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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 MAY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 MAY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Discuss the contributions of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar to the social reform movements with a special emphasis on the contributions made by him through literature.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The question is in the light of recent incident in Bengal where in his statue was vandalized in Kolkata during a clash between Trinamool Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party cadres.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must briefly discuss the contributions of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar in the social reform movements through his literary contributions.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain how he was a proponent of “do your work yourself”, Vidyasagar is considered a legend ahead of his times—someone who could challenge the staunch Hindu patriarchy to bring in modern reforms.

Body

The body of the answer has to capture the following aspects:

  • Brief about Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – Born in 1820 in Midnapur as Iswar Chandra Bandopadhyay, he received the title Vidyasagar for his outstanding academic performance when he graduated from Sanskrit College.
  • Literary contributions – Vidyasagar’s Barna Parichay (an introduction to the Bengali alphabet) is still the first book a Bengali child is handed more than 160 years after it was written, His contribution to the alphabet, translation of several Sanskrit books, including Kalidas’s Shakuntala, has helped Bengali literature, Vidyasagar wrote two volumes on the mistreatment of widows, which set the tone for major social reform in the state etc.
  • Discuss then his contributions as a social reformer – took on conservative power centers of the Hindu society to force through reforms that would allow widow remarriage, women’s education and the rights of lower caste Hindus to study Sanskrit, challenged the widespread practice of child marriage, He challenged the staunch Hindu patriarchy to bring in modern reforms etc.

Conclusion

Conclude that he was an important He was an educationist, a reformer and a pundit of grammar in the history of India.

Introduction:

Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar became a legendary figure for his simple living, fearlessness, spirit of self-sacrifice, his devotion to education, to the cause of the downtrodden. The grammarist, polymath, scholar, educationist, reformer and doyen of the Bengal Renaissance has been a ready reference for millions of Bengalis to not only encourage their children to study but also to strive for excellence in the face of adversity..

Body:

His contributions to the social reform movements:

Widow Remarriage:

  • The focus of his social reform was women — and he spent his life’s energies trying to ensure an end to the practice of child marriage and initiate widow remarriage.
  • He followed in the great reformist tradition of Raja Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833), and argued, on the basis of scriptures and old commentaries, in favour of the remarriage of widows in the same way as Roy did for the abolition of Sati.
  • Vidyasagar wrote two volumes on the mistreatment of widows, which set the tone for major social reform in the state.
  • His earliest effort at social reform, however, came in the second half of 1850 when, in a paper on the evils of child marriage.
  • He launched a powerful attack on the practice of marrying off girls aged 10 or even younger, pointing to social, ethical, and hygiene issues, and rejecting the validity of the Dharma Shastras that advocated it.
  • He showed that there was no prohibition on widows remarrying in the entire body of ‘Smriti’ literature (the Sutras and the Shastras).

Campaign against polygamy:

  • Alongside the campaign for widow remarriage, he campaigned against polygamy.
  • In 1857, a petition for the prohibition of polygamy among Kulin Brahmins was presented to the government with 25,000 signatures, led by the Maharaja of Burdwan.
  • The mutiny of the sepoys resulted in the postponement of action on this petition, but in 1866, Vidyasagar inspired another petition, this time with 21,000 signatures.
  • In the 1870s, the great rationalist, wrote two brilliant critiques of polygamy, arguing to the government that since polygamy was not sanctioned by the sacred texts, there could be no objection to suppressing it by legislation.

Women’s education:

  • He was a keen advocate of education for women. He rightly viewed education as the primary way for women to emancipate themselves from all the social oppression they had to face at the time.
  • He went door to door, asking family heads to allow their daughters to be enrolled in schools. Across Bengal, he opened 35 women’s schools and succeeded in enrolling 1300 students.
  • To support women education, he organized a fund called Nari Shiksha Bhandar.
  • He supported Drinkwater Bethune to establish the first permanent girls’ school in India, the Bethune School.
  • Vidyasagar spent the last 18 years of his life living among Santhal tribals in present day Jharkhand, where he started what is possibly India’s first school for Santhal girls.
  • He expressed his ideas through regular articles he wrote for periodicals and newspapers. He was associated with prestigious journalistic publications like ‘Tattwabodhini Patrika’, ‘Somprakash’, ‘Sarbashubhankari Patrika’ and ‘Hindu Patriot’.

