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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 APRIL 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 APRIL 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) The tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh is a shameful scar on British Indian history. Comment. (250 words)

Timesofindia

Why this question:

The question is in context of 100th anniversary of the tragic incident  of Jallianwala Bagh. Recently British Prime minister Theresa May described the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar as a “shameful scar” on British Indian history.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh of 1919 and its significance in the history of modern India and in what way it’s a blot on the British Indian history.

Directive:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the incident of the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh of 1919.

Body:

The discussion should have the following points :

  • The massacre – It took place in Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar over Baisakhi in April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Dyer fired machine guns at a crowd of people holding a pro-independence demonstration. It claimed thousands of lives and injured thousands others.
  • Explain the Britain’s position since the mid-1990s of expressing ‘deep regret’ for the April 13, 1919, massacre in Jallianwala Bagh and not issuing a formal apology.
  • India – UK relationship as of today and impact of this historical past.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the massacre and the turning point it brought in British history.

Introduction:

                The tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh, also known as the Amritsar Massacre (dated April 13, 1919) took place at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab. The massacre occurred when people had congregated to celebrate Baisakhi festival (the new year in Punjab).The troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer opened fire at a crowd of people holding a pro-independence demonstration, leaving several dead and scores injured.

Body:

Response of the Indians:

  • This tragedy came as a rude shock to Indians and totally destroyed their faith in the British system of justice.
  • National leaders condemned the act and Dyer unequivocally.
  • Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in his letter of protest renounced the knighthood conferred on him, condemning the brutal act of Britishers.
  • In protest against the massacre and the British failure to give due justice to the victims, Gandhiji relinquished his title ‘Kaiser-e-hind’ bestowed on him by the British for his services during the Boer War in South Africa.
  • In December 1919, the congress session was held at Amritsar. It was attended by a large number of people, including peasants.

British and Government of India Response:

  • Gen Dyer was appreciated by many in Britain and the British in India although some people in the British government were quick to criticise it.
  • The massacre had been a calculated act and Dyer declared with pride that he had done it to produce ‘moral effect’ on the people and that he had made up his mind that he would shoot down all men if they were going to continue the meeting.
  • The government set up the Hunter Commission to inquire into the massacre. Although the commission condemned the act by Dyer, it did not impose any disciplinary action against him.
  • He was relieved of his duties in the army in 1920.
  • A British newspaper called it as one of the bloody massacres of modern history.

Britain’s position since the mid-1990s:

  • UK MPs had suggested that an apology was owed to the victims and their families as part of efforts to strengthen relations with India.
  • “India will never forget,” Conservative MP Bob Blackman, who introduced the debate told to the MPs.
  • Over 80 MPs from across political parties signed a letter, initiated by Labour MP Pat McFadden, calling for an “official apology.”
  • Others argued that there was a need for the U.K. to raise awareness of the atrocity and the darker aspects of Britain’s colonial legacy in schools, which would help children understand where they came from and where the country was today.
  • British Prime Minister Theresa May expressed “regret” in Parliament for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, ahead of the 100th anniversary of the killings on April 13.
  • Opening the Prime Minister’s Questions with a reference to the massacre, Ms. May quoted Queen Elizabeth’s remarks, calling the incident a “distressing example” of Britain’s past history with India.

Current state of Bilateral relations between India and UK

  • Relations between the U.K. and India today are friendly and constructive. Yet, that does not mean that an apology would not do good.
  • We cannot turn back or erase the past, but we can take steps to recognise what happened and to respond in a way that befits a modern relationship between two countries which today enjoy normal and positive diplomatic relations.
  • The need for the world community to come together to promote everlasting peace in all the corners of the globe and ensure that sustainable development of the planet becomes the watchword at all times and at all levels from schools to summits of global leaders.

