[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 May 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 May 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Government Budgeting.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Discuss the importance of an effective, efficient and expeditious contract enforcement regime to economic growth and development.(250 words)

Hindubusinessline

Why this question:

With India currently ranking at 77 in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index, jumping from 65 place in the 2014-18 periods, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) is working towards pushing India to the top 50 countries in the Ease of Doing Business Index. Enforcement of contracts being one of the key dimensions that require focused attention.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must analyse India’s Position on Enforcing contracts with respect to the importance it carries in the economic growth and development of the country.

Directive word

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain the background of the context of question.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • Explain that the importance of an effective, efficient and expeditious contract enforcement regime to economic growth and development cannot be overstated. A clear and certain legislative and executive regime backed by an efficient judiciary that fairly and punctually protects property rights, preserves sanctity of contracts, and enforces the rights and liabilities of parties is a prerequisite for business and commerce.
  • Explain that India’s Position on Enforcing contracts indicator over the years has shown improvement from 186 in 2014 to 163 in the 2018 report. However, in comparison with its BRICS counterparts and sizeable GDP based market economy, a greater room for improvement is discreetly felt.
  • Discuss the Importance of just and efficient contract enforcement by highlighting the pros and cons facing the current system of business.
  • Explain Why is India still lagging behind on Enforcing contracts?
  • What needs to be done?

Conclusion

Conclude with way forward.


Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector.

2) Discuss the utility of socio-economic caste census in targeting the beneficiaries across welfare schemes of the country. What are the challenges in choosing the beneficiaries? Elaborate.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article provides for deep analysis of use of socio- economic caste census as a tool to target right beneficiaries in various welfare schemes of the country. One has to analyse the benefits and challenges brought by it.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must appreciate the utility of socio-economic caste census in targeting the beneficiaries across welfare schemes of the country, discuss the associated issues in choosing the right beneficiary in welfare schemes.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by Socio – economic caste census.

Body:

Body of the answer should discuss the following aspects:

  • Discuss if SECC is a better tool to estimate poverty than the BPL method?
  • What is the advantage of using SECC in targeting beneficiaries of welfare schemes?
  • What are the Drawbacks of SECC?  – SECC collates data regarding the caste of the people. This caste related information faces the danger of being misused by political parties for their ulterior motives. SECC data must be regularly updated in order to remove beneficiaries who have overcome their deprivations. This will put a huge burden on the part of the government etc.
  • Suggest what should be done?

Conclusion:

A multidimensional approach that incorporates a range of indicators to capture the complexity of poverty is the need of the hour and the SECC seems to be a good tool in the hands of the government in this regard. However, the government should take necessary steps to avoid the misusing of SECC and also to strengthen the SECC.


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Judiciary.

3) “Apex court’s handling of charges against CJI has left a deep scar that will take decades to fade.” Critically analyse. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is in the context of recent issue surrounding the office of Chief justice of India. The article highlights in what way the handling of charges of sexual allegation against the CJI were against the values of transparency anf fairness.

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the process adopted for handling the charges against the CJI and one needs to evaluate the process critically and the impact it has on other aspects of justice with fairness and transparency.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of the entire scenario.

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • Start with a brief evaluation of the process that was adopted to handle the charges.
  • What should have been the ideal procedural safeguards and legal principles to handle such a case.
  • Why was there a deviation and whether it is justified?
  • What are the flaws in the current method of handling the case? – The constitution of the “in-house” panel was not in compliance with the provisions of the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, members other than judges should have constituted the committee instead of an “in-house” panel comprising three judges of the Supreme Court. The panel’s report is not available to the public on reasons of confidentiality.

Conclusion

Conclude that the Apex court is supposed to protect individual rights and adjudicate freely and fairly.


General Studies – 3


Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4) Do you agree that the benefits of biodiversity far exceed the costs of current levels of biodiversity protection? Explain the impacts of biodiversity on economic activities of a country.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the economic costs associated with the biodiversity. It highlights the findings of the global assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) which states that human beings have so rapaciously exploited nature, and that species belonging to a quarter of all studied animal and plant groups on earth are gravely threatened.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects one to analyse the need for Biodiversity assessments that must be factored into all economic activity.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with significance of conservation of biodiversity for sustenance of economy.