Other literary works:

  • Vidyasagar’s Barna Parichay (an introduction to the Bengali alphabet) is still the first book a Bengali child is handed more than 160 years after it was written.
  • His contribution to the alphabet, translation of several Sanskrit books, including Kalidas’s Shankuntala, has helped Bengali literature.
  • He wrote two books which interpreted complex notions of Sanskrit Grammar in Bengali language viz. Upakaramonika and Byakaran Koumudi.
  • He established the Sanskrit Press with an aim to produce printed books at affordable prices so that common people could buy them.

Conclusion:

He was a man of bold spirit, but was very simple and sincere. Therefore, even the great European officers deeply admired and respected him. He was very plain in dress and habit. The kindness of Vidyasagar’s mother, Bhagabati Devi was boundless. Vidyasagar followed the principle of his mother all through his life. Therefore, people called him DayaSagar Vidyasagar, the Ocean of kindness and learning.


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) Discuss the objectives, composition and significance of National Commission for Safai Karamcharis far do you think the commission has been successful in addressing the issues of the vulnerable section? Comment. (250 words)

pib

Why this question:

The Union Cabinet had recently approved the proposal for Extension of tenure of the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) for another three years.

Demand of the question:

The question is about discussing the objectives and significance of National Commission for Safai Karamcharis. Also analyse its achievements.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction highlighting the significance of Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS).

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • Explain – The NCSK was established in the year 1993 as per the provisions of the NCSK Act 1993 initially for the period up to 1997.

Later the validity of the Act was initially extended up to 2002 and thereafter up to 2004. The NCSK Act ceased to have effect from 2004. After that the tenure of the NCSK has been extended as a non-statutory body from time to time.

  • Discuss the significant role played by the NCSK –
  • Recommend to the Government regarding specific programmes for welfare of Safai Karamcharis, study and evaluate the existing welfare programmes for SafaiKaramcharis, investigate cases of specific grievances etc.
  • Also as per the provisions of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, the NCSK has been assigned the work to monitor the implementation of the Act, tender advice for its effective implementation to the Centre and State Governments and enquire into complaints regarding contravention/non-implementation of the provisions of the Act.
  • Discuss their achievements.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of such institutions in the upliftment of the vulnerable sections of the society.

Introduction:

The National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) is a statutory body that looks into matters concerning the Safai Karamcharis’ welfare and makes recommendations to the government. It was established in the year 1993 as per the provisions of the NCSK Act 1993 initially for the period upto 1997. Later the validity of the Act was initially extended upto 2002 and thereafter upto 2004. The NCSK Act ceased to have effect from 2004. The Union Cabinet has approved the proposal for Extension of tenure of the National Commission for Safai Karmacharis(NCSK) beyond 31.3.2019 for three years.

Body:

Objectives:

  • Recommend to the Central Government specific programmes of action towards elimination of inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities for Safai Karamcharis.
  • Study and evaluate the implementation of the programmes and schemes relating to the social and economic rehabilitation of Safai Karamcharis; and scavengers, in particular.
  • Investigate specific grievances and take suo-motu notice of matters relating to non-implementation of: –
    • programmes or schemes in respect of any group of Safai Karamcharis
    • decisions, guidelines or instructions, aimed at mitigating the hardships of Safai Karamcharis
    • measures for the social and economic upliftment of Safai Karamcharis
    • the provisions of any law in its application to Safai Karamcharis; and take up such matters with the concerned authorities or with the Central or State Governments
  • To study and monitor the working conditions, including those relating to health, safety and wages of Safai Karamcharis working under various kinds of employers including Government, Municipalities and Panchayats, and to make recommendations in this regard.
  • Make reports to the Central or State Governments on any matter concerning Safai Karamcharis, taking into account any difficulties or disabilities being encountered by Safai Karamcharis
  • Any other matter which may be referred to it by the Central Government.

Composition:

The National Commission for Safai Karamcharis comprises of

  • One Chairman (in the rank and status of the Union Minister for States)
  • 4 members, including a lady member (in the rank and status of the Secretary to the Government of India) and the Secretary (in the rank of Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India).