Conclusion:

Jallianwala Bagh was a reminder to each one of us as to how hard won & precious our freedom is. It was an occasion to shed a silent tear for each of the innocent Indians who lost their lives that Baisakhi day in 1919 and a poignant moment of reflection on colonial cruelty & irrational anger. It is hoped that Jallianwala Bagh massacre day would inspire us to strive to create a world without oppression & persecution, a world of friendship, peace & progress, a world where all nations stand united to defeat inhuman forces of terror & violence.


Topic:Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) Critically analyse why the Gandhian concept of “village republics” could not find place in original constitution with regards to Panchayati Raj Institutions. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The question is in the context of Gandhi’s concept of democratic decentralization and why it could not find place in the original constitution.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed discussion on the concept of village Swaraj and why Gandhian concept of Village Development was not taken into account in the original constitution.

Directive :

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Highlight the background of the constitutional debates with respect to Panchayati Raj.

Body

Discuss the following features in the answer:

  • Concept of Village republic by Mahatma Gandhi – village will be a complete republic, independent of its neighbours for its own vital wants. The government of the village will be conducted by the Panchayat of five persons, annually elected by adult villagers.
  • Importance of Democratic Decentralization.
  • Contrast the ideas of B R Ambedkar and his ideas of Village  system – the structure of village settlements reflected basic tenets of Hinduism that never recognized Dalits as equal. Dr. Ambedkar was of the view that the villages contributed to and sustained the divisive nature of the Hindu society, where the untouchables always remained “outside the fold. He was against the very idea of  village republic mainly because he had seen the atrocities, isolation, discrimination and separation of Dalits during his early childhood.
  • Also present the ideas of Nehru.
  • Discuss the present constitutional features – DPSP , 73rd constitutional amendment act etc.

Conclusion

conclude your answer with significance o Gandhian idea and that for India, its villages are as important as cities.

Introduction:

Gandhi’s concept of democratic decentralization bears the stamp of his passionate belief in non-violence, truth and individual freedom. He called it Panchayati Raj or village Swaraj. He wanted to see each village a little republic, self-sufficient in its vital wants, organically and non-hierarchically linked with the larger spatial bodies and enjoying the maximum freedom of deciding the affairs of the locality.

Body:

Importance of Democratic Decentralization:

  • Gandhi wanted political power to be distributed among the villages in India.
  • Gandhi preferred the term ‘Swaraj’ to describe what he called true democracy. This democracy is based upon freedom.
  • Individual freedom in Gandhi’s view, could be maintained only in autonomous, self-reliant communities that offer opportunities to the people for fullest participation.
  • Gandhi made it very dear that concentration of either economic or political power would violate all the essential principles of participatory democracy.
  • To check centralization, Gandhi suggested the institution of village republics both as institutions of parallel polities and as units of economic autonomy.
  • Village is the lowest unit of a decentralized system. Politically a village has to be small enough to permit everyone to participate directly in the decision-making process. It is the basic institution of participatory democracy.
  • Gandhian decentralization means the creation of parallel politics in which people’s power is institutionalized to counter the centralizing and alienating forces of the modem state.
  • According to Mahatma Gandhi, utilization of the local resources is quite fundamental to the development of the Panchayat Raj system. The Panchayats with the Gram Sabhas should be so organized as to identify the resources locally available for development in the agricultural and industrial sectors.

However, for Dr. Ambedkar, the structure of village settlements reflected basic tenets of Hinduism that never recognized dalits as equal. He was of the view that the villages contributed to and sustained the divisive nature of the Hindu society, where the untouchables always remained “outside the fold. He was against the very idea of village republic mainly because he had seen the atrocities, isolation, discrimination and separation of dalits during his early childhood.

Similarly, Nehru was also in favour of making India a modern, industrialized and democratic socialist country. The difference between these leaders was such that at that time, village panchayats could find place only under an article of DPSP.

Conclusion:

73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 gave constitutional status to Rural local self government. It has helped bring concerns of disadvantaged classes to the fore encouraging grassroots democracy and upliftment of such sections where they are stigmatized the most. It can be said that 73rd amendment was a great leap forward in making local bodies autonomous and in ensuring their contribution necessary in any project of public importance.


