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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 APRIL 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 APRIL 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) Indian ancient architecture is much more than what they are. What teachings can one draw from India’s ancient inscriptions and temples in conserving water and fighting droughts today? Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article provides for deep insights on the use of ancient inscriptions in temples and their architecture in managing the droughts of today.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects you to highlight the significance of Ancient Indian architecture ; inscriptions, temples and associated water conservation technologies and techniques that can be put to use even today to effectively manage water crisis.

Directive:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon the wisdom present in the ancient Indian culture with respect to water conservation and drought management techniques.

Body:

  • Such answers are best explained with examples, discuss the significance of ancient Indian culture – temple architecture , inscriptions that throw light upon conserving water as a useful resource.
  • Explain the example of Tamil Nadu – Inscriptions connected to irrigation in Tamil Nadu concern two broad zones, the Cauvery delta and the Tamirabarani delta. The Cauvery delta was more fertile and larger — with more tributaries — but the number of drought-related inscriptions here are more in number than the Tamirabarani delta. Temple inscriptions were always documents connected with the sale, transfer and maintenance of irrigated lands.
  • In the Pandya empire, water conservation was a completely local affair. The entire community, through the elected temple mahasabha, managed it. This meant that there was constant supervision, ownership and responsibility. All systems and processes were sustained through an emotional connection with the resource.
  • Explain how such methods can be imitated even today.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of learnings that can be taken from our past in managing water as a crucial resource for life.

Introduction:

Ancient Indians understood the art of water governance. Most of India’s traditional water management has been at the community level; relying upon diverse, imaginative and effective methods for harvesting, storing, and managing rainfall, runoff and stream flow. Inscriptions on Tamil Nadu’s temples record administrative and social decisions from a time when they were a seat of authority for the local community.

Body:

Water scarcity in India:

  • Many Indian cities, including Delhi and Bangalore, face water crisis, especially that of freshwater.
  • A World Bank study puts the plight of the country in perspective:
    • 163 million Indians lack access to safe drinking water.
    • About 210 million Indians lack access to improved sanitation.
    • 21% of communicable diseases are linked to unsafe water.

Ancient Indian Culture and Water Conservation:

Reverence for the resource:

  • Inscriptions from 700-1,000 years ago, connected to water conservation in temples at places like Mannarkovil, Cheranmahadevi, Tirukurungudi, Kovilpatti, and Pudukkottai attest to a few aspects.
  • Temple inscriptions were always documents connected with the sale, transfer and maintenance of irrigated lands.
  • In the Pandya empire, water conservation was a completely local affair. The entire community, through the elected temple mahasabha, managed it. This meant that there was constant supervision, ownership and responsibility. All systems and processes were sustained through an emotional connection with the resource.
  • Water from the Tamirabarani and the Vaigai rivers was taken through channels into formations like eris (small lakes) and per-eris (bigger lakes).
  • Channels created square parcels of lands called sadirams and they were subdivided into smaller padagams of land, all of which had numbers. There were as many as 20-24 padagams in a sadiram.
  • They were taxed differently based on how fertile they were — a system far more complex and farmer-friendly than today.

Care for the local terrain:

  • Every tank had multiple weirs, always built in consonance with the local terrain, to drain out excess water. Using these, farmers irrigated the fields.
  • There were complex calculations on allocation by turns (murai) and hours of supply (nir naligai).
  • The interests of the boatmen in the lower estuaries and ports were also taken care of so that there was enough water there to permit them to bring boats up the river.
  • The upper reaches had a higher number of large tanks which fed water into the smaller ones, tanks and ponds before it finally drained into the sea.
  • As a result, during floods, the limits were rarely breached, and during droughts, each tank had water.

Public Participation:

  • Maintenance of the tanks through desilting and enlargement and building and maintaining of new canals was a continuous process. More than a hundred inscriptions across the region deal exclusively with this.
  • Fishing rights for the lakes helped defray maintenance costs. Revenues were high enough for the excess profits to be deployed in building larger halls in temples that could be used for public functions.
  • Maintenance was a local responsibility and not that of the king. Many capital-intensive projects were funded by the dancing women of temples.