Significance:

  • The safai karamcharis face various problems like
    • They are boycotted socially and are referred to in derogatory words.
    • The poisonous gases emanating from waste cause many harmful diseases like Asthma and heart diseases
    • Low wage payment and low financial security
    • Protected gears are not provided which means they use their bear hands which leads to many diseases
  • NCSK recommends to the Government regarding specific programmes for welfare of Safai Karamcharis, study and evaluate the existing welfare programmes for Safai Karamcharis, investigate cases of specific grievances etc.
  • Also as per the provisions of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, the NCSK has been assigned the work to monitor the implementation of the Act.
  • NCSK also tenders advice for its effective implementation to the Centre and State Governments and enquire into complaints regarding contravention/non-implementation of the provisions of the Act.

Conclusion:

The practice of manual scavenging is still prevalent in the country and its eradication continues to be an area of the highest priority for the government as well as the civil society. The NCSK works for their welfare and upliftment. In order for mission of Swatch Bharat to be successful, it is necessary that safai karamchari are provided with good conditions to work


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3) Discuss how Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) is a vision for the empowerment of deprived sections? What are its objectives? Elucidate.(250 words)

Vikaspedia

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and is about analyzing the objectives and significance of Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) in the empowerment of deprived sections of the Indian society.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the objectives and significance of the Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) .

Structure of the answer:

  • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY), a Government of India initiative for the empowerment of deprived sections, aims to achieve integrated development of selected villages through convergent implementation of all relevant Central and State schemes.
  • Discuss what are its objectives in detail.
  • Who are the beneficiaries?
  • What are the key domains of focus under it? etc.
  • Explain the methods of implementation and provide for its achievements so far.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way ahead.

 

Introduction:

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY), a Government of India initiative for the empowerment of deprived sections, aims to achieve integrated development of selected villages through convergent implementation of all relevant Central and State schemes. The scheme was launched in March, 2010 on a pilot basis for the integrated development of 1000 villages each with more than 25% SC population. Presently the scheme is being implemented in five States of the country viz Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

Body:

Objectives:

To ensure integrated development of the selected villages into “model villages” so that, inter alia,

  • They have all requisite physical and social infrastructures for their socio-economic development, and satisfy the norms mentioned in the vision of an Adarsh gram to the maximum possible extent.
  • Disparity between SC and non-SC population in terms of common socio- economic indicators (e.g. literacy rate, completion rate of elementary education, IMR/MMR, ownership of productive assets, etc.) is eliminated, the indicators are raised to at least the level of the national average, and
    • All BPL families, especially those belonging to SCs, have food and livelihood security, and are enabled to cross the poverty line and earn an adequate livelihood
    • All children complete at least eight years of education, and
    • Incidence of malnutrition, especially among children and women, is eliminated.
  • Untouchability, discrimination, segregation, and atrocities against SCs are eliminated, as are other social evils like discrimination against girls/women, alcoholism and substance (drugs) abuse, etc., and all sections of society are able to live with dignity and equality, and in harmony with others

A Model village is one which has adequate physical and institutional infrastructure, in which minimum needs of all sections of the society are fully met; they live in harmony with each other, as also with the environment, and a village which is progressive and dynamic. These villages should be covered with all the facilities necessary for dignified living, creating thereby an environment in which all its residents are enabled to utilise their potential to the fullest. These villages should, inter alia, satisfy the following norms:

Physical Infrastructure:

  • Should be connected to the nearest major road by an all-weather road. Likewise, in case of a multi-hamlet village, all hamlets should be connected with each other by an all-weather road.
  • Access for all to safe drinking water on a sustainable basis.
  • All houses should have electricity

Sanitation and Environment:

  • The village should have a high degree of sanitation- it should be free from dry latrines, and open defecation, and should have sanitary toilets, drains and an efficient waste disposal system. It should, as far as possible, fulfil “Nirmal Gram Puraskar” norms.
  • The Village should take care of its environment through planting trees, water harvesting and maintenance of water bodies, use of renewable sources of energy, such as biogas, solar energy, wind energy, use of smokeless chulhas, etc.

