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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 02 May 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 02 May 2019

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.


General Studies – 1


TopicSalient features of world’s physical geography.

1) What do you understand by new Meghalayan age and how does it fit with the Anthropocene? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

Recently In Meghalaya, the Geological Survey of India (GSI) North Eastern Region (NER) installed two geological display boards at Mawmluh cave and Therriaghat to create awareness among visiting tourists and general public. Thus it is important for us to ponder upon the significance of Meghalayan age.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must elaborate upon the new Meghalayan age; how it came into existence, its significance, with respect to India and its relation with Anthropocene.

Directive word

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain Scientists still continue to refine the geologic timescale and recently have brought the official naming of a new age: the Meghalayan.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • As of July 2018, the Holocene — the most recent epoch of time spanning from 11,700 years ago to the present — is divided into three ages: the Greenlandian, the Northgrippian, and the Meghalayan.
  • The global-scale climate change defines that the beginning of the Meghalayan coincides with a period of ongoing migration and collapse of many early human civilizations around the globe. Thus bringing us to the idea of Anthropocene – a proposed division of geologic time defined by signs of human activities in the geologic record.
  • Discuss relevance with India, why the name ?
  • Then move on to discuss – arguments both for and against an Anthropocene.
  • Explain how Human beings have clearly altered landscapes through deforestation, agriculture, and industrialization, which among other things have accelerated erosion and sediment accumulation. Plastics are accumulating in our oceans and biosphere, leaving a global-scale marker of these synthetic materials in soils and sediments. People are causing high extinction rates and rapid changes in where species are found around the world. And, of course, burning fossil fuels and human-induced climate change leave signatures in sediment records worldwide.
  • What are the challenges in agreeing to when the Anthropocene should begin?

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of the Meghalayan age.


Topic: History of the world, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Discuss the effects of the Haymarket Riot on the labour movement. How has the world evolved since then towards Uniting Workers for Social and Economic Advancement?(250 words)

Reference

why this question:

The Labour Day is celebrated to commemorate the happenings of May 4, 1886, the Haymarket affair (Haymarket Massacre) in the Chicago. To commemorate this event, the Second International, a pan-national organisation of socialist and communist political parties, marked 1 May as the Labour Day in 1891.

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the effects of Haymarket affair on the labour movement across the world and how has the world evolved since then towards Uniting Workers for Social and Economic Advancement.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of Why 1 May is observed as Labour Day? – to commemorate the happenings of May 4, 1886, the Haymarket affair (Haymarket Massacre) in the Chicago.

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

What was Haymarket affair?

  • During industrialization at the beginning of the 19th Century, the industrialists used to exploit the labour class and made them work up to 15 hours a day.
  • The workers at Haymarket affair, in Chicago rose against this exploitation and demanded paid leaves, proper wages and breaks for the workforce.
  • The day marks the victory of the workers’ movement for eight hours of work. 
  • To commemorate this event, the Second International, a pan-national organization of socialist and communist political parties, marked 1 May as the Labour Day in 1891.
  • Then discuss how have we evolved since them towards Uniting Workers for Social and Economic Advancement.
  • Have a brief discussion on India scenario too.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of workers sacrifices in achieving economic and social rights all over the world.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) “Uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance may lead to global economic shocks”. Critically analyse and suggest steps India should take to sustain such shocks.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

According to a report released by the UN Interagency Coordinating Group on Antimicrobial Resistance, Drug-resistant diseases could cause 10 million deaths each year by 2050. The article highlights  a report from the Interagency Coordination Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (IACG) that puts the financial fall-out in perspective.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects one to analyse the economic shocks or consequences that uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance may lead for the world to face. One must suggest way forward for India to tackle such a situation that may soon arise in coming future.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief narration of current scenario of uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance.

Body:

  • Discussion should include the following aspects –
  • Why is the problem of uncontrolled antimicrobial resistance?
  • The difficulty has been in implementing it, given the twin challenges of antibiotic overuse and underuse.
  • poorly regulated pharmaceutical industry means that antibiotics are freely available to those who can afford them.
  • low immunization rates and drinking water contamination. Etc.
  • What will be the consequences of failure to take measures against the above problems?
  • What needs to be done?
  • phasing out critical human-use antibiotics in the animal husbandry sector, such as quinolones.
  • multi-stakeholder approach, involving private industry, philanthropic groups and citizen activists is needed.
  • Private pharmaceutical industries must take it upon themselves to distribute drugs in a responsible manner.
  • Philanthropic charities must fund the development of new antibiotics, while citizen activists must drive awareness.
  • stakeholders must appreciate that the only way to postpone resistance is through improved hygiene and vaccinations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with immediate focused action needed to curb the menace of antimicrobial resistance.


Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

4) Elucidate on the issue of ‘parallel government’ that is recently being witnessed between the Lieutenant-Governor (L-G) and the elected government of a union territory (Puducherry and Delhi).(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question:

The Madras court recently passed a judgement stating that the Administrator of Puducherry (the term used in the Constitution to refer to the Lieutenant-Governor (L-G)) could not interfere with the day-to-day administration of the Union Territory when an elected government was in place as that amounts to running a “parallel government.”  

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the nuances of Articles 239A vs 239AA of the Indian constitution and Section 44 of the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963 amidst the recent controversies surrounding Puducherry administration.