Conclusion:

Ecologically safe engineering marvels of water conservation have existed in India for nearly 1,500 years, including traditional systems of water harvesting, such as the bawari, jhalara, nadi, tanka, and khadin. They continue to remain viable and cost-effective alternatives for replenishing depleted groundwater aquifers. With government support, they could be revived, upgraded and productively combined with modern rainwater-saving techniques such as anicuts, percolation tanks, injection wells and subsurface barriers. This may be a far more sustainable approach to alleviating the water scarcity crisis across India.


Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2) All plate margins, including the mid oceanic ridge systems, are areas of considerable earthquake activity and volcanism. Explain with the examples(250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of plate margins and associated link with that of Earthquake activity and volcanism.

 

Key demands of the question:

The answer must provide for a brief discussion on the concept of Plate margins, their type; possible relationship with Earthquake activity and volcanoes with suitable examples.

Directive word

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

 

Introduction

In a few introductory lines explain significance of plate margins in geomorphic processes.

 

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • What is are plate margins? How they interact? What are the different types?
  • Detail upon the impact of ecosystem – impact on the ocean ecosystem
  • Mid oceanic ridge system – explain with examples , list the major ridges .
  • Now move on to establish the link between plate tectonics and Earthquakes, volcanoes.
  • Provide for a map of the world highlighting major Earthquake regions of the world, volcanoes and the underlying plate margins.

 

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of geomorphological processes in formation of landforms

Introduction:

Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth’s outer shell i.e. the crust is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core. The plates act like a hard and rigid shell compared to Earth’s mantle. The plate movements are caused due to various factors like movements in the mantle, expansion and contraction of some parts of the Earth. When two tectonic plates move towards each other or away from each other or slide past each other, it results in earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain building and oceanic trench formation.

Body:

Volcanic activity and earthquakes are widespread over the earth, but tends to be concentrated in specific locations. They are most likely to occur along the margins of tectonic plates.

 

  • Volcanoes at convergent plate boundaries:

Ocean-Ocean plate collision and Ocean – Continent plate collision: In subduction zones where oceanic plates dive under continental plates. As the oceanic plate subducts beneath the surface, intense heat and pressure melts the rock. Molten rock material, magma, can then ooze its way toward the surface where it accumulates at the surface to create a volcano.

Circum-Pacific Region: Also known as “Pacific Ring of fire”: about two-thirds of the world’s volcanoes are found in this region. The chain of volcanoes extends from Aleutian islands into Kamchatka, Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia, southward into Pacific Islands of Solomon, Tonga and New Zealand. On the other side of the pacific, the chain continues from the Andes to Central America (Guatemala, Costa Rica and Nicaragua), Mexico and right up to Alaska. Example: Mt. Fuji, Mt.Vesuvius, Stromboli, Etna etc.

  • Volcanoes at Divergent plate boundaries:

Divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts which eventually become rift valleys.  Example: In Africa’s East African Great Rift Valley– Mt.Kilimanjaro, Mt. Kenya, Mt. Cameroon.

Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges. Example: Mid- Atlantic ridge where there is a constant sea-floor spreading and formation of new plate boundaries. Iceland is a remarkable location in that a section of the north-Atlantic mid-ocean ridge is exposed on land.

Divergent boundaries also form volcanic islands which occur when the plates move apart to produce gaps which molten lava rises to fill.     

     

  • Transform boundaries: where plates slide passed each other. The relative motion of the plates is horizontal. They can occur underwater or on land, and crust is neither destroyed nor created. Because of friction, the plates cannot simply glide past each other. Rather, stress builds up in both plates and when it exceeds the threshold of the rocks, the energy is released – causing earthquakes. California’s San Andreas Fault, where the North America and Pacific plates grind past each other with a mostly horizontal motion.

Conclusion:

Volcanoes and Earthquakes though a natural phenomenon have a huge impact on man and material as urbanization and globalization increases. The effects have impacts on flora, fauna and the global warming which can accelerate the climate change.