Social Infrastructure, Human Development and Social Harmony:

  • Should have an Anganwadi centre and schools of appropriate levels.
  • The village should have adequate and attractive building for its anganwadi, school, health centre, panchayat, and community hall. The village should have adequate facility for sports and other physical activities.
  • All children in the age-group of 3-6 should be enrolled in, and regularly attend the Anganwadi. Likewise, all children in the 6-14 age group should be enrolled in, and regularly attend school.
  • All adults should be at least functionally literate, and should have access to facilities for continuing education.
  • Access for all to primary health care and Reproductive Child Health (RCH) facilities, with proper pre-natal and ante-natal care for mothers.
  • 100% institutional deliveries, full immunization of children, and observance of the small family norm.

Conclusion:

The scheme aims at overall development of villages. It is one of the best ways to carry on with the implementation of the existing schemes.


TopicIssues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) While Life expectancy at birth refers to the average number of years an individual is expected to live, given mortality rates, India is experiencing a paradox of life expectancy increasing with increasing age. Discuss the causes of such a paradox and give your opinion.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article captures a detailed analysis of the paradox India is facing with respect to life expectancy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate and analyse why there is a paradox in the life expectancy trends, one has to analyse the causative factors for the same.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with what you understand by life expectancy.

Body:

  • Discussion should include the following aspects –
  • Explain the nuances of life expectancy in general – how it is a measure of different aspects in population studies.
  • Discuss the Indian case – why is there a paradox?
  • What are the factors that have lead to inverse picture of the life expectancy in India? – take cues from the article.
  • Conclude with significance of various govt. initiatives in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

According to WHO, Life expectancy at birth reflects the overall mortality level of a population. It summarizes the mortality pattern that prevails across all age groups – children and adolescents, adults and the elderly. It refers to the average number of years that a newborn is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply. According to the 2011 census, Indian life expectancy has merely increased from 60 years in 1992 to 67.9 years in 2012.

Body:

Life expectancy at birth as a concept differs on the basis of various factors:

  • First, it varies across time horizons based on varying conditions such as war, spread of epidemics and environmental conditions.
  • Second, it varies across age cohorts, again given mortality rates.
  • Third, it also differs across space for the same time, depending on variations in geographical, economic, social and gender factors.

Despite consistent improvements in life expectancy at birth, India’s life expectancy at birth is still lower than the global average.

The paradox in India:

  • Life expectancy declines as age increases.
  • For instance, life expectancy at age 1 for females and males is 71.9 and 68.3 respectively.
  • Thereafter, as one attains age 5, life expectancy declines to 68.8 for females and 64.9 for males and, subsequently, at age 20, it further declines to 54.6 and 50.6 respectively.
  • This is consistent with the fact that as one ages, the number of years one is expected to survive thereafter declines.
  • However, if one observes India’s life tables for age cohort 0-1, life expectancy does not adhere to the above logic, which is otherwise applicable throughout the ages of 1 to 70. The age cohort 0-1, therefore, presents a paradox.
  • The life expectancy for females and males at birth is 69.6 and 66.4 respectively, which increases to 71.9 and 68.3 years once they attain the age of 1. Clearly, instead of declining, life expectancy is increasing with age.
  • A newborn in India has a lower probability of surviving in the first year as compared to the probability of survival after the age of one year.

Reasons for the above paradox:

  • High infant mortality rates (IMR): Statistics of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) show a strong correlation between IMR and life expectancy at birth.
  • Neonatal mortality rate (NNMR): The rate of deaths occurring in the first 28 days, is the primary factor impacting IMR. Studies show that risk of such a death is almost 30 times higher than in the post-neonatal period.
  • High infant malnutrition in India: National Family Health Survey 4 (2015-16) data show high incidence of stunting, atrophy and underweight under-five children (38.4%, 21% and 35.8% respectively).
  • Other causal factors broadly include immunizable diseases, poor sanitation and breastfeeding practices.
  • Lack of Maternal Education and State intervention at the right intervals. The former relates to awareness and latter to state-administered health supplements, immunization and sanitation access.

Government’s efforts to reduce the above paradox:

The government has accelerated progress through programmes such as Mission Indradhanush, Swachh Bharat Mission, National Rural Health Mission and Poshan Abhiyan. Despite these measures, however, the progress has been rather slow.

