- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
- Conservation related issues.
World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD)
What to study?
For prelims and mains: WMBD- theme and significance, features of CMS.
Context: The World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) 2019 is being observed on 11 May 2019. It helps to raise global awareness about threats faced by migratory birds, their ecological importance, and need for international cooperation to conserve them.
The first WMBD was celebrated in 2006.
- Organized By: The Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) together with Environment for the Americas (EFTA).
- Theme:“Protect Birds: Be the Solution to Plastic Pollution!”.
When is it celebrated?
- On 26 October 2017 in the margins of the CMS COP12 in Manila, Environment for the Americas (EFTA), the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA), announced an innovative partnership to increase awareness of the plight of migratory birds around the world.
- The new partnership formally unites two of the world’s largest bird education campaigns, International Migratory Bird Day (IMBD) and World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) in a bid to strengthen global recognition and appreciation of migratory birds and highlight the urgent need for their conservation.
- Starting in 2018, the new joint campaign adopts the single name of “World Migratory Bird Day” and major events to celebrate the day will be organized twice a year, on the second Saturday in May and in October.
In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), has been in force, under the aegis of United Nations Environment Programme.
Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.
Classification of species: Under this convention, migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I and Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them. Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.
CMS is the only global and UN-based intergovernmental organization established exclusively for conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.
What are migratory species? Why protect them?
Migratory species are those animals that move from one habitat to another during different times of the year, due to various factors such as food, sunlight, temperature, climate, etc.
The movement between habitats, can sometimes exceed thousands of miles/kilometres for some migratory birds and mammals. A migratory route can involve nesting and also requires the availability of habitats before and after each migration.
Sources: The Hindu.