Topic-Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3) Discuss the significance of geohydrology in understanding and managing problems of urban floods.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

It is about the concept of Hydrology and the aid it provides in understanding and managing the problems of Urban floods.

 

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the problems posed by urban floods and how and in what way study of hydrology helps I understanding the situation of floods better and help in resolving the same. One is expected to establish How Urbanisation affect the hydrological cycle and thus study of hydrology helps in understanding the flood situations better.

 

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 

Structure of the answer:

 

Introduction

Start with brief introduction of hydrological cycle, urban flood scenario.

 

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • Why is hydrology important? What you understand by urban hydrology?
  • How does Urbanization affect the hydrological cycle? Leading to urban floods.
  • Analyse the causes and consequences of urban floods.
  • Explain the significance of study of hydrology , quote examples of recent Kerala floods, Chennai floods.

 

Conclusion

Conclude that Hydrology has evolved as a science in response to the need to understand the complex water system of the earth and help solve water problems.

Introduction:

Geohydrology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth’s crust (commonly in aquifers). The terms groundwater hydrology, geohydrology, and hydrogeology are often used interchangeably. Groundwater engineering, another name for hydrogeology, is a branch of engineering which is concerned with groundwater movement and design of wells, pumps, and drains. The main concerns in groundwater engineering include groundwater contamination, conservation of supplies, and water quality.

Body:

Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment, particularly in more densely populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers. Due to rapid, unscientific, unplanned urbanization across the globe, the carrying capacity of urban areas is often breached leading to impending disasters. The cases of floods in Chennai in 2016, Bangalore, Gurgaon in 2017 are instances of urban flooding. Floods and water-logging show that urban planners have paid scant respect to hydrology.

Unscientific urbanization affects Hydrology:

  • Concretization:
    • Most cities had water bodies — lakes, ponds, streams, rivulets — which served three purposes: They replenished groundwater, catered to the city’s water needs and channelised excess rainfall to larger water bodies. Most such aquifers have fallen prey to concrete.
    • In Delhi, for example, a stream used to feed the Yamuna at about the place where the busy ITO today stands. It’s not without reason that the area is one of the most water-logged when it rains heavily in Delhi.
  • Wiping out of the wetlands:
    • The encroaching of lakes in the cities by filling with mud and construction waste to recover the land leaves no place for water to get collected.g. Bengaluru had more than 250 lakes in the 1960s. There are scarcely 10 such water-bodies in a healthy state in the city today.
    • Chennai’s flood sink on its southern outskirts — the Pallikarnai marsh — was around 5,000 hectares in the 1950s. After the horrific floods in November last year, it was found that it had shrunk to 600 hectares.
    • The rivers, Cooum and Adyar, and the Buckingham Canal in Chennai have become dumping grounds. So have Mumbai’s wetlands near Sewri and other areas in New Mumbai. In fact, the city became alive to the river it has lost to real estate — the Mithi — after the terrible floods of 2005.
  • Lack of proper drainage system:
    • With most cities lacking proper sewerage facilities, people dispose sewage in stormwater drains. The problem becomes worse when industries discharge their polluted water into such drains.
    • All this compromises the capacities of stormwater drains and also results in polluted water flowing into the larger water bodies.
  • Illegal constructions:
    • Real estate activity blocks the path of water, the city roads get waterlogged.
    • Stormwater drains cannot take the burden of the water that once used to seep into the ground. Moreover, cities do not make the distinction between stormwater drains and sewage disposal outlets.

Significance of Hydrology:

  • It helps to channelise excess amount of water to larger bodies.
  • Maintain the lakes, ponds in the urban areas which helps to absorb the surface water.
  • For upgrading the existing drainage system if it is not adequate to meet the challenges
  • To identify the effect of blocking natural drainage system and to manage the issues

Measures needed:

Structural Measures:

  • Conservation of wetlands in urban areas like lakes, ponds, streams.
  • Construction of differential slope along sidewalks, roads to drain excess water into reservoirs.
  • Strengthening of Storm water drainage system.
  • Pre-monsoon desilting of all major drains to be completed by March 31 each year.
  • Every building in an urban area must have rainwater harvesting as an integral component of the building utility.
  • Concept of Rain Gardens to be incorporated in planning for public parks and on-site storm water management for larger colonies and sites those are to be developed.
  • Suitable interventions in the drainage system like traps, trash racks can be provided to reduce the amount of solid waste going into the storm sewers.