Topic : Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3) Discuss the matters with respect to which a Bill needs prior consent of the President before it is introduced in Parliament.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is straight forward from the basics of the polity.

Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the process involved in passage of Bill with emphasis on matters that require prior consent of the President.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

one can start by defining significance of passage of Bill in the parliament.

Body

The question is straightforward and conceptual , thus there is not much to discuss, Every bill passed by two houses becomes a law only after assent of president and hence president is an integral part of parliament.

Following matters must be covered in your discussion :

  • Bills that seek to change or alter name, boundaries, area of a state or form a new state by separation of territory from any state under Article 3 of Indian constitution. This is essential to preserve principle of federalism.
  • Money bill under Article 110 and financial bill under Article 117(I). This is to keep a check on arbitrary state power in matters of taxation.
  • State bills which impose restriction upon freedom of trade under Article 304. This provision ensures unrestricted trade between states except on reasonable and non-discriminatory grounds.
  • Bill which imposes or varies any tax or duty in which states are interested under Article 274, to ensure financial autonomy of state and fiscal federalism.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of Presidential assent.

Introduction:

A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which becomes a law after receiving the approval of both the houses of the Parliament and the assent of the President. There are four types of bills-ordinary bill, money bill, finance bill and constitutional amendment bills. After a Bill has been introduced, it is published in the Official Gazette. Even before introduction, a Bill might, with the permission of the Speaker, be published in the Gazette.

Body:

The bills introduced in the parliament can also be further classified as:

  • Ordinary Bills: These bills concerned with any matters other than the financial matters.
  • Money Bills: These bills are concerned with the financial matters such as taxation, public expenditure etc.
  • Finance Bills: These bills are concerned with those financial matters which are not included in money bill.
  • Constitution Amendment Bills: These are concerned with the amendment of provisions of the constitution.

There are some bills which require prior recommendation of the President. This means these bills need to be introduced in the parliament only on the recommendation of the President.

  • Bill for formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. This is essential to preserve principle of federalism (Article 3)
  • Any matter relating to a law for acquisition by the state of any ‘estate’ or other intermediate interest in land means matters relating to Article 31(A).
  • Money Bill (Article 110): A money bill can be introduced in Lok Sabha only on the recommendation of the President. It contains only provisions that deal with all or any of the matters listed therein. These comprise a set of seven features, broadly including items such as the imposition or regulation of a tax; the regulation of the borrowing of money by the Government of India; the withdrawal of money from the Consolidated Fund of India; and so forth.
  • No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President. (Article 113)
  • Financial bills are of three kinds-Money bills-Article 110, financial bills (I) – Article 117 (1), Financial bills (II)-Article 117 (3). All money bills are financial bills, but all financial bills are not money bills. Financial bill (I) can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha and can be introduced only on the recommendation of the president. Financial bill (II) can be introduced in either House of parliament and recommendation of the President is not necessary for its introduction. Both the houses have power to reject or amend the bill.
  • Bill which imposes or varies any tax or duty in which states are interested, to ensure financial autonomy of state and fiscal federalism. (Article 274)
  • State bills which impose restriction upon freedom of trade. This provision ensures unrestricted trade between states except on reasonable and non-discriminatory grounds. (Article 304)

Conclusion:

The prior recommendation of the President for certain bill acts to safeguard the interests of federalism and financial matters of India. The assent of the President makes the bill an Act.


Topic :  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

4) The antimicrobial resistance is turning into a global concern. Discuss the possible causes for the Candida Auris rampage and suggest what should be done to overcome the issue.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The drug-resistant fungus “Candida Auris” has sickened hundreds of people across the United States (US) and around the world, and its rise embodies a serious and growing public health threat of antimicrobial resistance

Key demand of the question:

The answer must cover a detailed discussion on  the antimicrobial resistance, onset of Candida Auris, causes and effects. And what needs to be done to overcome the challenge concerning the world.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Highlight the situation , explain the background in brief.