Conclusion:

Undoubtedly, the impact that interventions focused on the first year of birth can have on the survival of individuals is profound. That being recognized, any strategy to raise life expectancy at birth should be aimed at tackling causal factors of IMR and NNMR by designing an appropriate microstructure of interventions.


Topic :  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

5) List down the objectives of India Cooling Action Plan. Explain how it is a bold response to addressing India’s future cooling needs while neutralizing its impacts. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The author in the article discusses in detail how new plan for cooling technologies is in sync with environmental challenges in India. India is one of the first countries in the world to develop a comprehensive Cooling Action plan which has a long-term vision to address the cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand. Thus, it is important for us to evaluate its significance.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in detail the objectives of India Cooling Action Plan and explain how it is a bold step taken by India in this direction.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines highlight the significance of the ICAP.

Body:

  • In brief discuss that – India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP), which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand. The overarching goal is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.
  • Broad objectives of the India Cooling Action Plan include:
  • Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use.
  • Map the technologies available to cater the cooling requirement including passive interventions, refrigerant-based technologies and alternative technologies such as not-in-kind technologies.
  • Suggest interventions in each sector to provide for sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all.
  • Focus on skilling of RAC service technicians.
  • Develop an R&D innovation ecosystem for indigenous development of alternative technologies.
  • Explain the benefits India can reap from it

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

India is the first country in world to develop India Cooling Action Plan which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand. The overarching goal is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.

Body:

The India Cooling Action seeks to

  • reduce cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25% by 2037-38,
  • reduce refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by 2037-38,
  • Reduce cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by 2037-38,
  • recognize “cooling and related areas” as a thrust area of research under national S&T Programme,
  • Training and certification of 100,000 servicing sector technicians by 2022-23, synergizing with Skill India Mission. These actions will have significant climate benefits.

The broad objectives of the India Cooling Action Plan include:

  • Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use.
  • Map the technologies available to cater the cooling requirement including passive interventions, refrigerant-based technologies and alternative technologies such as not-in-kind technologies.
  • Suggest interventions in each sector to provide for sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all.
  • Focus on skilling of RAC service technicians.
  • Develop an R&D innovation ecosystem for indigenous development of alternative technologies.

Environmental and Socio-Economic benefits:

  • Thermal comfort for all – provision for cooling for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) housing
  • Sustainable cooling – low GHG emissions related to cooling
  • Doubling Farmers Income – better cold chain infrastructure – better value of produce to farmers, less wastage of produce
  • Skilled workforce for better livelihoods and environmental protection
  • Make in India – domestic manufacturing of air-conditioning and related cooling equipment.
  • Robust R&D on alternative cooling technologies – to provide a push to innovation in the cooling sector.

Conclusion:

ICAP addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce cooling demand. Its thrust is to look for synergies in actions for securing both environmental and socio-economic benefits. At its core, ICAP is about improving the quality of life and productivity of the people of India, and achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) — thus accelerating the country’s growth trajectory.    


         

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6) What is Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery? Discuss its objectives. Also explain the role played by India.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Recently India has been unanimously chosen as co-chair of the Consultative Group (CG) of Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) for the fiscal year 2020.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail is Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery and its objectives along with the significant role played by India in this direction.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about is Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • What is it? It is a grant-funding mechanism, managed by the World Bank, that supports disaster risk management projects worldwide.
  • Objectives: GFDRR is a global partnership that helps developing countries better understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change.
  • Present status: It is presently working on the ground with over 400 local, national, regional, and international partners and provides knowledge, funding, and technical assistance.
  • Explain the role India has to play with respect to it.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a global partnership that helps developing countries better understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change.  It is a grant-funding mechanism, managed by the World Bank, that supports disaster risk management projects worldwide. India has been unanimously chosen as co-chair of the Consultative Group (CG) of Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) for the fiscal year 2020.

Body:

GFDRR contributes to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction by helping countries to integrate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation into development strategies and investment programs and recover from disasters quickly and effectively. India became a member of CG of GFDRR in 2015.

Role of GFDRR: It provides technical assistance, capacity building, and analytical work to help vulnerable nations improve resilience and reduce risk.

Objectives:

  • To mainstream disaster reduction and climate change adaptation (CCA) in country development strategies, and
  • To foster and strengthen global and regional cooperation among various stakeholders under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) system.
  • To help developing countries better understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change.