Non structural Measures:

  • National Hydro-meteorological Network as per NDMA is needed for all urban cities in India.
  • Flood hazard assessments should be done on the basis of projected future scenarios of intensities and duration of rainfall and land use changes.
  • Better forecasting of rainfall events; timely dissemination of information to the mass- ‘Nowcasting’ alerts or real-time weather updates.
  • Restrict encroachments in natural drainage areas; clearance of river beds, proper implementation of Coastal Regulation Zone rules.
  • Provisions for flood-proofing of buildings
  • Storm water pollution control, i.e. source is controlled by imposing quality standards for wastewater and solid waste disposals in urban environments

Conclusion:

The understanding of the geohydrology goes a long way in preventing the urban floods. With climate change accelerating at unmitigated pace, it becomes all the more critical for planned urbanization.


Topic:Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary; Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

4) Access to judiciary is of critical importance in a democracy, for it provides justice undiluted. Critically analyse the statement in Indian context and suggest remedies. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The article evaluates the need for expanding the Judicial system of the country, it throws light upon reconsidering setting up Benches in different States in keeping with the recommendations of the Law Commissions (125th Report and 229th Report).

 

Key demand of the question:

Analyse in  detail the need for Judicial reforms , the present fallouts with the system and what needs to be done on different fronts to overcome the concerns and ensure justice stays undiluted.

 

Directive word:

Critically analyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

 

Structure of the answer:

 

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines explain the system of Judiciary in India – that the judiciary is an important part of our government and plays a critical role in the way our democracy works.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Discuss the grave crisis our judiciary is facing –  Judicial Accountability, alleged offence of bribery , collusion, misconduct of Judges, corruption, partisanship etc.
  • Then move on to discuss the significance of a transparent judicial system in place for undiluted justice.
  • What needs to be done – expansion of benches of supreme court across the geographical width, overcome the monopoly of lawyers in supreme court, managing work under  Article 130 etc.

 

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done, suggest way forward.

Introduction:

The justice system in any democracy is set up, under the Constitution to serve the public without “fear or favour, affection or ill-will” as far as judges are concerned. The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country.

Body:

Present Status of Indian Judiciary:

Issues of Access to Justice:

  • Distance factor: Under Article 130, the Supreme Court can sit in other places to deliver justice. In fact, around a decade ago, the Central Government advised the Supreme Court to sit in other places, but, the Supreme Court decided against the idea. It was felt that the authority of the Supreme Court would get diluted.
  • Strain on resources: the Supreme Court sitting only in Delhi has resulted in excellent lawyers from other High Courts not appearing before the Supreme Court, possibly because it casts too large a monetary burden on their clients, many of whom are being middle class and lower-middle class.
  • Expensive affair: All lawyers, whatever their calibre or competence, who happen to be in Delhi now appear in the Supreme Court. Some of the good lawyers who were able to leave lucrative practices in the High Courts have settled down in Delhi, but they have established a monopoly. As a result, charge unconscionable fees even from charitable concerns sometimes even when they do not appear at the hearing.
  • Over-Burdened SC: the Supreme Court in Delhi has been flooded with work and been reduced to a District Court instead of a Court of Final Appeal and Constitutional Court as envisaged under the Constitution.
  • Unethical lawyers: Some of the lawyers specialising in victim compensation cases thus take huge money as a percentage of compensation amount awarded towards victim compensation. Such a practice is frustrating the whole purpose of victim compensation. The procedure is similar to that adopted by some advocates dealing with Motor Accident Claim Cases under Section 166 (application for compensation) of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.
  • Ineffective Bar Councils: the disciplinary powers available to Bar Councils both in Delhi and in States are more often than not ineffective. Some are politically motivated and some States do not have disciplinary committees at all.

