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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 April 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 April 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and
institutions.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Separation of powers between various organs, Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

1) While the contribution of the Judiciary towards asserting the inviolability of constitutional rights is undeniable, Do you think the rightful limits of judicial intervention in the executive and legislative domains need to be questioned ? Discuss. (250 words)

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why this question:

The article debates on the necessities of preserving the constitutionally intended jurisdictional symmetry between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the Indian state even as we celebrate the expansion of fundamental freedoms and the resilience of our democracy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate the reach of judicial review power exercised by the Supreme Court and the high courts, often extended through public interest litigation (PIL) or social action litigation and in what way the contributions of the apex court in asserting the inviolability of constitutional rights, particularly the right to dignity as the core constitutional value notwithstanding, pertinent questions about the rightful limits of judicial intervention in the executive and legislative domains need to be addressed.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with definition of Judicial Review.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • The system of Judicial review present in the country.
  • Role of the tools of Public interest litigation.
  • Discuss how our constitution had a clear disapproval of concentration of authority, in favor of dispersal and accountable power through institutional balances.
  • Discuss the concept of judicial supremacy , pros and cons. Critically analyse it against Judicial activism.
  • Discuss the need to strike a balance between the two for effective functioning of all the three wings – Executive, Judiciary and the legislative.
  • Discuss and suggest way forward.

Conclusion:

Conclude with optimism, that there is a need to reconcile constitutional authority with popular sovereignty.


Topic:  Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2) Whether exercised as an individual protest mark or a tactical tool to defeat a candidate, Do you agree that emergence of NOTA as a powerful democratic tool is beyond doubt? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article discusses the ‘None of the Above’ provision on electoral voting machines and in what way it is turning out to be a decentralized protest.

Demand of the question:

The answer must evaluate in detail the aspects of NOTA system in making electoral process more effective and how it has emerged as a powerful democratic tool.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by explaining the what you understand by NOTA.

Body

  • Discuss what is the provision of NOTA.
  • Its evolution and significance in Indian electoral system.
  • Explain how NOTA triggers more political participation, it involves a very cumbersome process and also compromises privacy of the decision. Given the rising disappointment from politicians, the NOTA option is turning out to be the most effective forum to protest at every individual level. The campaigns by civil society groups to appeal for NOTA may emerge as the next big political participation in the world’s largest democracy.
  • Discuss pros and cons of such a system, provide for a comparison with other countries.

Conclusion

Conclude with way forward.


Topic : Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

3) The Right to Information (RTI) has emerged as an effective tool for citizen’s dispute resolution. Should the ambit of RTI be expanded to politicians and Judiciary too? Give your opinion with substantial justification.(250 words)

Indian Polity by Lakshmikant, D D Basu

 

Why this question:

RTI is one of the landmark acts which has led to a significant boost in accountability of the govt towards the people. The question is direct from the static portions of GS paper II, it tends to evaluate the mechanism of RTI as a tool to check the politicians and Judicial system.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must discuss evolution RTI as an effective tool to address citizen’s dispute resolution. And the need for expanding it to cover politicians and the judicial system under its ambit.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce by highlighting the significance of RTI.

Body

The body of the answer should address the following dimensions:

  • Discuss the Benefits of right usage of RTI: how it helps in effective governance.
  • Explain the Proposed Amendment in RTI act, 2018 – The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill empowers the Central government to decide the tenure and salary and allowances of Information Commissioners of the Central Information Commission and also of State Information Commissions through rules.
  • Discuss Where RTI is applicable? And not applicable and why?
  • Why should RTI in Judiciary be applicable? What are the counter arguments.
  • Way forward.

Conclusion

Conclude that though the right to information has unfolding challenges, however in today’s age of prevalence of individual centric rights RTI has a key role to play.


Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) India is facing an unprecedented and worsening water crisis, amidst such alarming scenario, Discuss the challenges in Water Governance faced by the country.(250 words)

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Why this question:

The question is straightforward and revolves around water governance and the challenges associated with it in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the unprecedented and worsening water crisis India is facing and the challenges that the water sector is confronted with. Emphasis should be on the issues revolving around water governance in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the alarming situation of water crisis.

Body:

  • Highlight some data – reports and facts justifying acute shortage of water.
  • Discuss the causative factors of such a crisis – rivers are getting more polluted, their catchments, water-holding and water-harvesting mechanisms are deteriorating, and groundwater levels are depleting at an alarming rate.
  • Explain what you understand by water governance; then discuss the challenges involved in it – lack of credible “water information,” question of groundwater sustainability, water infrastructure, neglect of essentials of water storage, the local water systems, rivers, wetlands, forests, soil moisture, and groundwater aquifers and their sustained effectiveness etc.
  • Discuss what needs to be done to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward, significance of effective water governance system.


