoption of multi party system and regionalism changed the centre-state relations to a certain extent.
  • Coalition government is more democratic, and hence fairer, because it represents a much broader spectrum of public opinion than government by one party alone. In almost all coalitions, a majority of citizens voted for the parties which form the government and so their views and interests are represented in political decision making.
  • Coalition government creates a more honest and dynamic political system, allowing voters a clearer choice at election time. It is also easier for parties to split, or new ones to be formed, as new political issues divide opinion, because new parties still have a chance of a share in political power. The Desai government (1977-1979), for example, undid regressive laws enacted by the Indira Gandhi government during the Emergency.
  • Coalitions provide good government because their decisions are made in the interests of a majority of the people. A coalition government better reflects the popular opinion of the electorate within a country.
  • Coalition government provides more continuity in administration. Amore consensual style of politics also allows for a more gradual and constructive shift of policy between administrations.
  • Such government functions on principle of politics of consensus. Besides, states are given more powers, and the base of concept of federalism is strengthened.
  • Government will be more consensus based: resulting policies will be broadly approved of for the benefit of the nation. Eg: The coalition governments could take pluralistic opinions and could address issues such as lynching or sedition laws, these would be crucial interventions in India’s governance, especially consequential for citizens ranged against the perpetuation of majoritarianism.
  • Better representation of the electorate’s wishes. Better quality of policy: enhanced scrutiny and increased attention paid to each policy
  • Increased continuity: election does not lead to dramatic overhaul which can produce fragmented rule
  • Yet instability apart, coalition governments have been effective in enhancing democratic legitimacy, representativeness, and national unity.
  • Critics of one-party majority governments often cite the excessive abuse of President’s Rule during Indira Gandhi’s time as one of its shortcomings, a practice that the coalition era has effectively ended.

However, it has its own set of limitations:

  • Coalition government is actually less democratic as the balance of power is inevitably held by the small parties who can barter their support for concessions from the main groups within the coalition.
  • Coalition government is less transparent, because a party has no real chance of forming a government alone, the manifestos they present to the public become irrelevant and often wildly unrealistic.
  • Coalitions provide bad government because they are unable to take a long-term view.
  • Coalition governments are very unstable, often collapsing and reforming at frequent intervals – Italy, for example, averages more than one government per year since 1945. This greatly restricts the ability of governments to deal with major reforms and means that politicians seldom stay in any particular ministerial post for long enough to get to grips with its demands.
  • Coalition governments are definitely far less effective, not durable, and non-dependable as compared to the governments formed by any one party with a definite ideology and principles.
  • In coalition governments, MLAs and MPs from all the parties are given portfolios/ministries and appointed as Ministers. These ministers are appointed on the recommendations of the parent party, without taking the qualification, character and criminal /clean record of the MLAs and MPs.

Conclusion:

Since India is a diverse country with different ethnic, linguistic, and religious communities, it also has diverse ideologies. Due to this, the benefit that a coalition has is that it leads to more consensus based politics and reflects the popular opinion of the electorate. It is the competency of the government and not whether it is a coalition or an individual party that plays an important role in impacting the welfare of the people. Whether the right decisions come from a coalition or an individual ruling party, they will always be appreciated and rewarded by the public.


TopicIndia and its neighborhood- relations.

3) Indian Ocean is an “ocean of economic opportunities” for India. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The Indian Ocean is a valuable source of fishing and mineral resources. The Indian Ocean basin is of particular importance for India, as the region’s most populous country and geopolitical keystone. Thus it is important for us to examine its significance for India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the importance Indian ocean holds for our country – economically and geopolitically.

Directive word:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief background, narrating the significance of Indian ocean.

