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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 April 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 April 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries
and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal
associations and their role in the Polity.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1) Do you think the CJI enjoys unquestioned authority over allocation of judicial work and over selection of Benches, even in cases where a conflict of interest is to be presumed? Give your opinion with sufficient justifications. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article evaluates in detail the need for applicability of due process of law equally to the judicial system of the country amidst recent controversies gathering air around the office of Chief justice of India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer has to capture the significance of the due process of law and how it applies to judiciary as well. One must bring out the bounds and limits of the CJI and that the authority he enjoys is not unlimited.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with recent controversies surrounding the CJI and judiciary.

Body:

  • What are the recent incidences of conflict of interest that the CJI faced.
  • Explain the controversies of selection of Benches, allocation of work, special hearing and associated discretion etc.
  • Discuss the significance of due process of law.
  • What reforms are required to preserve the integrity of the office of CJI

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting need for overhaul in the system.


Topic :  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

2) India’s health system faces multipronged challenges, with most alarming one being acute shortage of doctors, discuss what are the  constraints and challenges involved and what measures should be taken to combat this issue?(250 words)

NewIndianexpress

Why this question:

Recently Niti Aayog, agreed to a proposal  of Dental Council of India to allow dentists to practice as general physicians after a bridge course. The advancement has come following a meeting in the Prime Minister’s Office earlier this month in which it was urged that unconventional methods are to be adopted to address the shortage of doctors in the country, particularly in rural areas.  

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the situation of shortage of doctors in the country’s health system and the recent approaches taken by the government to resolve it.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the fact that India has a shortage of doctors and that the doctor patient ratio is one of the lowest in the world.

Body:

  • As India’s health system faces multipronged challenges, deficiency of doctors has emerged as one of the biggest roadblocks in the making of a new healthcare ecosystem. Currently, there is a shortfall of nearly two million doctors and four million nurses. Moreover, doctors’ numbers are also skewed towards a few States.
  • Quote statistics – India has less than one doctor for every 1,000 citizens, which is less than the World Health Organisation (WHO) standard that prescribes a doctor population ratio of 1:1,000. If Ayush practitioners are included, India has 1.3 doctors for 1000 population. A Medical Council of India (MCI) report suggests that in July 2017, there were a total 10,22,859 allopathic doctors registered with the MCI or with state medical councils. As per the Aarogya Bharat Report, the shortfall of doctors is likely to continue till 2039. India is passing through a critical phase, and to deal with the situation, it needs urgent structural reforms.
  • Explain the causes of the situation of shortage.
  • Suggest what needs to be done and that such steps of bridge course are a welcome step.

Conclusion:

Prioritizing areas with critical shortage of healthcare professionals especially doctors will be important. Moreover, regulations that enable private participation in medical education need to be created. Exploring public-private partnership (PPP) models to enable a rapid increase in medical education seats needs to be given priority. Focusing on primary care can help reduce hospitalization rates. And telemedicine and remote monitoring tools can be used to widen the reach of existing doctors and increase their productivity.


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3) Rising media has facilitated the drawing together of people in tight networks of like-mindedness in the context of recent Lok Sabha elections, evaluate the pros and cons of this new form of emergence of pressure groups.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question:

As nearly 900 million Indians engaged in voting over recent weeks to select the country’s next government, social media companies have come under pressure to try to control fake news and misinformation. The question highlights how the social media has come to facilitate forming pressure groups.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate social media as facilitator of pressure groups and a stage for coming together of like-minded people. One should weigh the pros and cons associated.

Directive word:

EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by highlighting the trends of rising social media.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Discuss the evolution of social media such as WhatsApp, Facebook ,twitter etc. as a platform for airing views.
  • Discuss how social media and messaging platforms may have accelerated the ways in which people share rumors and mobilize mob violence.
  • Need to tackle the scourge of fake news, rumors, and hate speech online.
  • Quote examples – India has a long history of communal and caste-based violence. Successive central and state governments have failed to prosecute those most responsible, including public officials accused of complicity or dereliction of duty in high-profile cases. For instance, vigilante “cow-protection” groups have killed at least 44 people since May 2015 on suspicions that the victims were trading or killing cows for beef in violation of Hindu religious beliefs.
  • Discuss the need for WhatsApp and other social media and messaging companies to become more transparent, devote more resources to respond to legitimate threats, and work with fact-checkers, nongovernmental groups, activists and journalists on the ground.
  • Discuss and suggest way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with necessity of having checks and curbs on such facilitating platforms.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Evaluate the success of government’s urban development programme of Smart cities mission. Do you think there is much change in the approach of carrying out of the programme? Recommend what more needs to be done to transform India’s urban scenario.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question is direct and straightforward evaluation of the government’s flagship programme of smart cities mission.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the salient features of the smart cities mission, discuss its success and achievements along with lacunae, how is the approach different from past projects and what should be the way forward.

Directive:

EvaluateWhen you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Introduce briefly the features of the mission.

Body:

  • Explain What is the aim of smart cities? – They always put people first. In the approach to the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions.
  • What are the features of Smart City? What’s the progress of Smart Cities Mission? – strategic components of area-based development (ABD) in the Smart Cities Mission (SCM) were city improvement (retrofitting), city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (Greenfield development), along with a pan-city initiative in which smart solutions are applied covering larger parts of the city.
  • What are the reforms required to accelerate the development of India’s smart cities so as to shape the future of urban development and services.
  • Discuss how the approach has changed from the previous projects.
  • Suggest way forward.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of such missions and changed approach with growing demands of the country.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Infrastructure: Energy.

5) Amidst global dynamics surrounding Oil rich countries, India is witnessing a continuous non- secular rise in the price of the commodity. Critically analyse and suggest what should be India’s way forward? (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The question is amidst the growing uncertainty of Oil imports for India amidst rising geopolitics that has encircled the oil rich countries and how it has changed the price scenario of India and created feeling of uncertainty.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must discuss the recent oil turmoil, the sanctions imposed by US on Iran – oil rich country, the affect it has on India etc. and it has impacted the secular pricing policy of Indian energy system.

Directive word

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce by highlighting the situation.

Body

The body of the answer should address the following dimensions:

  • Current energy crisis – highlight the disbalance in demand -supply equation of global oil system.
  • India’s case – present dependence on oil imports, conditions of other types of energy sources and potential in future.
  • How and why India needs to diversify its oil supplier base and increase domestic sources of energy.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of diversification of energy sources amidst such shortage of oil.


Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) Critically analyse the impact of carbon forestry projects such as REDD+ or the Green India Mission that are based on the neo-liberal principles of privatisation commoditisation, and marketisation on the rights and livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. (250 words)

epw

 

Why this question:

The article gives a detailed account of carbon forestry projects and provides for a critical analysis of the impact it has on local livelihoods of forest dependent communities.

Demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail the impact of carbon forestry projects on local forest communities.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by explaining what you understand by carbon forestry projects.

Body

  • Discuss how Carbon forestry projects such as REDD+, A/R CDM and the Green India Mission are based on the neo-liberal principles of privatization, commoditization, and marketisation.
  • Explain how these market-oriented tools abstract forests from their sociocultural and ecological contexts and reduce their value for carbon forestry.
  • Analyse how such projects promote plantations of fast-growing species and undermine local knowledge and institutions.
  • Take cues from the article and discuss the impact it has on forest communities.
  • Conclude with what needs be done?

Conclusion

Highlight the Indian scenario of carbon forestry efforts and suggest solutions to the concerns posed by it.


General Studies – 4


Topic : Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions.

7) There is no virtue without risk-taking.”  Do you agree that by simply doing your job and contributing to the economy in the form of output, you’ll be doing your bit to the country’s development? Explain in the context of the statement .(250 words)

        Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Livemint

Why this question:

The question talks about virtues of doing good and the justness it carries to contribute for the society.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must elucidate how virtues come with risks and that individuals can contribute to the society by just doing there bit of service.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

State the importance of virtues.

Body:

Elaborate upon the necessity of virtues in society, what are its importance in public life, why one should contribute to the economy and work for the society.

The main crux of the answer should focus on individual contribution for the society at the cost of some risk. Use examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of virtues of contribution .



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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