Body:

Discussion should have the following aspects  :

  • About Candida Auris (C. Auris) :
  • is a drug-resistant superbug fungus which causes serious infections; it is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat.
  • The fungus has also been called “a creature from the black lagoon.”
  • It is multidrug-resistant, which means it is resistant to multiple antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections.
  • The fungus, a type of yeast called Candida auris, can lead to an infection of the bloodstream, heart, or brain and these infections are difficult to treat.
  • Why is it such a big worry? – causes and consequences (take leads from the article)
  • Origin of the global threat.
  • How it can be prevented – preventing the spread, intensive clinical care, controlled intake of antibiotics, reduced usage of fungicides in agriculture etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with road ahead – Battling the superbugs requires aggressive responses and, ultimately, scientific advancements.

Introduction:

The killer germ, a fungus called Candida auris, has showed up in countries as far apart as Australia and Canada, Venezuela and Japan, over the past few years. It has set alarm bells ringing because it is often resistant to multiple anti-fungal drugs. Healthcare facilities in several countries have reported that it has been causing severe illness in hospitalized patients.

Body:

Candida Auris:

  • Infections Caused: auris can cause bloodstream infections, wound infections, ear infections and even death, particularly in hospital and nursing home patients with serious medical problems.
  • History: Although C. auris was first identified in 2009 in Japan, it has spread quickly and caused infections in more than a dozen countries.
  • Drug resistance: Antifungal medicines commonly used to treat Candida infections often don’t work for Candida auris. Some C. auris infections have been resistant to all three types of antifungal medicines.
  • Symptoms: The most common symptoms of invasive Candida infection are fever and chills that don’t improve after antibiotic treatment for a suspected bacterial infection.

Possible causes for Auris rampage:

  • Drug-resistant strains of microorganisms commonly develop from flawed prescription regimes, a matter of concern for decades.
  • Offlate, there has been an explosion of resistant fungi as well, adding a new and frightening dimension to a phenomenon that is undermining a pillar of modern medicine.
  • Simply put, fungi, just like bacteria, are evolving defences to survive medicines.
  • Antibiotics and antifungals are both essential to combat infections in people, but antibiotics are also used widely to prevent disease in farm animals, and antifungals are also applied to prevent agricultural plants from rotting.
  • Scientists cite evidence that rampant use of fungicides on crops is contributing to the surge in drug-resistant fungi infecting humans.

Measures to tackle the problem:

  • Placing the patients with C. auris in single rooms and using Standard and Contact Precautions.
  • Increasing emphasis on hand hygiene.
  • Cleaning and disinfecting patient care environment and reusable equipment with recommended products.
  • Inter-facility communication about patient’s C. auris status – when a patient is being transferred to another healthcare facility.
  • Conducting surveillance for new cases to detect ongoing transmission.
  • Everyone who has come in contact with a patient should be screened for the fungus is a vital part of infection prevention and control.
  • Guidelines for treatment say that only when there are symptoms of an infection should the patient be given anti-fungals such as Caspofungin and Micafungin.

Conclusion:

Anti-Microbial Resistance is not a country specific issue but a global concern that is jeopardizing global health security. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems. Reducing the incidence of infection through effective infection prevention and control.  As stated by WHO, making infection prevention and hand hygiene a national policy priority is need of the hour.


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) What do you understand by Currency chest? Discuss its need and significance in the context of Indian economy.(250 words)

Economictimes

why this question:

Recently The Reserve Bank of India came out with guidelines for banks to set up new currency chests. Thus it is important for us to understand the significance of currency chests in Banking system.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must  discuss in detail what are currency chests , its need and significance in the banking system.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the recent move by RBI.