Body:

Discussion should include the following aspects –

  • Quote some facts related to the Indian ocean, asserting its proximity to India vis-à-vis its high importance for the country. The Indian Ocean covers at least one fifth of the world’s total ocean area.
  • It is bounded by Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (known as the western Indian Ocean), India’s coastal waters (the central Indian Ocean), and the Bay of Bengal near Myanmar and Indonesia (the eastern Indian Ocean).
  • The Indian Ocean matters today, arguably more than ever. It is a major conduit for international trade, especially energy.
  • Its littoral is vast, densely populated, and comprised of some of the world’s fastest growing regions.
  • The Ocean is also a valuable source of fishing and mineral resources. The Indian Ocean basin is of particular importance for India, as the region’s most populous country and geopolitical keystone.
  • Narrate the significance of the region.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward signifying importance of IOR.

Introduction:

The Indian Ocean matters today, arguably more than ever. It is a major conduit for international trade, especially energy. Its littoral is vast, densely populated, and comprised of some of the world’s fastest growing regions. The Ocean is also a valuable source of fishing and mineral resources. The Indian Ocean basin is of particular importance for India, as the region’s most populous country and geopolitical keystone.

Body:

The Economic importance of IOR for India includes:

  • Trade and Commerce:
    • It enjoys a privileged location at the crossroads of global trade, connecting the major engines of the international economy in the Northern Atlantic and Asia-Pacific. This is particularly important in an era in which global shipping has burgeoned.
    • Today, almost 90,000 vessels in the world’s commercial fleet transport 9.84 billion tonnes per year. This represents an almost four-fold increase in the volume of commercial shipping since 1970.
    • The Indian Ocean has vital sea lanes of communication crisscrossing it and which feeds Asia’s largest economies. Around 80 per cent of the world’s seaborne oil trade passes through the choke points of this ocean and therefore it literally connects the east to the west with 40 percent passing through the Strait of Hormuz, 35 percent through the Strait of Malacca and 8 percent through the Bab el-Mandab Strait.
    • The Ocean’s vast drainage basin is important in its own right, home to some two billion people. This creates opportunities, especially given the high rates of economic growth around the Indian Ocean rim, including in India, Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, and Eastern and Southern Africa.
    • 95 per cent of India’s trade by volume and 68 per cent of trade by value come via the Indian Ocean.
    • Presence of 13 major ports and over 200 minor ports provide avenues for exports of Indian goods to world.
  • Blue Economy: The Indian Ocean is rich in natural resources.
    • Oil and Natural Gas:
      • Forty per cent of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin.
      • Energy security and resources are absolutely critical. The Indian Ocean Region is immensely rich in that.
      • 28 million barrels per day—or nearly 80 per cent of India’s crude oil requirement—is imported by sea via the Indian Ocean. Taking into account India’s offshore oil production and petroleum exports, India’s sea dependence for oil is about 93 per cent, according to the Indian Navy.
      • India is also the fourth-largest importer of liquefied natural gas (LNG), with about 45 per cent coming by sea.
      • India has her own oil rigs in the Indian ocean region. Example: Bombay high
    • Minerals:
    • Mineral resources with nodules containing nickel, cobalt, and iron, and massive sulphide deposits of manganese, copper, iron, zinc, silver, and gold present in sizeable quantities on the sea bed.
    • Indian Ocean coastal sediments are also important sources of titanium, zirconium, tin, zinc, and copper.
    • Additionally, various rare earth elements are present, even if their extraction is not always commercially feasible.
    • In 2014, the International Seabed Authority issued licenses for the Indian Ocean ridge, opening up new opportunities for deep seabed mining. This region is estimated to have massive reserves of manganese, as well as cobalt, nickel, and copper, all of which are scarce on Indian soil.
    • Placer Deposits – Vitally important, thorium resources in placer sands of Malabar coast are a promise to Nuclear Energy security. Similarly Placers of Thailand, Indo-China and Australia are source of precious heavy metals critically important for Electronics and semi conductors industry.
    • Fishing and Aquaculture:
    • Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15 per cent of the world’s total.
    • Aquaculture in the region has also grown 12-fold since 1980. Although global fishing is reaching its natural limitations, the Indian Ocean may be able to sustain increases in production.
    • The largely unregulated overexploitation of its fishery resources. The consequences of over fishing, which is actually largely a result of activity by countries outside the region, could eventually have serious consequences for littoral states that depend heavily on maritime resources to feed their populations and also provide valuable export revenues.
    • India captured 4.1 million tonnes of fish in 2008, placing it sixth in the world and its fishing and aquaculture industries employ some 14 million people.
    • Fisheries and aquaculture industries are also a major source of exports. India’s maritime exports grew 55 times in volume between 1962 and 2012 and fisheries exports now account for Rs. 16,600 crore or about $2.5 billion.
    • Tourism:
    • Coral atolls in Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands attract many tourists from India as well as abroad. This helps the livelihood of many islanders.