Measures needed:

  • The Supreme Court should reconsider setting up Benches in different States in keeping with the recommendations of the Law Commissions (125th Report and 229th Report).
  • The Bar Council of India should exercise its powers under the Advocates Act, 1961 more effectively. If not, the disciplinary jurisdiction must be returned to the judiciary as was the position prior to the Advocates Act, 1961 by repealing the 1961 Act.
  • Lawyers should be made irrelevant by referring more cases to trained mediators, as the Supreme Court has done in the Ayodhya dispute.
  • Alternate dispute Resolution mechanism can be looked into which reduces the cost, time and efforts.
  • Initiatives like Tele-law through CSCs can make legal aid easily accessible to the marginalized communities and citizens living in rural areas.
  • Common Service Centre (CSC) can engage Para Legal Volunteers (PLV), who will be the first point of contact for the rural citizens and will help them in understanding the legal issues, explain the advice given by lawyers and assist in further action required in cases as per the advice of the lawyer.

Conclusion:

Self-realisation is the first step towards change. The Supreme Court has an ideal opportunity to brainstorm on this. In this connection, former judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, sitting judges and academic luminaries can be a part of the process.


Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

5) The strain of exclusionary nationalism has permeated South Asian cultures. Discuss in the context of Rohingya issue of Myanmar.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The question is about discussing the exclusionary nationalism that is being exhibited by the south Asian societies of today. The article talks in detail about manifestation of exclusionary nationalism and  in special context of Rohingyas.

 

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to evaluate the concept of exclusionary nationalism permeating our societies.

 

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introductory lines highlighting what you understand by exclusionary nationalism.

Body:

  • Define what is exclusionary nationalism, whether its good or bad?
  • Quote examples – The exclusionary nationalism has permeated China where  Han nationalism have virtually turned Tibetan Buddhists and Uighur Muslims into extra-systemic others or enemies, ethnic cleaning of Tamils in Sri Lanka and the expulsion of the Rohingya from Myanmar. As well in India, the frequent use of the term ‘anti-national’ for those critical of the current dispensation smells of the same fatal disease.
  • What are the causes of such a manifestation?
  • Discuss what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Nationalism has come to be associated with attempts by majority ethnic groups to exclude and persecute minorities. Not only is this detestable, it is quite clearly an abuse of the term: an attempt to appropriate for one component of a society, a designation which by definition must include the whole. In effect, exclusionary nationalism asserts ‘we constitute the nation, so you are not part of it’.

Body:

Exclusionary Nationalism:

  • Carl Schmitt, a pro-Nazi legal and political theorist, made the friend-enemy distinction as constitutive of politics itself.
  • To be political was necessarily to work with a distinction between an extreme version of us and them, friends and enemies.
  • Those not on our side, or disloyal to us, are automatically, irredeemably, enemies.
  • Schmitt was exploiting a distinction perfected by some strands within Abrahamic religions that invented the idea of an ‘extra-systemic other’, a radical other with whom no conversation is possible, one who is outside one’s semantic universe.
  • Those who do not adhere to the doctrine defining the system are enemies to be fought. Internal dissent too is anathema, akin to betrayal, of joining the camp of the enemy, signifying treachery.
  • Felt as existential threats, both outsiders and deviant insiders must be ‘converted’, brought in line or altogether expunged.

Illustrations of Exclusionary Nationalism:

  • The expulsions of Jews, and to the final solution of the concentration camps; and outside Europe, in the liquidation, for example, of native Americans.
  • in the 20th century in both fascism and Stalinism and more pervasively in a host of ultra-nationalisms that have led to ethnic cleansing and genocide in several parts of the world, including Indonesia, Cambodia and Rwanda.
  • This strain of exclusionary nationalism has permeated China where undercurrents of Han nationalism have virtually turned Tibetan Buddhists and Uighur Muslims into extra-systemic others or enemies.
  • It has infected South Asian cultures too, causing the partition of the ‘subcontinent’, ethnic cleaning of Tamils in Sri Lanka and the expulsion of the Rohingya from Myanmar.
  • In India, the frequent use of the term ‘anti-national’ for those critical of the current dispensation smells of the same fatal disease.