Body:

Answers must discuss in detail the following points :

  • What are Currency chests? – Currency chests are branches of selected banks authorized by the RBI to stock rupee notes and coins.
  • Role of currency chests.
  • Significance of recent guidelines –
  • Area of the strong room/ vault of at least 1,500 sq ft. For those situated in hilly/ inaccessible places, the strong room/ vault area of at least 600 sq. ft.
  • The new chests should have a processing capacity of 6.6 lakh pieces of banknotes per day. Those situated in the hilly/ inaccessible places, a capacity of 2.1 lakh pieces of banknotes per day.
  • The currency chests should have Chest Balance Limit (CBL) of Rs 1,000 crore, subject to ground realities and reasonable restrictions, at the discretion of the Reserve Bank.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of currency chests.

Introduction:

Currency chests are branches of selected banks authorised by the RBI to stock rupee notes and coins. The responsibility for managing the currency in circulation is vested in the RBI. The central bank advises the Centre on the number of notes to be printed, the currency denominations, security features and so on.

Body:

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued guidelines for banks to set up new currency chests.

  • Area of the strong room/ vault of at least 1,500 sq ft. For those situated in hilly/ inaccessible places, the strong room/ vault area of at least 600 sq ft.
  • The new chests should have a processing capacity of 6.6 lakh pieces of banknotes per day. Those situated in the hilly/ inaccessible places, a capacity of 1 lakh pieces of banknotes per day.
  • The currency chests should have Chest Balance Limit (CBL) of Rs 1,000 crore, subject to ground realities and reasonable restrictions, at the discretion of the Reserve Bank.

Need:

  • The RBI offices in various cities receive the notes from note presses and coins from the mints.
  • These are sent to the currency chests and small coin depots from where they are distributed to bank branches.
  • As per the RBI’s annual report of 2017-18, the currency management infrastructure consists of a network of 19 issue offices of the Reserve Bank, 3,975 currency chest and 3,654 small coin depots of commercial, co-operative and regional rural banks spread across the country.

Significance:

  • Currency chests act as networks of currency distribution.
  • The main function of currency chests is to facilitate note supply.
  • As there are around 4102 currency chests, they help the RBI to undertake smooth supply of currency notes across the country.
  • The cash reserve ratios of the commercial banks are also kept at currency chests.
  • For example, in the demonetization process, the currency chests absorbed old notes and supplied new currency notes.

Challenges:

  • In crunch situations, like demonetization, there are likely to be complaints from non-PSU banks about currency not being distributed equitably.
  • The urban co-operative banks have recently been alleging that they are being allocated paltry sums from currency chests to cater to their clients.
  • The regional distribution of these chests appears questionable as those living in rural areas too are complaining about non-availability of cash.
  • With a number of small and payment banks on the anvil, ensuring that there is adequate number of currency chests in all parts of the country is an imperative.

Conclusion:

Currency chests are imperative in maintaining the cash flow in the economy. Thus, it is vital to make sure that they are secure and function without any hindrances.


Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6) Discuss the recent developments with respect to CRISPR technology also bring out the ethical concerns associated to it.  (250 words)

Reference

why this question:

For the first time, four lizards have been genetically modified using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing tool.

Key demand of the question:

The question is about analyzing the significance of CRISPR technology and discussing the ethical angle associated with it.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines state the background of the context of question.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • What is CRISPR technology ?
  • Scenario – Recently Scientists developed a new version of a gene drive that allows the spread of specific, favorable genetic variants, also known as ‘alleles,’ throughout a population. The new ‘allelic drive’ is equipped with a guide RNA that directs CRISPR to cut undesired variants of a gene and replace it with a preferred version. Using a word processing analogy, CRISPR-based gene drives allow scientists to edit sentences of genetic information, while the new allelic drive offers letter-by-letter editing.
  • Significance of CRISPR technology, how it works.
  • Ethical issues involved – clinical applications of the technology in human beings, lack of protocols, risk of mutations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such tools in path-breaking technology, to alter genes in order to tackle a number of conventional and unconventional problems, especially in the health sector.