Body:

  • Discussion should include the following aspects –
  • Highlight the nature and scale of benefits that we, as a society,

derive from biodiversity.

  • Discuss that it is important that public goods, including those supplied by nature, are reflected in decision making. It is also important to ensure that the benefits of policies which protect biodiversity are at least commensurate with the costs of such policies.
  • Explain why benefits of biodiversity far exceed the costs of current levels of biodiversity protection.
  • Elaborate how a high level of biodiversity also ensures that we are
  • supplied with the ‘ecosystem services’ that are essential to the sustainability of our standard of living and to our survival.
  • Re assert on significance of the biodiversity conservation to economic aspects.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way ahead.


Topic: Government Budgeting.

5) Amidst the expected future global financial and economic crisis, Military spending around the world still continues to boom. Discuss the factors driving such a boom, how would continued spending be justified in such an era?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article brings to us the findings of the report Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) that finds that the Total world military expenditure rose to $1,822 billion in 2018, representing an increase of 2.6% from 2017. Thus it is important from exam point of view to analyse the impact of these findings.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed analysis of the findings and the impact it has on world countries and peace.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines highlight the facts of the report.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects:

  • Comment upon the findings of the report, discuss its relevance.
  • World military spending in 2018 represented 2.1% of global gross domestic product (GDP) or $239 per person. In 2018 the USA and China accounted for half of the world’s military spending.
  • Analyse what is the trend like – discus how the spending boom is driven, above all, by the contest between America and China for primacy in Asia.
  • Discuss the combination of factors that explain the increased military spending:
  • Foreign policy objectives
  • Real or perceived threats
  • Armed conflict and policies to contribute to multilateral peacekeeping operations
  • Availability of economic resources – refers to rapidly developing nations like China and India that have seen their economies boom in recent years. In addition, high and rising world market prices for minerals and fossil fuels (at least until recently) have also enabled some nations to spend more on their militaries.
  • Conclude with significance of the report and what needs to be done?

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward.


Topic: Government Budgeting

6) What are key functions and Principles of Budgeting in India? How far has India evolved in refining its budgetary processes? Elucidate.(250 words)

Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to analyse the evolution of budgetary process in India and functions and key principles of budgeting in India.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in  detail the key functions and Principles of Budgeting in India and its evolution.

Directive word:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines comment on the significance and uniqueness of the Budgetary process in India.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Discuss the historical evolution of budgetary process in India since the British times.
  • Discuss the key functions of a government budget – Public Policy Document, Instrument of Economic Development, public policy document, Instrument of Budgetary Control, Instrument of Accountability etc.
  • What are the important principles like – principle of annularity, rule of lapse, fiscal discipline, inclusiveness, accuracy etc.
  • Reassert the significance in development and growth of the country

Conclusion:

Conclude with reassertion of importance of such processes.  


Topic: Disaster and disaster management. Issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth.

7) Do you think It’s time for the govt to consider Catastrophe bonds, insurance-linked securities with increasing frequency of natural calamities? Discuss in the light of recent disasters that stuck India.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is intended to evaluate the need for disaster management in terms of the policies directed and aimed at insuring the regions prone and often affected by disasters like that of Odisha which was recently effected by cyclone Fani causing devastation of the State in terms of loss of life, economy, biodiversity etc.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of insurance with respect to effective disaster management.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate the need for Insurance aspect in disaster management.

Body:

  • Explain what are Catastrophe bonds? – A typical CAT or cat bonds has a maturity of three years during which the period should be a tightly defined disaster. CAT is like junk bonds in terms of riskiness and hence the high yield expected.
  • Discuss in what way insurance-linked securities with increasing frequency of natural calamities can help and provide better management aspects post disaster to restore life and economy of a region to its normalcy.
  • Suggest solutions and lessons from countries across the world using such principles in Disaster management.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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