The issue of Rohingyas:

  • Rohingyas are muslims in the Rakhine state of Myanmar.
  • They are persecuted by the Buddhist Myanmars over allegations of terrorism and Sedition.
  • Rohingyas fled Myanmar and now refugees in Bangladesh, India, South east Asian nations.
  • However, the feeling of exclusionary nationalism in the nations like India, Bangla has further affected the Rohingyas.
  • The lack of ample resources to serve the refugees, the fear of the nationals about losing their benefits and identity has made them hostile towards Rohingyas.
  • The Indian Government has also thrown its hands up in the air claiming that ROhingyas are threat to National Security. Critics allege that this is a form of exclusionary nationalism.

Measures to tackle exclusionary Nationalism:

  • Knowing the difference between an enemy and an adversary is absolutely critical in a functioning democracy.
  • Humanitarian values to be taught to children from a young age.
  • Promoting more people to people contact to reduce the differences and appreciate the diversity.
  • Education and awareness to the people about negatives caused to society due to such exclusionary principles.
  • State should be secular, bound by rule of law rather than driven by Majoritarian Ideologies.
  • International co-operation with the Global bodies like UNHCR driving the changes to protect the dignity of refugees and persecuted.
  • Regional co-operation through bodies like SAARC, ASEAN to solve the localised issues like that of Rohingyas in South East Asia.

Conclusion:

The idea that membership in a group comes with an enemy to be fought was a powerful resource in the doctrines of some religions has slowly taken root in Asian religions, including modern Hinduism. It has now entered Indian democratic politics. It is a sign of danger which must be cleared at once and for all.


Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6) Discuss India’s recent achievements in the field of Space Technology. How application of this technology has helped to prove a potential Space-based intelligence. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of the event of recent launch of the country’s first electronic surveillance satellite, EMISAT, from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed narration of recent achievements in the field of Space Technology by India and the endeavours it is making n the field of space intelligence.

 

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 

Structure of the answer

 

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the recent surveillance satellite achieved by India.

 

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • Have a discussion on how ISRO has achieved numerous milestones lately and has proved to harness space technology for national development.
  • List out achievements like – Launching 104 satellites with one rocket, South Asia Satellite (GSAT-9) launch, Space Capsule Recovery, Mars Orbiter Mission, Remote Sensing and National Natural Resource Management System etc.
  • Have a discussion dedicated specifically to Space-based electronic intelligence or ELINT and explain its significance.

 

Conclusion –

Conclude with way forward, assert the role of India space and the achievements it is making.

Introduction:

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched the country’s first electronic surveillance satellite, EMISAT. It was launched on-board PSLV-C45. As many as 28 small satellites of international customers were also put in space as secondary riders. EMISAT is an advanced electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite jointly developed by ISRO-DRDO. It is meant for electromagnetic spectrum measurements.

Body:

Over the last one year, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) took giant leaps forward, one success after the other.

  • INSAT: The system is a network of satellites that facilitates communication and broadcasting across the south Asian region. It ushered in a revolution in India’s television and radio broadcasting, telecommunications and meteorological sector.
  • Created Polarized Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) to make cost effective launch system. This has also increased international space collaboration by launching satellites of other nations at low costs.
  • Chandrayaan 1: It has launched Chandrayaan 1 lunar probe mission in 2008.
  • Mangalyan: ISRO has launched Mars Orbiter Mission in 2013 and created history by launching Mangalyan (mission spacecraft) into the Mars orbit in maiden attempt.
  • ASTROSAT: It has launched first space observatory in 2015 to become fourth agency to do so after NASA, Roscosmos and ESA.
  • Scramjet: Supersonic Combusting Ramjet has been launched by ISRO. This system works on Air-breathing Propulsion System which uses atmospheric oxygen to burn the fuel in the rocket.
  • RLV-TD: ISRO demonstrated its Reusable Launch vehicle space shuttle RLV -TD to launch satellites around earth orbit and re-enter into the atmosphere.
  • 104 satellites: ISRO has created history by launching 104 satellites in one go.
  • Crew Escape module: ISRO has test-launched Crew Escape Module paving the way for manned space mission Gaganyaan.