General Studies – 3


Topic :Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development.

5) Alongside recurrent unseasonal rains and storms, with rural India heading towards fifth consecutive below-normal monsoon and drought year Rural economy is headed for a crisis. Critically analyse.(250 words)

The hindu

The hindu

 

Why this question:

Over 50 people were killed as rain, coupled with thunderstorm and lightning, hit several parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra overnight yesterday. Amidst it the predictions of another El-Nino year is making Rural India more vulnerable to the crisis.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain in detail the issues and concerns Rural India is facing due to unseasonal rains, thunderstorms and recurrent below Monsoon and drought years.

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with a brief narration on current scenario, state facts and reports suggesting below Monsoon year.

Body:

  • Discuss with facts like – Fifth consecutive drought for 1/3 districts, dipping rural wages, El Nino threatening monsoon have squeezed livelihood options for over 500 million Indians.
  • Explain the loss of demand owing to factors such as abundant monsoon rain and lack in credit availability.
  • Most of the villages are in India’s rainfed areas and host the poorest population. Currently, 300 districts are already under drought, the third and fifth consecutive for regions such as Marathwada in Maharashtra and Rayalseema in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Discuss the Agrarian crisis.
  • Explain the double whammy –  First, farmers lost crops and income from agriculture to consecutive droughts. Second, when they looked for alternative option of livelihoods, there was not much to take up. It means their economic conditions have simply worsened.
  • Conclude with what measures must be taken to fix the possible crisis.

Conclusion:

End with necessity of boosting the economy with external stimulus, need for diversification rural economy from single point of Agriculture.


Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment, Disaster and disaster management.

6) Whilst mangrove forests play a major role with indispensable ecological services, scientific management of the same is the need of the hour. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article captures as to how the scientific management of mangroves is need of the hour in our country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the importance of Mangrove ecosystem in protection of the coastlines and minimizing disasters due to cyclones and tsunami and how mangroves store more carbon dioxide than most other forests. One has to highlight the role played by the mangroves in maintaining a balance in the ecosystem services and thus the need of preserving them and conserving them.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce with what are mangroves briefly, their role in ecosystem.

Body:

  • Explain what are Mangroves, their roles and functions.
  • How a mangrove ecosystem is the interface between terrestrial forests and aquatic marine ecosystems.
  • Brief upon the distribution of Mangroves in India.
  • Why is the need for preserving ? – discuss the aspects of scientific management.
  • What needs to be done – policy level? Individual level and societal level.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of preserving Mangrove ecosystem.


General Studies – 4


Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions.

7) What are the ethical principles involved in the system permitting organ donation and allocation? Also discuss the importance of regulations for the success of organ transplant policy of the country.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications.

 

Why this question:

The question is to evaluate the ethical aspects involved in system of organ donation and allocation, one must also discuss the position of regulations for the success of organ transplant policy of the country.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first discuss the various ethical aspects involved in permitting organ donation and allocation of the same. And what are the policy requirements of such system.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon Organ donation and ethics involved.

Body:

  • Discuss how the ethics of allocating human organs for transplantation is a specific application of ethical norms to social practices. The principle involved are essentially the same as those that apply to other areas of human conduct.
  • Is organ donation an ethical issue?
  • Explain that the Ethical principles and regulatory requirements often overlap.
  • What are the ethical principles that should be considered when determining how to allocate a scarce life-saving resource.
  • Discuss – three principles of primary importance in the allocation of human organs: 1) utility; 2) justice; and 3) respect for persons (including respect for autonomy).
  • Discuss what regulations should be brought in to have an effective ethically sound process in place.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward .


TopicMorality.

8) Discuss the significance of morality in day-to-day life along with examples from your own life where you chose morality as course of action reasons for making such a choice.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of morality in everyday life of individuals.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must first elaborate on concept of morality. And then move on to discuss it with a real life example and explain why that course of action was moral or not with substantial justification.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Morality.

Body:

  • What is Morality – it refers to a system of values and beliefs which help us distinguish between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour. It means a standard of conduct which is accepted as right or proper.
  • Morality is based on personal conscience rather than what the law or societal regulations dictate. Although morality can be and is generally derived from external sources, like religion/religious books, it is inherently a person‘s choice which morals does he/she values and which he does not.
  • Morality also guides us about variety of social norms and rules, thus facilitating co-existence of people from diverse backgrounds.
  • Discuss its significance in day to day life.
  • Give an example from your own life of choosing moral action with  appropriate reason .

Conclusion:

Conclude with how you benefited from upholding your morality .



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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