Conclusion:

                Indian Ocean is an “ocean of economic opportunities” for India. The security threats posed by State and non-state actors are impeding the progress. The Government initiatives like SAGAR, IORA, Sagarmala etc. should ensure that the fruits of Blue Economy is well reaped.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) Discuss in detail the crisis being faced by NBFCs in India? Suggest what measures need to be taken to resolve the same? (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

The article highlights the ripple effect of the NBFCs crisis on the Indian economy. Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) are facing a crisis , it brings out the urgency with which RBI needs to urgently address the liquidity issues plaguing the NBFC sector.

Demand of the question:

The answer must explain what are NBFCs, their role and activities in the economy, what are the issues currently they are facing and what needs to be done to resolve it.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

The answer to the question is direct, one must explain in detail the issues being faced by NBFCs and what measures are needed to tackle the same.

The article captures both the dimensions, the students must take hints and structure the answer in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way ahead.

Introduction:

A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/ stocks/ bonds/ debentures/ securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business. However, it does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.

Body:

NBFC crisis:

  • NBFC is passing through a turbulent period following a series of defaults by Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services (IL&FS) and the subsequent liquidity crunch.
  • Several corporates, mutual funds and insurance companies had invested in short-term instruments such as commercial papers (CPs) and non-convertible debentures (NCDs) of the IL&FS group that has been defaulting on payments since August.
  • This has stoked fears that many of them could have funds stuck in IL&FS debt instruments which, in turn could lead to a liquidity crunch in their own backyard.
  • There are rising fears that the funding cost for NBFCs will zoom and result in a sharp decline in their margins.
  • Higher borrowing costs and narrowing options to raise funds will pose challenges for retail non banking finance companies (NBFCs) in the fiscal year ending March 2019.
  • The bond yields have gone up sharply to around the 8% mark. That is making borrowing costlier even at the short end of the yield curve.
  • NBFCs are likely to witness higher pricing pressure as competition in the retail segment intensifies going forward this is expected to be accentuated by narrowing funding avenues and higher systemic rates.
  • Higher fuel prices, weaker dollar and the trade war could hit the SME sector badly. This would mean defaults by SMES, which have been a traditional market for NBFC lending.
  • Investors are worried about a credit downgrade backlash on NBFCs. That could mean huge write-offs for investors.
  • Mutual funds who have invested in market instruments of NBFCs have faced increased redemption pressures.
  • A kind of contagion then spread to other financial stocks, and the benchmark indices crashed, creating wider impacts.
  • Following the credit crunch after IL&FS crisis, RBI provided special incentives to banks to enable the flow of funds to NBFCs.

Way forward:

  • Given the growing size and dominance of the NBFC sector, it is important that the threshold capital levels for entry be substantially increased. It may be prudent for RBI to evaluate the need to shore up minimum capital requirements for various NBFCs.
  • While RBI has identified systemically important NBFCs, it needs to step up the monitoring of NBFCs which belong to large, diversified groups. Checks and balances are needed to ensure that risks do not build up in the sector due to structures which are too-complex-to-manage.
  • RBI could consider re-visiting some of the unimplemented recommendations of the Working Group on Issues and Concerns in the NBFC Sector chaired by Usha Thorat in 2011.
  • One such recommendation was the introduction of a liquidity coverage ratio for NBFCs. The objective was to ensure that NBFCs have cash balances and holdings of government securities which may fully cover gaps between cumulative outflows and cumulative inflows for the first 30 days. This would be the buffer in times of stress.