Besides, NAVIC (Indian Regional navigation satellites system) and South Asia Satellite are other missions which are a remarkable example of international coordination in the space arena. ISRO is preparing for its missions of Aditya (Solar Mission), Chandrayaan-II and Gaganyaan (Manned Space Mission).

Space Based Intelligence:

  • Military satellites are used for several important functions, which include research, meteorology, and geodesy, in addition to reconnaissance.
  • Space-based electronic intelligence or ELINT from the 436-kg EMISAT spacecraft will add teeth to situational awareness of the Armed Forces as it will provide location and information of hostile radars placed at the borders.
  • The main capability of EMISAT is in signal intelligence — intercepting signals broadcasted by communication systems, radars, and other electronic systems. The Ka-band frequency that EMISAT is sensitive to, allows the EMISAT — India’s newest spy in the sky — to scan through ice, rain, coastal zones, land masses, forests and wave heights with ease.
  • This will be another dimension to current land or aircraft-based ELINT, according to defence experts.
  • The recent PSLV-45 had PS-4 stage in rocket which carried an ISRO test on Automatic Identification System (AIS) related to tracking ships on sea.
  • AMSAT or the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation, India, has sent a payload called the Automatic Packet Repeating System. This is expected to help amateur radio operators to get improved locational accuracy in their tracking and monitoring.

Previous efforts:

  • Earlier in the year 2019, ISRO launched MICROSAT R for the DRDO. MICROSAT R is an imaging satellite, meant for military purposes, but ISRO has not given out any details about it.
  • India’s first exclusive defence satellite, GSAT-7 was launched in 2013. GSAT-7 was designed to provide communication capabilities over a wide oceanic region, including the Indian landmass. It helped in marine communications and helped the Navy in providing real-time inputs to Indian vessels.
  • In December 2018, ISRO successfully launched its second advanced defence satellite exclusively for the Indian Airforce, called the GSAT-7 A. Dubbed the “Angry Bird”, this satellite allows the Indian Air Force to interlink different ground radar stations, ground airbase and Airborne early warning and control aircraft. It also facilitates exclusive frequency flight communication for the Indian Air Force.
  • CartoSat-2A was the first dual-use satellite, with capabilities of monitoring missile launches in India’s neighbourhood. This was the first exclusive military satellite that was launched in April 2008. This was followed by CartoSat-2B in July, 2010.

Conclusion:

 Thus, EMISAT has added strength to Indian Intelligence and Strategic systems. At present, India has over 13 satellites, which can be used for mapping surveillance and border areas, and are primarily used for keeping an eye on enemies on both land and sea. However, there is a clear need for India to increase its investment in the military satellite arena. More importantly, India needs to invest in systems beyond navigation and communications and expand its existing infrastructure.


Topic:  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics.

7) Ethics are less a goal than a pathway, less a destination than a trip, less an inoculation than a process. Illustrate. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

 

Why this question:

The question is about evaluation of Ethics as a subject more of a process than mere end.

 

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the evolution of “Ethics” as a process and not mere end.

Directive:

Illustratemeans use examples; data, diagrams and charts to make it clearer (clarify by giving an example).

 

Structure of the answer:

 

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines define what you understand by Ethics.

 

Body:

The answer needs to be a narrative of examples justifying that ethics doesn’t just mean the final end but the process that takes one to the end. Bring in philosophies of moral thinkers, ideologies that justify means are equally important as that of ends. Students must appreciate the answer mainly through a good set of examples in such questions.

 

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Ethics in general.

Introduction:

Ethics is the study of what is right or wrong in human conduct. This is a branch of Philosophy which studies moral principles.

Body:

Ethics is considered as a set of principles by which to live; a code of conduct for our relationships with all whom we come in contact. Ethics encompasses social mores, usually expressed today as good manners; our behaviour towards our fellow humans and fellow creatures; and trust.