Introduction:

Scientists developed a new version of a gene drive that allows the spread of specific, favourable genetic variants, also known as ‘alleles,’ throughout a population. The new ‘allelic drive’ is equipped with a guide RNA that directs CRISPR to cut undesired variants of a gene and replace it with a preferred version. Using a word processing analogy, CRISPR-based gene drives allow scientists to edit sentences of genetic information, while the new allelic drive offers letter-by-letter editing.

Body:

CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are sections of DNA, while CAS-9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) is an enzyme. Often described as “a pair of molecular scissors,” CRISPR is widely considered the most precise, most cost-effective and quickest way to edit genes.

CRISPR technology is basically a gene-editing technology that can be used for the purpose of altering genetic expression or changing the genome of an organism. The technology can be used for targeting specific stretches of an entire genetic code or editing the DNA at particular locations. CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops.

 Working of CRISPR-CAS9 Technology:

  • CRISPR-Cas9 technology behaves like a cut-and-paste mechanism on DNA strands that contain genetic information.
  • The specific location of the genetic codes that need to be changed, or “edited”, is identified on the DNA strand, and then, using the Cas9 protein, which acts like a pair of scissors, that location is cut off from the strand.
  • A DNA strand, when broken, has a natural tendency to repair itself.
  • Scientists intervene during this auto-repair process, supplying the desired sequence of genetic codes that binds itself with the broken DNA strand.

But editing the genes using CRISPR-CAS9 raises grave safety, social, and ethical concerns.

  • Study by Stanford University, U.S. , found that the CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces unexpected off-target (outside of the intended editing sites) effects in mice. The fear that the CRISPR system is being prematurely rushed for clinical use lingers. Three recent reports have exacerbated this fear even further.
  • Studies highlighted that CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells might trigger cancer.
  • P53 protein:
    • CRISPR-Cas9 system induced activation of a protein called P53. This P53 protein acts like a gatekeeper or guardian in the cells to keep them healthy and prevents them (the cells) from turning cancerous. In many cancers, cells lose their ability to repair deleterious genetic changes due to an impaired P53 function.
    • In cells where editing is adequate, the cell’s P53 protein may be dysfunctional. Therefore, a functional pP53 protein is good for the cells to be healthy but makes the Cas9-mediated editing process less effective.
  • The impending danger of mosaicism, in which some cells inherit the target mutation, while others don’t.
  • Scientists are far from understanding how exactly individual genes influence phenotypes, or the visible traits of people.
  • Every gene likely influences multiple traits, depending on the environment it interacts This makes it hard to predict the ultimate outcome of an embryo-editing exercise without decades of follow-up.
  • Every gene influences trade-offs, which scientists barely understand today. Example: while protecting against HIV, a deactivated CCR5 gene can also make people more susceptible to West-Nile Fever.
  • Editing human embryos to repair disease-causing genes is far more controversial.
  • Issue of Designer babies: The eyes of the mother, the hair of the father, the complexion from the maternal side and a cute little dimple from the paternal is what makes the kid loved by one and all. Designing the babies to look like celebrities might get the kids to thank you later in life but might loosen the bond that is supposed to be the significant part of the relationship.
  • There are prospects of irreversible harms to the health of future children and generations, to concerns about opening the door to new forms of social inequality, discrimination, and conflict.
  • Such living experiments are done in secret, outside of any formal institution, and apparently without any independent scrutiny or review by the scientific fraternity.
  • Bioethicists fear abuse of gene editing, not just by misguided governments hoping to create a ‘superior’ race.