TopicScience and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5) Evaluate the contributions of Nano technology to the health Industry.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question:

The article highlights a research at Indian Institute of Technology-Mandi about a multifunctional gold nanostructure that has been developed and can be used in cancer imaging and therapy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the benefit that Nano technology has brought with it for the health industry.

Directive word:

EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines on role of technology in Health Industry.

Body:

Answers to the question is straightforward, one has to suggest the benefits brought in by the Nano technology, use suitable examples to justify and conclude with significant breakthrough that the technology has got for the healthcare industry.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Nanotechnology is the science of materials at the molecular or subatomic level. It involves manipulation of particles smaller than 100 nanometres (one nanometre is one-billionth of a metre) and the technology involves developing materials or devices within that size — invisible to the human eye and often many hundred times thinner than the width of human hair. The physics and chemistry of materials are radically different when reduced to the nanoscale; they have different strengths, conductivity and reactivity, and exploiting this could revolutionise medicine.

Body:

The contributions of Nanotechnology to the health Industry:

  • Diagnostics and screening:
    • There is an urgent need in the developing world for better disease diagnosis, and nanotechnology offers a multitude of options for detecting disease.
    • Example: Fluorescent quantum dots could improve malaria diagnosis by targeting the blood cell’s inner membrane.
    • Similarly, carbon nanotubes, and other nanoparticles such as nanowires, have been used as biosensors to detect diseases such as HIV and cancer. Cancer biosensors can be made, for instance, by attaching nucleic acid probes to the ends of nanowires.
  • Drug delivery:
    • Nanotechnology could also revolutionise drug delivery by overcoming challenges such as how to sustain the release of drugs in the body and improving bioavailability — the amount of active ingredient per dose.
    • Some drugs can now be delivered through ‘nanovehicles’.
    • For example liposomes, which can deliver the drug payload by fusing with cell membranes, have been used to encapsulate HIV drugs such as stavudine and zidovudine in vehicles ranging from 120 to 200 nanometres in size.
    • Nanocapsules are pods that encapsulate drugs, which ensures the drugs are released more slowly and steadily in the body
  • Health monitoring:
    • Nanotubes and nanoparticles can be used as glucose, carbon dioxide and cholesterol sensors and for in-situ monitoring of homeostasis, the process by which the body maintains metabolic equilibrium.
    • In developing nations, the use of nanotechnology is also being explored in the fight against infectious diseases such as HIV and TB.
    • Nanoparticles could also be the basis for delivering an aerosol TB vaccine.
    • Needle-free, and therefore not requiring trained personnel to administer it, the vaccine is stable at room temperatures — important in rural areas that lack a reliable cold chain.
  • Vaccines:
    • Nanotechnology could herald a new era in immunisation by providing alternatives to injectable vaccines for diseases that affect the poor.
    • Injectable vaccines need to be administered by healthcare professionals, who may be scarce in developing countries, particularly in rural areas.
    • Vaccines also need reliable refrigeration along the delivery chain. Scientists are working on an aerosol TB vaccine.
    • They are also investigating a nanotechnology-based skin patch against West Nile Virus and Chikungunya virus.
  • Tissue growth and regenerative medicine:
    • Researches in tissue regenerative medicine aims in developing implants or scaffolds capable for delivering drugs, growth factors, hormones for tissue repair.
    • They provide sustained delivery of bioactive molecules to support survival, infiltration and proliferation of cells for tissue engineering.
    • The expected outcome of such treatment modality is to have complete tissue replacement and functional recovery.