Ethics should be a process and not mere end in itself. For instance, in case of administration, if only achieving the result becomes important, then process might take a backseat thereby giving more discretion to bureaucrats resulting in abuse of power or corruption to tweak the process .

Similarly if just following rules becomes end in itself, then results will not be achieved resulting in inefficiency. Thus, ethics should be not just of following rules and sticking to process, but achieving goals by following process. Example: Determining eligibility of a poor old woman for pension despite lack of documents

Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals.

Another instance can be a student should be ethical in facing examination like not cheating, sticking to the time limits etc. however, it should not be an end in itself. He/she should also try to give their best and top the exam.

The process where the duty or actions matter and as important as ends itself is in the branch of Deontological ethics. Even Gandhiji always emphasized on how the means are as important as the ends. He always followed the path of truth and non-violence as evident through his decision to immediately call of Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 soon after the Chauri-Chaura incident.

Conclusion:

Thus, we can conclude that Ethics is a means of life and following the means will help us achieve the end in itself. Ethics is not a burden to bear, but a prudent and effective guide which furthers life and success. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavours.


Topic :  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

8) List the reforms necessary to encourage ethical behaviour and prevent misconduct in public organizations of India.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

Why this question:

The question is intended to evaluate the need for ethical behaviour and  good conduct necessary in public organizations of India .

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the significance ethical behaviour and  good conduct in public organizations, one has to list down the reforms required in Indian context for the same.

 

Structure of the answer:

 

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate the need for ethical behaviour and  good conduct in public services.

 

Body:

  • Explain – Ethics in the public sector is a broad topic that is usually considered a branch of political ethics. In the public sector, ethics addresses the fundamental premise of a public administrator’s duty as a “steward” to the public. In other words, it is the moral justification and consideration for decisions and actions made during the completion of daily duties when working to provide the general services of government and nonprofit organizations.
  • List out a number of practical mechanisms for setting and institutionalizing high standards of ethical conduct, integrity and good Governance.
  • Discuss the need for  introduction of relevant Codes of Ethics and

Conduct, to be effective, needs to be supported by a range of other mechanisms, training and leadership in Public services and organizations.

  • Quote examples to justify the same.

 

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Ethical behaviour in public organizations.

Introduction:

Ethics are the rules that define moral conduct according to the ideology of a specific group. Moreover, ethics in public administration are important for good business conduct based on the needs of a specific town, state or country.

Ethical behaviour is key to building a great organisational culture. It is important for an organisation to build a culture of integrity, and for its employees to behave ethically to avoid any reputational or financial damage.

Body:

Given the seemingly incessant drumbeat of scandals at all levels of government these days, the need have never been greater for a strong culture of ethical behavior in the public sector. The various determinants of ethical behaviour are legal interpretations, culture in which an individual is brought up, Individual factors like stages of moral development, personal values, family and peer influences and life experiences.

The reforms needed:

  • Legislations: To implement the Prevention of Corruption Act, Right to Information Act in true letter and spirit.
  • Codes of ethics: Adhering to a code of ethics ensures that the public receives what it needs in a fair manner. It also gives the administration guidelines for integrity in their operations.
  • A code of ethics creates standards of professionalism that co-workers in the public sector can expect from each other — the public can also expect the same from their leaders.
  • Sensitization: There is a need to anticipate the kinds of specific ethical dilemmas the employees might face and sensitize them to these potential conflicts.
  • Communication: Communication also keeps all parties involved so that they can all work toward a common goal. Good communication ensures that the community can engage their leaders on important issues. A Grievance Redressal Mechanism would ensure 2-way communication between citizens and public organizations.
  • Top-down approach: Organisations can initiate certain behaviour from the top to inculcate a culture of integrity and model ethical behaviour in employees. If the top executives show integrity and ethical behaviour, the employees can learn from them. This top-down approach requires limited resources and is very effective.

Conclusion:

There is recognition that high-profile cases of corruption and mismanagement can colour public perceptions of the legitimacy and quality of government action. To that end, improving the ethical behavior of government employees is fundamental to the legitimacy of democratic governance.