Way Forward:

  • India’s current regulatory architecture for approving novel treatments is ambiguous and assigns overlapping functions to different governmental bodies. This framework needs to be restructured to optimize trial approval time while addressing safety requirements.
  • A two-step model wherein the government works with industry and research groups to accelerate clinical research is recommended. This model consists of a national apex committee working in collaboration with existing institutional ethics committees and independent accreditation agencies.
  • It is envisaged that, India will emerge as a significant contributor to the world bioinformatics market and position itself as a global hub for bioinformatics.
  • Indian bioinformatics sector has numerous strengths and competitive advantages to make bioinformatics sector a sunrise industry of India.
  • With the improvements in the IPR regime, increasing support from the government and continuing efforts of the private sector companies, it is very much likely that India could repeat its IT success story in bioinformatics too.
  • Much research on animal models and isolated human cells should be conducted before any full-scale routine application in humans.

 

Conclusion:

CRISPR technology is indeed a path-breaking technology, to alter genes in order to tackle a number of conventional and unconventional problems, especially in the health sector. However, experiments and tests to validate its use must be subjected to appropriate scrutiny by the regulators, and their use must be controlled to prevent commercial misuse.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) Discuss the significance of power of persuasion in Public services. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the significance of power of persuasion in Public services.

Key demand of the question:

The answer is straightforward and must discuss the significance of power of persuasion in Public services.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines write about  what you understand by power of persuasion.

Body:

Discuss the following :

  • What is power of persuasion – ability to persuade people, In both our professional and personal lives, being able to influence others to buy into our ideas is invaluable.
  • Discuss the 6 principles of persuasion –
  • Reciprocity: Give a Little Something to Get a Little Something in Return.
  • Commitment: People Want Their Beliefs to Be Consistent With Their Values
  • Social Proof: There’s Nothing Like Feeling Validated Based on What Others Are Doing.
  • Authority
  • Liking
  • Scarcity.

 

  • Give examples of the above principles and their relevance in public services and thus appreciate the role played by power of persuasion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such traits in public servants to persuade people into the right direction for the right causes.

Introduction:

Persuasion is symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people through transmission of a message to change their attitudes or behaviours.  Thus, Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude.

Body:

Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs or behaviour of a person. People respond to persuasive messages in two ways: thoughtfully and mindlessly. When people are in thoughtful mode, the persuasiveness of the message is determined by merits of the message. When people respond to messages mindlessly, their brains are locked on automatic. Persuasion is mainly dependent upon the attractiveness of the speakers and reaction of the listeners. Persuasion is exclusively related with communication, learning, awareness and thought.

The 6 principles of persuasion are:

  • Reciprocity: Simply put, people are obliged to give back to others the form of a behavior, gift, or service that they have received first.
  • Scarcity: Simply put, people want more of those things they can have less of. E.g.: When British Airways announced in 2003 that they would no longer be operating the twice daily London—New York Concorde flight because it had become uneconomical to run, sales the very next day took off.
  • Authority: This is the idea that people follow the lead of credible, knowledgeable experts. E.g.: Persuading colleagues for a better working culture such as no to corruption , respecting women etc; Bring in expert like Cancer Specialist to share views – given that experts have higher persuasive ability.
  • Consistency: People like to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done. Consistency is activated by looking for, and asking for, small initial commitments that can be made. In one famous set of studies, researchers found rather unsurprisingly that very few people would be willing to erect an unsightly wooden board on their front lawn to support a Drive Safely campaign in their neighbourhood.
  • Liking: People prefer to say yes to those that they like. Persuasion science tells us that there are three important factors. We like people who are similar to us, we like people who pay us compliments, and we like people who cooperate with us towards mutual goals.
  • Consensus: Especially when they are uncertain, people will look to the actions and behaviours of others to determine their own. You may have noticed that hotels often place a small card in bathrooms that attempt to persuade guests to reuse their towels and linens. Most do this by drawing a guest’s attention to the benefits that reuse can have on environmental protection.

Conclusion:

Persuasion is an effective technique to influence a person’s principles, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviours. Systematic persuasion is the process through which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to logic and reason. Public servants will be benefited by Persuasion to drive across the message to the people easily leading to better governance and effective service delivery.