Conclusion:

Nanotechnology offers the ability to build large numbers of products that are incredibly powerful. Nanomedicines and nanodevices are in their early stages of development. The development processes are heavily intertwined with biotechnology and information technology, making its scope very wide. Nanotechnology based products are capable of overcoming the limitations of traditional methods. But, the major challenges are yet to prevail over its toxicity, environmental hazards, production cost and accessibility to the un-reachable at far-off areas.


Topic :  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6) What do you understand by cloud computing? List down the Advantages and limitations of Cloud Computing.(250 words)

Reference

why this question:

The question is based on the concept of cloud computing and its application on daily life.

Key demand of the question:

Answer is straightforward and is about discussing the concept of cloud computing, one must discuss in detail What Is Cloud Computing? What are the benefits and applications of it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines highlight the context of the question.

Body:

  • In brief discuss what is cloud computing? – Cloud computing is the delivery of different services through the Internet. These resources include tools and applications like data storage, servers, databases, networking, and software.
  • Cloud computing is named as such because the information being accessed is found remotely in the cloud or a virtual space. Companies that provide cloud services enable users to store files and applications on remote servers and then access all the data via the Internet. This means the user is not required to be in a specific place to gain access to it, allowing the user to work remotely.
  • Discuss types of cloud computing.
  • Give out – what are the key takeaways of cloud computing, merits and disadvantages if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale.

Body:

In general, there are three cloud computing characteristics that are common among all cloud-computing vendors:

  • The back-end of the application (especially hardware) is completely managed by a cloud vendor.
  • A user only pays for services used (memory, processing time and bandwidth, etc.).
  • Services are scalable

It is common to categorize cloud computing services as infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) or software as a service (SaaS)

Advantages:

  • Seamless Connectivity: Cloud-based software offers companies from all sectors a number of benefits, including the ability to use software from any device either via a native app or a browser. As a result, users can carry their files and settings over to other devices in a completely seamless manner.
  • Higher Accessibility: Cloud computing is far more than just accessing files on multiple devices. Thanks to cloud computing services, users can check their email on any computer and even store files using services such as Dropbox and Google Drive.
  • Improved Disaster Recovery: Cloud computing services also make it possible for users to back up their music, files, and photos, ensuring those files are immediately available in the event of a hard drive crash.
  • Cost-Saving: It also offers big businesses huge cost-saving potential. Before the cloud became a viable alternative, companies were required to purchase, construct, and maintain costly information management technology and infrastructure.
  • Companies can swap costly server centers and IT departments for fast Internet connections, where employees interact with the cloud online to complete their tasks.
  • The cloud structure allows individuals to save storage space on their desktops or laptops.
  • Increased Collaboration and flexibility: It also lets users upgrade software more quickly because software companies can offer their products via the web rather than through more traditional, tangible methods involving discs or flash drives.
  • For example, Adobe customers can access applications in its Creative Suite through an Internet-based subscription. This allows users to download new versions and fixes to their programs easily.
  • Environmentally friendly: Cloud computing reduces a company’s carbon footprint by minimizing energy consumption and carbon emissions by more than 30%. For small businesses, the decreased energy usage can reach up to 90% = A huge money saver.

Limitations:

  • With all of the speed, efficiencies, and innovations that come with cloud computing, there are naturally risks.
  • Security has always been a big concern with the cloud especially when it comes to sensitive medical records and financial information.
  • While regulations force cloud computing services to shore up their security and compliance measures, it remains an ongoing issue. Encryption protects vital information, but if that encryption key is lost, the data disappears.
  • Servers maintained by cloud computing companies may fall victim to natural disasters, internal bugs, and power outages, too.
  • The geographical reach of cloud computing cuts both ways: A blackout in California could paralyze users in New York, and a firm in Texas could lose its data if something causes its Maine-based provider to crash.
  • As with any technology, there is a learning curve for both employees and managers. But with many individuals accessing and manipulating information through single portal, inadvertent mistakes can transfer across an entire system.
  • Maintenance costs: While the upfront or capital cost for the cloud-based server is very low compared to traditional hosting, the cloud server requires the same amount to be paid each month to maintain both servers as well as data.
  • Internet connectivity: For cloud-based services, consistent internet connection is important because if any one of the cloud-based service providers loses connectivity, then the company will be out of business until that internet connection returns.
  • A common argument from critics is that cloud computing cannot succeed because it means that organizations must lose control of their data, such as an email provider that stores data in multiple locations around the world. A large regulated company, like a bank, might be required to store data in the United States.