Directive:

Elucidate – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon the background of the controversies surrounding Puducherry.

Body:

  • Provide for the key highlights of the recent Madras High Court judgement – The Administrator of Puducherry (the term used in the Constitution to refer to the Lieutenant-Governor (L-G)) could not interfere with the day-to-day administration of the Union Territory when an elected government was in place as that amounts to running a “parallel government.”
  • Bring out a comparison between Articles 239A vs 239AA – how it is different in case of Delhi and in that of Puducherry.
  • Section 44 of the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963: It states that there shall be a Council of Ministers in each UT to aid and advice the Administrator who shall act in his/her discretion only in so far as any ‘special responsibilities’ were concerned.  However, since the Act does not specify the ‘special responsibilities’ the Administrator and the Council of Ministers should leave the political differences apart to facilitate the smooth functioning of the government.
  • Discuss what needs to be done to overcome such a tussle.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced opinion based on your analysis.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) Priority Sector Lending  in Agriculture is often seen to be negatively correlated to the climatic conditions of a region. Critically analyse the statement in the backdrop of a recent move of the Banks that decided not to extend loans to regions hit by drought in India.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

Recently Bank of Maharashtra, a state-run lender, has decided not to extend loans in eight zones in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh which are hit by drought. Thus it becomes necessary for us to analyse the correlation of droughts and priority sector lending in agriculture.

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in  detail the negative correlation of climatic conditions of a region with that of lending by Banks to the farmers.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain the context of the question.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Explain Priority Sector Lending (Agriculture)?  – Priority Sector includes the following categories: (i) Agriculture, (ii) Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, (iii) Export Credit, (iv) Education, (v) Housing, (vi) Social Infrastructure, (vii) Renewable Energy and (viii) Others. The activities covered under Agriculture are classified under three sub-categories viz. Farm credit, Agriculture infrastructure and Ancillary activities.
  • Why Banks are defying the lending to drought hit regions? – Bad loans from agricultural advances in the branches of such zones, present pathetic condition of agriculture owing to water distress etc.
  • Explain why is there a negative correlation? What are its impact ?
  • What should be the remedial action?

Conclusion:

          Conclude with what needs to be done to address the situation.  


Topic :  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) “Shift to Horticulture is a Way of Doubling Farmers’ Income in India”. Discuss along with the achievements of Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) in this direction.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is intended to evaluate the potential of Horticulture as a standalone sector in India and how it can help double farmer’s income and its role in proving to be a source of livelihood in Indian agriculture.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of horticulture to India in doubling farmer’s income along with  the achievements of Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH).

Directive word:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines provide for current scenario of horticulture in India, provide for statistics – The Indian agricultural land covers area of 140 million hectares out of which, 17% of area is dedicated to horticultural crops that contributes to 30% of  total agricultural GDP.

Body:

  • The Horticulture is diversified to cover 6 subsectors namely vegetables, fruit crops, spices, ornamentals, plantation crops and mushrooms.
  • Discuss how has the horticulture section performed lately in quantitative and qualitative terms ? Also, frame the statistics comparing it with the overall agriculture sector.
  • How can we increase our produce quality and quantity?
  • Discuss the achievements of Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH).

Conclusion:

Conclude with potential of horticulture in India and need to harvest it.


Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

7) Discuss the Significance, composition and key functions of National Crisis Management Committee(NCMC).(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question:

Recently the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under the chairmanship of Sh. P. K. Sinha, Cabinet Secretary, met again to take stock of the preparatory measures arising out of the Cyclonic Storm ‘Fani’. Thus it is important for us to know the working of NCMC and its importance.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed explanation about the role played NCMC in handling crisis circumstances like that of cyclone Fani to effectively mitigate such situations.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the importance of such committees.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • About NCMC- At the national level, Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) and National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) are the key committees involved in the top-level decision-making with respect to Disaster Management (DM). It deals with major crisis which have serious or national ramifications.
  • Its composition – Cabinet Secretary (Chairperson). Secretaries of Ministries / Departments and agencies with specific Disaster management responsibilities.
  • Its key functions – Oversee the Command, Control and Coordination of the disaster response.  Give direction to the Crisis Management Group (CMG) as deemed necessary.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of such organs in handling crisis situations.


General Studies – 4


Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

8) Show clearly how the understanding of the one’s own self assists in ethical conduct in a profession. Choose any profession for yourself, and illustrate your answer using this choice. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

 

Why this question:

The question is intended to evaluate the essence  of self-evaluation in assisting ethical conduct in a profession.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the importance of self-evaluation  in supporting ethical conduct in a profession. One must provide for examples to illustrate the same.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate the need for ethical conduct in one’s profession

Body:

  • Such questions are best explained with examples, use a case study /example from your experiences and suggest how self-evaluation is critical to one’s ethical conduct in one’s professional life. Ethics is defined by morals, values, character and integrity. A moral is a personal standard of right and wrong. Values are important beliefs that guide and an individual behavior. Self-evaluation helps to understand what it means to demonstrate positive ethical behavior in the workplace. Employee conduct is an integral aspect of workplace values and ethics. Respectful behaviour honors the dignity and contribution of each employee. It promotes positive behaviors in communication and interpersonal relations, as well as with external partners, clients and stakeholders, Respect earns trust.
  • Use examples to justify the above points.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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