Role played by India:

  • The Consultative Group (CG) is GFDRR’s primary decision-making and advisory body.
  • This is the first time that India has been provided with the opportunity of co-chairing the CG meeting of GFDRR.
  • The opportunity will give India a chance to work with the member countries and organizations of GFDRR with a focused contribution towards advancing the disaster risk reduction agenda during the course of the year.
  • India’s objective is to pursue a focused agenda and develop synergies with ongoing work streams of GFDRR. Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (DRI) will be a central theme of engagement with the GFDRR partners and stakeholders.

Conclusion:

India is prone to many natural disasters which has huge socio-economic impacts. The opportunity to don such a role gives India to build her capacity to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change better. India can set an example by understanding disaster risk, strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk, investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience and building back better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.


Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

7) What do you understand by online extremism?  Discuss the relevance of ‘Christchurch call to action’ recently seen in news to combat the same.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

India recently joined the global initiative to combat extremism online

The initiative ‘Christchurch call to action’ has been named after the New Zealand city where 51 people were killed in an attack on mosques.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first address the concept of online extremism and then discuss broadly the genesis, objectives and significance of ‘Christchurch call to action’.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines discuss the relevance of the question. State recent terror attacks that took form of online extremism.

Body:

  • Define online extremism – Online Extremism can be defined as advocating support of groups or causes that in any distribution of opinion would lie on one of the “tails”.
  • The primary goal is to create online social network of unaffiliated sympathizers, propagandists, fighters and recruiters to create a thriving online extremist community (OEC).
  • Then move on to discuss the genesis and objectives of the ‘Christchurch call to action’ – the initiative outlines collective, voluntary commitments from governments and online service providers intended to address the issue of terrorist and violent extremist content online and to prevent the abuse of the internet.
  • The Christchurch attack highlighted the urgent need for action and enhanced cooperation among the wide range of actors with influence over this issue, including governments, civil society, and online service providers, such as social media companies, to eliminate terrorist and violent extremist content online.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

Online Extremism can be defined as advocating support of groups or causes that in any distribution of opinion would lie on one of the “tails”. The primary goal is to create online social network of unaffiliated sympathizers, propagandists, fighters and recruiters to create a thriving online extremist community (OEC). India has joined a major global initiative to combat terrorism and extremism online and secure the internet. The initiative,‘Christchurch call to action’, has been named after the New Zealand city where 51 people were killed in an attack on mosques.

Body:

Genesis of ‘Christchurch call to action’:

  • The Christchurch attack highlighted the urgent need for action and enhanced cooperation among the wide range of actors with influence over this issue, including governments, civil society, and online service providers, such as social media companies, to eliminate terrorist and violent extremist content online.
  • The gathering in Paris has been organized by France and New Zealand. Amazon, Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Twitter also signed on to the document, pledging to work more closely with one another and governments to make sure that their sites do not become conduits for terrorism.

Highlights of Declaration:

  • The initiative outlines collective, voluntary commitments from governments and online service providers intended to address the issue of terrorist and violent extremist content online and to prevent the abuse of the internet.
  • All action on this issue must be consistent with principles of a free, open and secure internet, without compromising human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression.
  • It also recognises the internet’s ability to act as a force for good, including by promoting innovation, economic development and fostering inclusive societies.
  • It encourages media outlets to apply ethical standards when depicting terrorist events online.
  • Avoid amplifying terrorist and violent extremist content, with responsible coverage of terrorism and violent extremism.
  • It was also decided to implement immediate and effective measures to mitigate the specific risk that terrorist and violent extremist content is disseminated through live-streaming, including identification of content for real-time review.

The documents draw in the online service providers to commit to:

 

  • Take transparent, specific measures seeking to prevent the upload of terrorist and violent extremist content and to prevent its dissemination on social media and similar content-sharing services.
  • Provide greater transparency in the setting of community standards or terms of service, including by:
  • Outlining and publishing the consequences of sharing terrorist and violent extremist content;
  • Describing policies and putting in place procedures for detecting and removing terrorist and violent extremist content.

Conclusion:

The reach of internet and social media has had both positives and negatives. The Christchurch call looks into dealing with making internet more user friendly and eliminate the violent extremism from proliferating by global cooperation.