Conclusion:

Cloud computing proponents point to it being a new paradigm in software development, where smaller organizations have access to processing power, storage and business processes that were once only available to large enterprises. It has immense potential in the field of E-governance, Telecom, Banking, Manufacturing and other sectors.


Topic   conscience as sources of ethical guidance

7) What do you understand by conscience? Do you think Conscience is driven by objective morality? Give your opinion with suitable justifications.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of conscience and its significance, one must analyse whether it is driven by objective morality or not.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must debate about relationship of morality and conscience and how conscience is not driven by objective morality , as morality is subjective when it comes to evaluating conscience.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain what you understand by conscience.

Body:

  • Conscience is the part of your mind that tells you whether what you are doing is morally right or wrong. In short, conscience is a term which we use to denote the inner mind.
  • Bring out the different approaches of philosphers on the concept of conscience. Explain that Conscience is a faculty of the mind that motivates us to act morally—or at least according to our most deeply held values.
  • Thus conscience is a not a objective morality, since it is obvious that two people’s consciences or religions can dictate opposing moralities—such as pro-choice and pro-life in abortion debate
  • Conscience is necessary trait of character for public functionaries for ensuring ethical action in the spheres where there are no legal obligation upon them to act in a particular way.  

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Introduction:

Conscience is the inner voice of a person which guides the right and wrong. Conscience aims to make moral decisions in ‘overwhelming forces of inescapable situations’ despite the risk of adverse consequences. If conscience goes, then everything collapses, conscience is central to our identity and it is as component in the moral decisions making process. The concept of Enlightenment, Nirvana etc. are associated with highest stage of development of human Conscience. Gandhiji’s civil disobedience movement was true to his conscience although it broke the law.

Body:

Views of thinkers:

  • In the Kantian view, conscience is conceived of as an inner court. It is moral self-awareness that allows to apply the moral law suggested by practical reason to our moral conduct, and to judge whether we have complied with the moral law.
  • While for some other thinkers, the concept of conscience does not bear any connection with any particular substantial moral view. The voice of conscience might suggest different principles and different behaviours to different people. In other words, there is no psychological or conceptual relation between conscience and any particular moral belief.

Is conscience driven by objective morality:

  • The independence of the idea of conscience from any substantial moral content can be understood in three senses.
  • First, conscience is a pluralistic notion. To say that a person acted with conscience or that something violates someone’s conscience does not entail anything about what this act consists of or what this person’s moral or ethical values are. Although it might tell us that conscience is itself a value this person holds dear.
  • To use a metaphor, conscience is like an empty box that can be filled with any type of moral content.
  • For example, while some health practitioners raise “conscientious” objection to abortion and refuse to provide the service, someone’s conscience might demand the exact opposite, i.e., to perform abortions in order to respect what is conscientiously believed to be a woman’s right.
  • Second, conscience is typically a morally or ethically neutral concept. Appealing to conscience does not usually add anything to the moral justification of any particular conduct or principle.
  • For example, the morality of abortion has nothing to do with abortion being conscientiously opposed by some health practitioners or conscientiously supported by others.
  • Finally, conscience only concerns the subjective dimension of ethics. There are ethical values that can be considered objective, conscience only refers to what individuals believe, independently of any external, objective proof or justification. And when people state what they subjectively and conscientiously believe, they acknowledge that other people might, and probably will, subjectively and conscientiously hold different moral views.

Conclusion:

These three aspects related to the independence of conscience from particular substantial ethical views explain why appeals to conscience to justify one’s decisions are usually made with the expectation that no further reason for the decision in question be required.